Annex 4 SEAFDEC DEPARTMENTAL PROGRAMS OF ACTIVITIES
4. PROPOSED FUTURE ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEAR 2008 All activities in year 2007 will be continued in year 2008
82 2.2. Program Description
The program focuses on activities that will lead to production of ‘new’ and improved varieties of Kappaphycus through tissue culture, sporulation, and protoplast fusion techniques. It also involves producing sufficient biomass from these techniques for possible source of cultivars for land-based and sea-based nursery systems, and consequently for pilot-scale outplanting.
4.2. Expected Outcomes
a) Adoption of developed in-vitro protocols for tissue culture, sporulation and protoplast fusion techniques of Kappaphycus strains;
b) Regenerants of Kappaphycus strains from tissue culture and mutagenesis with improved growth characteristics and carrageenan properties;
c) Young plants from sporelings of Kappaphycus strains with improved growth characteristics and carrageenan properties;
d) Identified improved strains of Kappaphycus ;
e) Developed protocols for the mass rearing of plantlets using photobioreactors, and land- based nurseries (tanks) or sea-based nurseries (cages or pens);
f) Established satellite land-based nurseries of improved strains of Kappaphycus with collaborators.
Program Category: Departmental Program Program Title: Aquatic Ecology
Responsible Department: Aquaculture Program Duration of Program: 3 years (2007-2010) 1. INTRODUCTION
With the decreasing trend in fisheries production worldwide, aquaculture is being looked upon to feed the increasing demand for fishery products. However, the damaged and degraded state of most aquatic ecosystems worldwide, combined with public concerns about adding new sources of pollution from aquaculture requires the development of ecosystems approaches and sustainable operating procedures.
2. PROGRAM 2.1. Objectives
The objectives of the Program are (a) to determine existing policies, institutions and ordinances to protect and ensure a sustainable aquaculture development in selected local government unit in Western Visayas, Philippines, (b) to recommend improvement in existing institutional arrangement in managing coastal resources in support of sustainable aquaculture in the selected local government units, (c) to demonstrate how environmental capacity can be determined in waters around Igang Marine Sub-station and other important aquaculture sites, and (d) to maintain good environmental condition of coastal areas and improve the condition of some degraded areas by growing seaweeds that absorb excess nutrients from the water.
2.2. Program description
The program includes studies on (a) Institutional arrangement in local governance in selected municipalities in Western Visayas, Philippines, (b) Determination of environmental capacity of Igang Bay and other aquaculture sites, and (c) other ecological studies for sustainable aquaculture. Technologies developed from other SEAFDEC/AQD programs will be adapted in the studies under this program. Results of nutrition studies from marine fish and crustacean programs will be considered in estimating the environmental capacity of the sites.
3. PROGRESS OF ACTIVITIES IN THE YEAR 2007
There are 2 studies under the Aquatic Ecology Program: 1) Environmental capacity of Humaron Cove, Igang, Guimaras and Bugang River, Pandan, Antique; and 2) The tangab fishery in Iloilo Strait: Operations, catch volume and species composition, economic importance and ecological impact.
1). The study site in Humaron Cove in Igang, Guimaras covers an area of 29 heactares including the areas occupied by SEAFDEC AQD’s broodstock cages, production cages and mariculture park in the inner portion of the cove and the mariculture cages in the outer part, behind the small islands (see map). Nutrient concentration in Humaron Cove during the dry season ranged from zero to values above critical levels for phosphate (0-0.8251 mg/L), ammonia (0-0.1987 mg/L) and chl-α (0-0.0244 mg/L). TSS levels were generally high in all sampling points and highest during the month of May (162-200 mg/L). Phosphate reached above critical levels in sampling points near the broodstock and mariculture cages in May.
Dissolved oxygen (DO) was still above the safe level of 3 mg/L. Salinity ranged from 32-36 and temperature from 26.4 to 31.7oC.
The total sampling area of Bugang River in Pandan, Antique is 8.8 hectares from the middle of the river down to the river mouth (see map). There were months when TSS, phosphate and chl- α were way above critical levels at certain sampling points at either low tide or high tide.
However, ammonia level remained zero throughout the dry season. Highest nutrient concentrations were found in the inflow water – upstream from the fishponds located midstream, and from sites where cages were installed near downstream. PO4 and chl-α were highest in inflow water from the fishpond. TSS reached very high levels downstream when the upstream water drains during low tide. DO ranged from 1.6 to 25.5 mg/L while temperature was 27.3 to 32.7oC. Salinity gradually decreased from upstream (5 ppt) to the sea (36 ppt).
Generally. High levels of water quality variables are not that persistent suggesting that the environmental capacity of the sites may not have been reached yet. Sampling during the rainy season is ongoing (until November 2007). The inputs of nutrients will also be quantified and data on flushing rates and depth of the sites will be confirmed. Several models will be used to predict environmental capacities of the two sites. Recommendations on the maximum fish biomass and number of aquaculture units that can operate in these areas will be based on these estimates of environmental capacities.
2). This study gathered qualitative and quantitative information to enable appropriate regulation of the tangab fishery. A tangab is a large fixed filter net many of which are set and operated along Iloilo Strait. A survey showed that tangab operations were concentrated and the catch landed at 4 sites in Iloilo Strait namely: Morobuan, Guimaras; Calumpang, Iloilo City; Arevalo, Iloilo City; and Atabayan, Tigbauan. The tangab fishery operates from dusk till dawn during periods of strong water currents (spring tides 7-9 days around new moon and 7-9 days around full moon), but weak winds and waves. The tangab nets are set up in groups of 4-12 with mouths held open by coconut trunks driven into the seabed. The 10 x 10 m tangab mouths with 20-30 m long nets (meshes from 10cm at front to 1mm at the cod end) filter everything from the water surface to the seabed. The tangab in Morobuan catches substantial amounts of high-value fishes, shrimps, and cephalopods. The trash fish includes large numbers of juvenile fishes and shrimps, which are dried for human consumption and for livestock feed or fish meal. The tangab in Atabayan targets the small but very abundant shrimp Acetes, other sergestids, and euphausids for the ginamos and tinabal industry. The tangab in Arevalo and Calumpang catch enormous amounts of trash fish that the beach residents pick for edible species and sizes. The low-grade trash fish including pufferfishes, small crabs and spiny invertebrates are in small part dried as fish meal for livestock, but in large part sold as food for sea bass and groupers. About 200 species of fishes, crustaceans, mollusks and other invertebrates have been identified in the tangab catch at the four sites.
4. PROPOSED FUTURE ACTIVITIES FOR THE YEAR 2008 4.1. Planning of the Project Activities
Project/Activity Title Duration Remarks 1) Environmental capacity
of Humaron Cove, Igang, Guimaras
3 years Study will be expanded to include monitoring of sediment quality parameters. The effects of aquaculture activity on the status of coral reef health will also be looked into.
2) The tangab fishery in Iloilo Strait: Operations, catch volume and species composition, economic importance and ecological impact.
2 years Other activities include setting up of tangab exhibit at Fishworld; conduct training workshop on the identification of larval and juvenile stages of fishes and other marine organisms preferably for BFAR personnel; conduct seminar workshop for tangab operators, buyers, beneficiaries, local government regulatory officers and other
ecological impact of the tangab fishery; produce leaflet about the tangab fishery; and prepare policy recommendation(s) on regulation of tangab fishery
4.2. Expected Outcomes
Data for water quality parameters will be fitted into several models to predict environmental capacities of the two sites. Recommendations on the maximum fish biomass and number of aquaculture units that can operate in these areas will be based on these estimates of environmental capacities. The same concept or studies can be undertaken to assess environmental capacities of the different mariculture parks that have already been set up or will be set up in other parts of the country.
The tangab fishery study gathered qualitative and quantitative information to enable appropriate regulation of the tangab fishery.
The Thirtieth Meeting of the SEAFDEC Program Committee, 26-28 November 2007
PROGRAMS OF ACTIVITIES UNDER ASEAN-SEAFDEC FISHERIES CONSULTATIVE GROUP FOR THE YEAR 2007-2008