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Search Goods: We describe Search Goods as the ones whose quality can be determined by the consumer before

Keywords

1. Search Goods: We describe Search Goods as the ones whose quality can be determined by the consumer before

purchase. With search goods, you can assess the value before purchase.

2. Experience Goods: Experience goods are the ones whose characteristics cannot be determined before the purchase.

One must experience the good or service before evaluating how it matches your requirements and whether the price of the good or service complemented the perceived value.

3. Credence Goods: the goods whose quality is difficult to evaluate before or after purchase and use. Many luxury goods or high-end fashion products fall in this category. In the case of credence goods, the consumer doesn’t know whether the promise while purchase has been fulfilled or not. Generally, the consumer who uses the product is different from the consumer who determines the quality and price of the product.

With Search Goods, the retailer is competing on price as compared to offered attributes. For Experience Goods, the seller must convince the buyer that the product or service is needed and worth the cost. Credence goods and services depend upon

191 Impact of Deception on Consumer Behaviour in E-Commerce...

the status of the person and indicate superior quality by having a higher price.

Nelson (1970) asserts that the amount of information in advertising varies directly with consumers’ ability to verify advertising claims at a reasonable cost before purchase. If consumers can assess the truth of the claim before purchasing

“search” activities, advertisers’ motive to lie about the quality of their goods is reduced substantially. If on the other hand, consumers cannot accurately ascertain the accuracy of claims before purchase or perceive that the cost of before purchase scrutiny exceeds its expected value, manufacturers have a greater incentive to disassemble and consumers have less reason to believe the advertising. The consumer has a simple substitute to search; he can use experience, that is, he can conclude about the quality of brands by purchasing and using them. But in the case of Credence Goods which make up a lot of share in High-end Fashion, Identifying deception is a tedious task. Credence Goods provides a lot of opportunities for marketers to deceive consumers by counterfeiting. On the other hand, In the case of Fast Fashion Goods which mostly covers the search and experience activities, the consumer becomes aware of the price deception or product deception before or before the purchase.

IMPACT OF DECEPTION ON E-COMMERCE INDUSTRY

As per the World Trade Organization, “Electronic commerce, or e-commerce, is defined as the “production, merchandising, retailing, sale or transportation of goods and services by photoelectric means”. An ecommerce trade can be between enterprises, families, selves, governments and other public or private organizations

With the arrival of e-commerce, the inherent use of internet technologies to lure users has risen considerably. This research extends the prior methods of deception and presents the typology of price-related deception in the e-commerce industry that shows various ways in which online sellers can deceive consumers via e-commerce platforms through multiple/ false

pricing of products. This typology can be used to promote consumer awareness of various price-related deception schemes used by online merchants.

The Internet is a digital space with low or almost no entry barriers implying that anybody can enter this free space and make use of it. This unique and sometimes harmful feature of the Internet creates a fertile ground for deception.

“For product-related erudition implemented at an e-commerce website, content can be screened, prevaricated, and/or misrepresented by online companies. For instance, an online company can withhold negative information (e.g., a known safety problem) about a product (i.e., concealment); provide vague information about the total cost (e.g., selling price, tax, shipping and handling fee) of a product (i.e., equivocation); give ambiguous information concerning product return and refund policies (i.e., equivocation); automatically filter out negative consumer reviews (i.e., concealment); pose as consumers to write positive reviews about products and services received from the company (i.e., falsification); or even sell a non-existent product (i.e., falsification). In sum, by reconstructing the availability and status of erudition, online corporations can manage the content of product information at an e-commerce website to intensify consumers’ evaluation of those appropriate merchandises.”(Xiao and Benbasat, 2011)

IMPLICATIONS FOR MARKETING MANAGERS

Marketing supervisors control all of the interfaces between a corporation and its consumers. From managing internal teams, their work ranges to crafting promotional advice. They work with numerous distinct sorts of evidence, from conventional newspapers and signboards to digital advertising and social policies. A marketing manager is accountable for the promotion and positioning of a brand and the goods and services that the firm trades. By and large marketing managers are appointed to attract more people to buy from the company and to raise brand awareness through innovative marketing campaigns.

193 Impact of Deception on Consumer Behaviour in E-Commerce...

The retailing supervisor performs the function of championing patron relationship command in the organization. The marketing handler collects this erudition from the organization’s patron database to help shape a customer comfort survey. Marketing managers then share this erudition with other representatives to warrant they offer exceptional patron service to their clients to develop lasting bonds

Marketing administrators dissect market bearings to distinguish unexploited or new markets for the organization’s products and services. By analyzing the purchasing patterns of consumers, they can ascertain the peak and off-peak demand periods for their products. By manipulating sales forecasting, they can predict the future display of the organization’s outcomes. Also through fair commentary and forecasting, they can develop artifices to ensure the organization endures.

With all the perks and positives that the marketing managers do for their organization sometimes to gain exceptional profits or earn unearned gains the marketer may manipulate the quality of the product, the promotion methods used, pricing of the product, all of which is an attempt to deceive the consumer and generate unreasonable, high profits which may lead to short term gains but ultimately leads to financial loss to the marketer with losing its competitive position in the market in the long run, as well as in the short run.

Nowadays Ambiguous retailing is disputable stuff. The marketers avoid allowing on whether an appropriate arrangement is deceitful or not. Though, it is believed that more or less every service provider is somehow engaged in misleading claims and exaggerations which are deceptions; while campaigning and promoting the products and services. Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that the merchants, who do not mislead their clients, always own market heritage more than those who emphasize. Thus, it is always advised to advertising companies not to concentrate on misleading applications with unreliable translations.

As a consequence, marketing and billing controllers need to carry on with prudence when building environmentally absorbed ad activities. It is very easy to show something better than it is within misleading. But a corporation needs to have advertising rules in mind regarding their publications. An unfair declaration can harm purchasers. Telling the truth would influence the customer towards relief. The advertiser needs to be sure that the impression made by the announcement and disclaimer is not faulted. There should be no deceptive pricing make sure that your offer is honest. Most maximum consumer assurance law contains a broad restriction technique. All purchasers have that right to claim merchants under some consumer protection law.

Conclusion

This review lengthens the techniques of deception and exhibits the typology of price-related deception in the e-commerce industry that reveals numerous ways in which online sellers can deceive consumers via e-commerce platforms through multiple/

false pricing of products. This typology can be used to elevate consumer awareness of various price-related deception schemes used by online merchants. Technology in today’s world encourages businesses to understand the interest and preferences and design the product accordingly. Additionally, the Credence Goods make up a lot of share in High-end Fashion, Identifying deception is a wearisome task. Credence Goods provides a lot of opportunities for marketers to deceive consumers by counterfeiting.

A corporation necessitates having advertising ordinances and keeping impressions in mind concerning their advertisements.

A deceptive advertisement can head to a negative brand image, therefore it would be better to stay accurate and advertise the product with reliability and integrity. A consumer thus, therefore, examines an advertisement online for a discount offer on a brand yet, when the shipment reaches, the consumer affirms that the advertisement neglected to specify that the clothes were refurbished. A label claims that its products are well suited with a lot of options. But consumers who consult the brand observe that the merchandise is a base prototype with only fundamental

195 Impact of Deception on Consumer Behaviour in E-Commerce...

peculiarities.

Businesses use the subconscious know-how to emotionally manipulate the consumers through limited-time offers, and long soliloquies from sales diplomats to make people buy products.

It helps generate more sales and raise revenue. However, these manipulative measures are illegal and violate customers’ rights.

Thus, Implications of marketing managers shows the vital impact.

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Journal of political economy, 78(2), 311-329.