I. Introduction to Aquaculture Industry in Myanmar
Myanmar has a total area of 676,578 km2 and the population has estimated over 51 million by the Census (2014). Myanmar is one of the sufficient countries for fish and fishery products in the domestic consumption of food security and share the surplus with neighbouring and other countries to export for national income. The people of Myanmar like fish and fishery products which are essentially of daily meals to them, such as fish sauce, fish and shrimp paste are favourite dishes of Myanmar. Fish constitutes a major source of animal protein in the diet of Myanmar People.
MS. AYE AYE THEIN
Assistant Director Department of Fisheries Myanmar
The type of fisheries in Myanmar can be classified into freshwater fisheries and marine fisheries.
Freshwater fisheries consist of (a) fish culture, (b) leasable fisheries and (c) open fisheries. Marine fisheries include (a) inshore fisheries and (b) offshore fisheries.
Fisheries Production included culture-based fisheries and capture fisheries had gradually increased from 2004-2005 to 2014-2015 fiscal year. Fisheries statistics of Myanmar indicated that total fisheries production increased from 2217.47 thousand metric tons in 2004-2005 fiscal year to 5250.95 thousand metric tons in 2014-2015 fiscal year. (Fig. 1)
(Source of Fisheries statistics of Myanmar 2014)
Figure 1. Fisheries Production in Myanmar (2004-2005 to 2014-2015)
Aquaculture ponds had gradually increased from 2004-2005 to 2014-2015 fiscal year. Fisheries statistics of Myanmar indicated that total areas of aquaculture pond increased from 389806 acres in 2004-2005 fiscal years to 455504 acres in 2014-2015 fiscal years. (Fig. 2) In 2004-2005 to 2014-2015 fiscal years, aquaculture ponds increased from fish ponds 182452 acres and shrimp ponds 207354 acres in 2004-2005 fiscal years to fish ponds 226474 acres
and shrimp ponds 229034 acres in 2014-2015 fiscal years.
Fisheries statistics of Myanmar indicated that the total area of aquaculture production increased from 485.48 (Thousand Metric Ton) in 2004-2005 fiscal years to 933.63 (Thousand Metric Ton) in 2014-2015 fiscal years in Myanmar.
(Source of Fisheries statistics of Myanmar 2014) Figure 2. Total Area of Aquaculture Pond
(Source of Fisheries statistics of Myanmar 2014) Figure 3. Aquaculture Productions (Thousand Metric Ton)
At present, freshwater aquaculture was established in terms of seed production and grow-out culture, with more than 20 species of freshwater fish being cultured. The most popular freshwater culture species are Rohu (Labeo rohita), Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) Bighead (Aristichthys nobilis), Silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix), Grass carp (Ctenophryngodon idellus), Catla (Catla catla), Pacu (Piractus brachypomus), Tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica), Barb (Puntius gonionotus), Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), Catfish (Pangasius sutchi) and Catfish (Clarias batrachus). Rohu (Labeo rohita) withstands as the most common and commercial culture species which is native to Myanmar.
The most common and prioritized species are commercially important giant freshwater prawn, Macrobranchium rosembergii. Monoculture of M.
rosembergii was conducted in semi-intensive level and a result with low production was gained. To minimize the operating cost of prawn farming, the farmers changed to prawn and fish poly culture. In recent years, many fish farmer’s benefits of poly- culture of freshwater prawns.
Myanmar has 3 types of shrimp farming: Semi- intensive shrimp ponds, Extensive plus shrimp ponds and Extensive or traditional shrimp ponds.
In terms of marine fin-fish farming, seabass, red snapper and grouper are the most common and commercial species in Myanmar. Stocked fish or the fish seed are usually collected from the wild.
But the seed production technology of seabass has been succeeded since 2004 in both DOF and private sectors. Firstly, the broodstocks were collected from the wild and later induced breed seabass are used as broodstocks. However, the grow-out culture of seabass was done by only a few farmers. Grouper sp also conducted on seed production at marine research station of DOF, Tanintharyi region by experimental scale.
Mud crab fattening has become the booming industry as domestic consumption and export demand are growing rapidly. Soft shell mud crab farming has become very popular as it commands a high price. At the same time, supply of crab juveniles from nature is decreasing due to over exploitation, habitat deterioration caused by man impact and world climate change. Adequate supply of mud crab seed for soft shell mud crab farming has become a urgent need and included in the future plan. However, the hatchery operation performs very low survival rate. Myanmar DOF has planned to expand more mud crab hatcheries in suitable areas based on the success of the present hatchery operation and recommended cooperation of regional institutes and among the countries in the region by conducting more research and study should be conducted in order to get high survival rate.
Export for Fish and Fishery product
Aquaculture products have been part of the major export in fisheries. Myanmar has exported various fishery products as chilled, live, frozen, salted and dried products. In 2014-2015, the top 10 species of fish and fisheries products that Myanmar have been exporting includes Rohu, Live Mud Crab, Live Eel, Pink, Tiger, Hilsa, Ribbon Fish, Soft Shell Crab, Fish Meal and white shrimp, etc. These products are being exported to 32 countries, include EU member countries (UK, Italy, Sweden, Netherlands, Greece, France, Belgium, Ireland, Cyprus, Germany), Middle East, China, Japan and ASEAN countries.
The exported amount of fish and fisheries products and values were followed. Fish is one of the highest value species of Myanmar’s exported products.
Myanmar mostly exported fish from wild catch and leasable fisheries.
II. Current Status Of Traceability Systems For