Marine capture fisheries
• Ranong Province, Thailand
The study site in Ranong Province was located at Ban Ha Sai Khao Village. The village has approximately 137 families who are engaged in fisheries, agriculture, and labor. About 90 % of the households do fishing, and there were 60 small-scale fishery vessels in the village. The main species caught include shrimp, cuttlefish, sillago, and cuttlefish.
There were 42 respondents including 12 females and 30 males.
Among the interviewed fishers, 69 % indicated that there was no change in the quantity of catch, while 60–74 % said that
there was a reduction in the number of market channels, price of catch, and access to transportation. About 55 % said that there was no change in cost; however, 96 % of the respondents said their income was reduced (Figure 3).
Table. Study sites and date of data collection for assessing the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on small-scale fisheries and aquaculture in Southeast Asia
Small-scale fisheries and aquaculture sub-sectors Study site Date of data collection
Marine capture fisheries Ranong Province, Thailand 5–11 Oct 2020
Infanta, Quezon Province, Philippines 16–19 Nov 2021
Mariculture Surat Thani Province, Thailand 28 Aug–1 Sep 2020
Inland capture fisheries Kyauktan, Yangon Region, Myanmar 24–28 May 2021
Inland aquaculture Bolikhamxay Province, Lao PDR 25–29 Jan 2021
Aquatic bank Buriram Province, Thailand 1–5 Mar 2021
Figure 2. Map of study sites for assessing the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on small-scale fisheries and aquaculture in
• Quezon Province, Philippines
Infanta was the study site in Quezon Province located along the coast of the Philippine Sea. As of 2021, the total number of registered fishers and fish farmers was 5,005 composed of 1,312 females and 3,693 males. The livelihoods are fish capture (44 %), gleaning (16 %), fish vending (14 %), aquaculture (8 %), and others (18 %). The common fishing gear includes handline, longline, multiple hook and line, squid jigger, fish spear, crab pot, beach net, gillnet, and scissor net.
Figure 3. Impacts of COVID-19 on marine capture fisheries in Ranong Province, Thailand
A total of 40 respondents composed of 18 females and 22 males were interviewed. For the quantity of catch, 46 % indicated that it did not change and 46 % said it reduced.
From 50 % to 73 % of the respondents specified that there was a reduction in the number of market channels, price of catch, and access to transportation. More than half of the interviewed fishers said that there was no change in the cost, but 83 % had reduced income.
a population of 1.06 million. For aquaculture, the freshwater species are fish and frogs, while the marine species are shrimp, fish, and crab. More than 900 small- and large-scale mariculture farms are registered in the province.
The total number of respondents was 93 composed of 29 females and 64 males. Among the interviewed fish farmers, about 63 % said that there was no change in the quantity of harvest. About 66 % said that the number of market channels reduced and 95 % indicated that the price of harvest decreased.
There was no change in access to transportation and in cost which was specified by 78 % and 67 % of respondents, respectively. Nonetheless, 93 % of the interviewed fish farmers had a reduction in income.
Figure 4. Impacts of COVID-19 on marine capture fisheries in Quezon Province, Philippines
• Surat Thani Province, Thailand
The study site in Surat Thani Province includes seven Districts, namely: Mueang, Kanchanadit, Don Sak, Chaiya, Tha Chana, Tha Chang, and Phunphin. Surat Thani Province is in the southern part of Thailand with an area of 12,891 km2 and
Figure 5. Impacts of COVID-19 on mariculture in Surat Thani Province, Thailand
Inland capture fisheries
• Yangon Region, Myanmar
The study site in Yangon Region was located in Kyauktan with a total population of 170,635 (86,795 females and 83,840 males). The livelihoods of the people include farming rice, bean, and crop, industry/factory, aquaculture, and fishing.
There were 472 fishers and the fish species they caught included threadfin (Polynemus sp.), catfish (Arius sp.), croaker (Johnius sp.), hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), and basa fish (Pangasius sp.)
The total number of respondents was 28 fish farmers, comprising 20 males and 8 females. About 57 % of interviewed fish farmers said that there was no change in the quantity of harvest. The reduction in the number of market channels and price of the harvest was experienced by 61 % and 71 % of the respondents, respectively. The access to transportation did not change for 57 % of respondents, while it reduced for 43 % of respondents. About 39 % of respondents indicated that there was an increase in cost, while 22 % of respondents specified that there was a reduction. About 64 % of interviewed fish farmers had reduced income.
A total of 40 fishers were interviewed including 12 females and 28 males. Almost all of the respondents specified that the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a decrease in the quantity of catch, number of market channels, price of catch, level of accessibility of transportation, cost, and income.
Figure 7. Impacts of COVID-19 on inland aquaculture in Bolikhamxay Province, Lao PDR
• Buriram Province, Thailand
The study site in Buriram Province is located at Ban Sub Somboon Village. The village has an Aquatic Bank which was established in 2017 with support from the Department of Fisheries, Thailand. The Aquatic Bank is a natural pond that serves as the food source of the community. The fish species in the Aquatic Bank include silver barb, tilapia, giant freshwater prawn, and others.
The total number of respondents was 49 fishers composed of 32 females and 17 males. About 65 % of the respondents said there was no change in the catch quantity. For the number of
Figure 6. Impacts of COVID-19 on inland capture fisheries in Yangon Region, Myanmar
• Bolikhamxay Province, Lao PDR
Bolikhamxay Province is in the central part of Lao PDR with an area of 14,083 km2 and a population of 273,691. The study sites were located in three villages of Pakxan District, namely:
Pakxan, Pakpeuk, and Sivilai. The cultured species for inland aquaculture are fish, frog, and shrimp with an average annual production of 5,469 t.
market channels, 44 % said there was no change while 46 % indicated that there was a reduction. The reduction in the price of catch, access to transportation, and cost was experienced by 74 %, 69 %, and 58 % of the respondents, respectively. There was no change in the income of 74 % of the respondents. The adverse impacts of COVID-19 were not significant on the community since fishing is not the main livelihood and the catch is mainly for household consumption; and the people were able to secure their food from the Aquatic Bank.
countries where the movement of people, transportation, and other activities were limited. For the cost, 38 % of all respondents specified that there was no change while 43 % said there was a reduction. Nevertheless, the income of about 75 % of all respondents in all study sites was reduced.
Figure 9. Impacts of COVID-19 on small-scale fisheries in selected sites in the ASEAN Member States in 2020–2021
Figure 8. Impacts of COVID-19 on Aquatic Bank in Buriram Province, Thailand