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ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the trends in the drop out rates from for the College of Agriculture at Benguet State University

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

LUZANO, JOSEPHINE B. APRIL 2007. An Assessment of College of Agriculture Drop-outs at Benguet State University.

Adviser: Darlyn D. Tagarino, PhD

Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the trends in the drop out rates from 1998- 2005 for the College of Agriculture at Benguet State University. The study also determined the general profile of the drop outs according to gender, degree programs, year level, semester, and province.

Data were gathered from the student records of 1998-2005 at the College of Agriculture and Registrar’s Office.

The findings shows that from 1998-2005, the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture course has the highest rate of drop outs while the Bachelor of Science in Developmental Communication had the lowest rate. Majority of the drop outs are males, are first years and occur more frequently during the first semesters. Majority of the drop outs came from the province of Kalinga.

It is therefore recommended that Benguet State University has to trace the students who drop out and identify their reasons from dropping out and, to look closely into specific factors that were found to typical, the highest occurrence of drop outs

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Bibliography. . . i

Abstract . . . i

Table of Contents . . . ii

INTRODUCTION Rationale of the Study . . . 1

Statement of the Problem . . . 2

Objective of the Study . . . 2

Importance of the Study . . . 3

Conceptual Framework . . . 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . 5

METHODOLOGY Locale of the Study . . . 10

Data Collection. . . 10

Data Analysis . . . 10

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Drop Out Rate per Academic Year . . . 11

Drop Out Rates as to Courses per Academic Year . . . 12

Drop Outs as to Sex and Academic Year . . . 15

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Drop Outs as to Year level per

Academic Year . . . 19

Drop Outs as to Province of Origin per Academic Year . . . 22

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary . . . 26

Conclusions . . . 27

Recommendations . . . 28

LITERATURE CITED . . . .. 29

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INTRODUCTION

Citing recent studies, the Anak ng Bayan Youth Party revealed that due to continuing tuition hikes, more students enrolled in private colleges and universities find themselves either dropping out and are forced to transfer to state institutions. But the State Universities and Colleges (SUC’s) are plagued by similar problems. SUCs have enrolment quotas and are haunted by increase in tuition and other fees, forcing many state scholars also to leave (Ramota, 2005).

Recently, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) stated that the National Commission of the Philippines reported a measly 22% overall student survival from 1st to 4th year college. In June 2004, Wallace report revealed that the drop out rate in college is at an staggering all time high of 73%. A similar study-primer on the country education system was made by the National Union of the Philippines (NUSP) also in June last year (Bulatlat, 2005).

There are several reasons why students leave college because, they either find the academic program too hard, lack the proper study habits or motivation, fall victim to the temptations of the college environment, or simply for pre-existing personal reasons. The Youth Demanding Arroyo’s removal or YOUTHDARE warned that there would be an increase of college drop-outs and out-of-school youths because parents can no longer afford to send their children to school because of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT). Also, the increase of prices of our common needs and services (Marx, 2005).

Rationale of the Study

Parents will be upset to pay increasing tuition fee of their children. Another

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2 transition of high school to college. Although, socio-economic status plays a strong factor on dropouts, research has shown a link between dropouts and school characteristic (Marx, 2005).

The study is centered on tracing the students who dropped out at the College of Agriculture, Benguet State University from 1998 – 2005. Specifically, the researcher sought to answer the following questions;

Statement of the Problem

1. What are the trends in the drop out rates over the years?

2. What is the general profile of the drop outs according to:

a) Gender b) Year level c) Degree programs

d) Academic year and semester e) Province

1. To determine the rate of student drop out per course and per academic year.

Objectives of the Study

2. To find out the drop out rates according to:

a) Gender b) Year level c) Degree programs

d) Academic year and semester

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3 e) Province

The study will serve as a reference to students who are doing a research on the same topic. The results of the study will also provide an information to the people concerned, that the number of student drop out at BSU is not extremely high and can encourage the students to enroll and continue their studies though college education is a financial struggle to parents. Through this, it emphasizes that education is important in our lives not only for employment purposes. Finally, the study will provide baseline information for course development and re-alignment of policies for BSU administrators that can be used for accreditation.

Importance of the Study

The college drop outs at Benguet State University is one of the exciting research studies. However, some important variable must be considered to achieve a remarkable study. The important variable to attain these, are the trends in the dropout rates and the general profile of the drop outs.

Drop out occurrence may be better understood by looking more closely at some variables as gender, the year level, the degree programs, the academic year and semester, and the province of origin of the students.

Conceptual Framework

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4 Conceptual Paradigm

Fig. 1. The conceptual paradigm of the study General profile

a) Gender b) Year level c) Degree programs d) Academic year e) Province

College dropouts

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

School is one place that brings today’s Filipino teenage students most happiness (Bulatlat, 2002). School is the greatest source of satisfaction because school is where friends are.

Education in all its forms and at all levels is not only an end in itself but is one of the most powerful instruments for bringing about the changes required to achieve development (Matsura, 2003).

Dacalos (2002) stated that college life besets students with an overwhelming assortment of changes. The process of the adjustment is a serious concern for students.

It is necessary for them to cope and meet the demand of the changes.

Padtoc (2004) stated that entering college is an exciting experience, but for more it maybe terrifying because of the changes and transitions from high school to college.

Another is that, poorly achieving and poverty-stricken young people show an especially sharp performance after the junior high transition. For some, it initiates a downward spiral in academic performance and school environment that eventually leads to failure and dropping out.

Palatino (2002) as cited by Ramota (2005) said that the access to public higher education institutions, which are the last resort for students who want to obtain college degree, has become impossible to many college hopefuls. While it is true that SUC’s offer a tuition lower than private school, educational expenditures in state schools and universities have seen the biggest increase in recent years, thus making it also inaccessible to ordinary students (cited by Ramota, 2005).

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6 In recent years, the shift from public to private funding of SUCs has resulted in the jacking up of tuition and miscellaneous fees. The biggest increase in tuition took place in the Philippine Normal University (PNU) last 2003, from P10 to P50 per unit or 400 percent (CHED, 2005).

Ladderized tuition hikes are also in SUCs in Central Luzon and Bicol until 2006.

The Central Luzon State University (CLSU) plans to increase tuition scheme similar to the Socialized Tuition Fee Adjustment Program (STFAP) implemented in the University of the Philippines (UP) systems in 1989. Under the program, the UP tuition shot by nearly 300 percent, from P 11 to P300 per unit today. This scheme is also now being implemented in public technical and vocational schools in the country. While some of SUCs increased their tuition by more than a hundred fold over the last years, some feigned by pretending to maintain the same rates. What they did however was to increase miscellaneous fees as well as tuition in graduate schools (CHED, 2005).

According to Ramota (2005), five years from now, the Philippine tertiary education will likely to face crisis if the current trends in college enrollment and dropout continue due to tuition fee hikes. More and more students enrolled in private colleges and universities find themselves either dropping out or forced to transfer to state institutions.

A study by Canguni and Kowslaki (1990) as cited by Fernandez (2002) showed that 75% of high school graduates in the United States, enroll in an institution of higher education, however, 40% of freshmen dropped out most within the first year

Moreover a longitudinal study of Verlendin and Corpuz (1984) as cited by Padtoc (2004) on the “Academic Survival Rate of Saint Louis Students” showed that more than

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7 half of the freshmen discontinued their studies at different stages. Findings from those studies showed that attrition rates are greater during the first few weeks of the school year and among college freshmen. This is because of the cases of dropping out and withdrawing.

Raymond Palatino, Vice President of Anak ng Bayan (Nations Youth) said students can no longer afford to study in expensive private tertiary school and are planning to transfer to public high education institutions. For some, they have to give up their dream of earning a college diploma (cited by Ramota, 2005).

Students are not bothered by the inability to pay their tuition fees and incapability of parents to support them financially. However, the students are significantly least bothered by the incapability of parents to support them financially as the reason for not studying anymore (Padtoc, 2004).

Overall, Palatino (2002) as cited by Ramota (2005) said, expenditures for public education including tuition, lodging, food, transportation, and books have soared in recent years. He cited the findings of the 1998 international Comparative Higher Education Finance and Accessibility Project of the University of Buffalo on the Philippine higher education which reveals that a student in a local university or college (LUC) who lives with his or her parents need at least Php 46,950 every semester. On the other hand, an Iskolar ng Bayan (state scholar) who lives as an “independent adult” will need as much as P11,650 a semester. So now, most Filipino families cannot anymore afford to send their children even to public schools, especially given the stagnant wage level and declining income (Ramota, 2005).

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8 A new report by the Commission on Higher Education shows that the number of tertiary population in school year 2002-2003 was 2.4 million compared to 1.87M in 1994-1995. It cites however that while state institutions had their populations soar by 415,972 from 399.623 to 815.585 during the same period, private colleges and universities could only absorb an additional 139, 357 enrollees (or from 1.47M-1.611M).

The current crisis in tertiary education, Palatino (2002) as cited by Ramota (2005) said, should also be blamed on government’s policy of rationalization. The policy allows SUCs to be treated no longer as national agencies performing socially oriented activities and hence entitled to government subsidy, but as income earnings entities. “This further translate into incentives for moneymaking tertiary, thereby fully encouraging the commercialization of education”. The policy has ensured corporate dominance even in public education, making tertiary education the province of elite.

Palatino (2002) as cited by Ramota (2005) said, government own education policies further inflate the ballooning uneducated education. “If it will continue its present thrust on education, the government will be driving more and more students out of school every year”.

In current school year, 381 out of 1,321 private higher education institutions or 29 percent of the total have applied for tuition increase. The national average tuition increase is 11.37 percent or P33.15; the current rate per unit is P334.89 (CHED, 2005).

Palatino (2002) as cited by Ramota (2005) urged lawmakers to repeal the Education Act 1982. “ Our lawmakers must immediately act to stop this tuition and miscellaneous fee increases and put a moratorium on the proposed new round of hikes for the next school year. Unless, the government starts to flex its muscles on their increase,

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9 we will be seeing a higher drop out rate and bigger number of out-of –school youth in the next five years”. Even CHED admits that “unless BP 232 (Education Act of 1982) is amended, the most viable course for all concerned is to take a closer look at where the increase are going.

According to Youth Dare spokesman Raymond Palatino, because of E-VAT, it will be difficult for an ordinary Filipino students to finish college (CHED, 2005).

Finally, students that drop out may have different reasons in dropping out, the rates of students drop outs per college and per academic year and the status (Marx, 2005).

Since college students find the academic program too hard, they lack the proper study habits or motivation, fall victim to the temptations of the college environment or simply for pre-existing personal reasons (Marx, 2005).

Drop out – refers to the student who officially stopped school for at least 2 consecutive school years.

Definition of Terms

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METHODOLOGY

The study was conducted in Benguet State University on the month of June to August 2006. Benguet State University is one of the colleges in the country that have been adjudged as one of the six centers of excellence in Agriculture Education.

Locale of the Study

Desk research method was employed in the conduct of this study. Desk research is a data gathering method using secondary data. Data/record on drop-outs from the university were gathered from the University Registrar’s Office, Office of the Students Affairs and as reconciled from the records of the different departments of the College of Agriculture.

Data Collection

The data and information that were gathered from desk research were tabulated to facilitate tabular interpretations. Simple descriptive statistics were used to analyze and interpret data.

Data Analysis

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Drop Out Rate per Academic Year

Table 1 shows that there are 643 students who dropped out from school years 1998-2005. As shown on the table, the highest percentage rate at 5.52% was observed in 2000-2001. It is followed by the year 1998-1999 with 5.21% drop out, and also followed by years 1999-2000 and 2002-2003 with the same drop out percentage of 3.70%. It can ne observed that drop outs had reached substantially since 2002-2005. The average drop out percentage is computed to be 3,27%. Given the academic period, the total drop out percentage and total College of Agriculture enrollees, 3.33% was computed to be the over all drop out percentage.

The table also shows that generally the drop out rates had been declining over the years. The highest rate of change in drop-outs was between academic year 1999-2000 to 2000-2001 at 0.49.

Table 1. College of Agriculture drop out rate per academic year 1998-2005 ACADEMIC

YEAR

FREQUENCY TOTAL CA

ENROLLED

PERCENTAGE RATE

1998 – 1999 130 2,495 5.22

1999 – 2000 104 2,808 3.70 -0.29

2000 – 2001 154 2,791 5.52 0.49

2001 – 2002 102 3,082 3.31 0.40

2002 – 2003 114 3,084 3.70 -0.12

2003 – 2004 26 2,986 0.87 -0.76

2004 – 2005 13 2,031 0.64 -0.26

TOTAL 643 19,277 3.33

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12 Drop Out Rates as to Courses per Academic Year

From the courses offered at the Benguet State University, the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (BSA) had the highest total number of enrollees during the 1998-2005 (Table 2a –2d). However, in terms of drop out percentage for the period 1998-2005, the Diploma in Agroforestry registered the highest percentage at 8.81%. In all the courses for the period under study, there can be observed a decreasing trend in the drop out percentage till 2005. By courses, for the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, the over all drop out percentage from 1998-2005 was estimated to be 3.22%. Per academic year, the highest drop out occurrence was observed in the academic year 2000-2001 at 5.38%.

Under the Bachelor of Science in Agribusiness (Table 2b), it is observed that academic year 1998-1999 had the highest drop out percentage with a 249 enrollees.

Ranging from 1998-2005, a total of 60 students dropped out of 2,334 enrollees. It also shows that the drop out percentage is reduced from year 1998 – 2005 and has a mean of 2.75. In terms of drop out percentage for the period 1998-2005, 2.5% dropped out.

The Bachelor of Science in Development Communication (BSDC) was implemented in 1999. During the start of the implementation, 66 enrolled in the degree and 3 dropped out, (Table 2c). There are 1,318 students who enrolled in the degree and a total of 95dropped during the period 1998-2005. The average drop out percentage was computed to be 1.71% and 1.44% of 1,318 were considered the over all drop out percentage. The table also shows that the academic year 2001-2002 has the highest percentage of drop out compared to other academic years.

The College of Agriculture has a 2 years Diploma on Agroforestry (DAF). Table 2d shows that academic year 1998-1999 had the highest percentage of drop outs (25)

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13 from the 143 enrollees. It is also observed that the number of enrollees decreased from the year 1999-20005. The mean was computed to be 8.83 and overall drop out percentage was computed to be 8.91%.

Table 2a. Distribution of drop outs in Bachelor of Science in Agriculture from 1998-2005

YEAR FREQUENCY

(F)

TOTAL ENROLLED PERCENTAGE

(%)

1998 – 1999 90 2,103 4.28

1999 – 2000 74 2,314 3.20

2000 – 2001 114 2,139 5.38

2001 – 2002 70 2,334 2.99

2002 – 2003 91 2,259 4.03

2003 – 2004 17 2,210 0.77

2004 – 2005 12 1,188 1.01

TOTAL 468 14,547 3.22

MEAN 3.09

Table 2b. Distribution of drop outs in Bachelor of Science in Agribusiness from 1998- 2005

YEAR FREQUENCY

(F)

TOTAL ENROLLED PERCENTAGE

(%)

1998 – 1999 14 249 5.62

1999 – 2000 10 256 3.91

2000 – 2001 13 354 3.67

2001 – 2002 10 373 2.68

2002 – 2003 10 411 2.43

2003 – 2004 3 319 0.94

2004 – 2005 0 372 0

TOTAL 60 2,334 2.5

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14 Table 2c. Distribution of drop outs in Bachelor of Science in Developmental

Communication from 1998 to 1999

YEAR FREQUENCY

(F)

TOTAL ENROLLED PERCENTAGE

(%)

1998 – 1999 - - -

1999 – 2000 3 66 4.55

2000 – 2001 3 136 2.21

2001 – 2002 7 221 3.17

2002 – 2003 3 260 1.15

2003 – 2004 2 309 0.65

2004 – 2005 1 326 0.31

TOTAL 19 1,318 1.44

MEAN 1.72

Table 2d. Distribution of drop outs in Diploma in Agro Forestry from 1998 to 2005

YEAR FREQUENCY

(F)

TOTAL ENROLLED PERCENTAGE

(%)

1998 – 1999 26 143 18.18

1999 – 2000 17 172 9.88

2000 – 2001 24 162 14.81

2001 – 2002 15 154 9.74

2002 – 2003 10 154 6.49

2003 – 2004 4 148 2.70

2004 – 2005 0 145 0

TOTAL 96 1,078 8.91

MEAN 8.83

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15 Table 3 shows the drop out rate by degree programs from 1998-2005. The rates of change in drop outs had been declining over the years for all the courses. Comparing the four degree programs, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture had the highest increase in drop out rate at 0.67 and it is observed between academic years 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001. It is followed by Bachelor of Science in Developmental Communication with the highest increase in drop out rate of 0.53 in between 2003-2004 to 2004 –2005. The Bachelor of Science in Agribusiness (BSAB) had a negative drop out rates from 1999- 2005.

Table 3. Drop out rate by degree program from 1998-2005

ACADEMIC YEAR BSA BSAB BSDC DAF

1998 – 1999 - - - -

1999 – 2000 -0.25 -0.31 - 0.46

2000 – 2001 0.67 -0.06 0.51 0.50

2001 – 2002 -0.44 -0.27 -0.44 -0.34

2002 – 2003 0.34 -0.09 0.51 -0.34

2003 – 2004 -0.81 -0.61 -0.44 -0.33

2004 – 2005 0.31 -1 0.53 -0.58

MEAN -0.03 -0.39 -0.34 -0.37

Drop Outs as to Sex and Academic Year

Table 4 shows that during the period 1998-2005 and related to the total, there

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16 courses of the College of Agriculture. The drop out percentage per year is also greater among the male students. Among the female drop outs, the highest occurrence was observed in academic year 1998 – 1999 at 4.81% while for males this was observed in academic year 2000 –2001 at 7.01%. The average drop out percentage in females was computed to be 2.9% and males 3.69% and the over all drop out percentage from 1998 – 2005 in females was computed to be 3% and for males at 3.78%.

Table 4. Distribution of drop outs according to sex from 1998-2005 ACADEMIC

YEAR

GENDER

FEMALE MALE

F Total

Enrolled

% F Total

enrolled

%

1998 – 1999 63 1,310 4.81 67 1.185 5.65

1999 – 2000 56 1,573 3.56 48 1,235 3.89

2000 – 2001 72 1,622 4.44 82 1,169 7.01

2001 - 2002 69 1,832 3.77 33 1,250 2.64

2002 - 2003 51 1,827 2.79 63 1,257 5.01

2003 –2004 14 1,667 0.84 12 1,319 0.91

2004 - 2005 7 1,226 0.57 0 805 0.74

TOTAL 332 11.057 3.0 311 8,220 3.78

MEAN 2.97 3.69

Table 5 shows the drop out rates according to gender. The rates of decrease per year are noticeably bigger among males than the females. From table5, the biggest

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17 increase in drop out was observed among males for the period 2001 – 2002 to 2002-2003 at 0.89.

Table 5. Drop out rate by gender from 1998 – 2005

ACADEMIC YEAR FEMALE MALE

1998 – 1999 - -

1999 – 2000 -0.26 -0.31

2000 – 2001 0.25 0.80

2001 – 2002 -0.15 -0.62

2002 – 2003 -0.26 0.89

2003 – 2004 -0.69 -0.82

2004 –2005 -0.32 -0.18

MEAN -0.24 -0.04

Drop Outs as to Semester per Academic Year

Benguet State University has 2 semesters per academic year. Table 6 shows that for the entire period under study, there were more drop outs in the first semester than the second semester. The greatest occurrence of drop outs for the first semester took place during the academic year 2000-2001. For the second semester, the drop out percentage was highest for academic year 1998-1999. Total drop out percentage for the first semester was 3.63% and has a mean of 3.57% while the second semester has a total drop

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18

Table 6. Distribution of drop outs according to semester from 1998 – 2005 ACADEMIC

YEAR

SEMESTER

1st SEMESTER 2nd SEMESTER

F Total

Enrolled

% F Total

Enrolled

%

1998 -1999 75 1,301 5.76 55 1,194 4.61

1999 - 2000 57 1,453 3.92 47 1,355 3.47

2000 – 2001 96 1,459 6.58 58 1,332 4.35

2001 – 2002 45 1,706 2.64 57 1,376 4.14

2002 – 2003 70 1,630 4.29 44 1,454 3.03

2003 – 2004 18 1,482 1.21 8 1,504 0.53

2004 – 2005 7 1,111 0.63 6 920 0.65

TOTAL 368 10,142 3.62 275 9,135 3.0

MEAN 3.57 2.97

The drop rate by semester is shown in Table 7. The rates of drop out are highest during the first semester for all academic years. It is very notable that an increase in drop out was observed between 1999 – 2000 to 2000 – 2001 during the first semester.

Increases in the drop out rates were also observed in between two academic years namely; 1999-2000 and 2000-2001, 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 for the second semesters.

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19 Table 7. Drop out rate by semester from 1998-2005

ACADEMIC YEAR 1st SEMESTER 2nd SEMESTER

1998 – 1999 - -

1999 – 2000 -0.32 -0.25

2000 – 2001 0.68 0.26

2001 – 2002 -0.59 -0.047

2002 – 2003 -0.63 -0.27

2003 – 2004 -0.72 -0.82

2004 - 2005 -0.48 0.23

MEAN -0.14 -0.15

Drop Outs as to Year Level per Academic Year

Majority of the courses offered at the College of Agriculture is a 4- years degree.

First years had the highest drop out percentage of 4.84% due to the transition from high school to college. It is followed by the second years with a total drop out percentage of 3.08%.

By academic year and for first years, 1998-1999 had the highest percentage of drop outs at 8.88% closely followed by academic year 2000-2001 at 8.36% (Table 8).

For the second years, academic year 2000-2001 had the highest drop out percentage at 4.72% and the years 1998-1999 and 2001-2002 had a close drop out percentage at 4.56%

and 4.55%. The highest occurrence of drop outs for the third years was during academic

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20 years, the academic year 2001-2002 had the highest drop out percentage at 3.71% closely followed by academic year 2000-2001 at 3.41%.

For most of the year levels, there was noted a big drop out percentage of students in the academic year 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 maybe for the following reasons;

financial instability, high cost of education, increase of commodities and services and also existing personal problems.

Table 9 shows the drop out rate according to year level from academic year 1998- 2005. Increase in the drop out rates was most common among the fourth years over the different academic years. The second years had more decreases in the drop out rates compared to the other year levels. The highest increase in drop out occurred among fourth years between the academic year 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 at 3.98.

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21

Table 8. Distribution of drop outs according to year level from 1998-2005 ACADEMIC

YEAR

YEAR LEVEL

1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year

F Total Enrollee

% F Total

Enrollee

% F Total

Enrollee

% F Total

Enrollee

%

1998 – 1999 64 721 8.88 25 548 4.56 22 428 5.14 19 798 2.38

1999 – 2000 57 1,0029 5.53 24 663 3.62 8 521 1.54 15 595 2.52

2000 – 2001 73 873 8.36 39 827 4.72 20 445 4.49 22 646 3.41

2001 – 2002 26 972 2.67 33 726 4.55 18 711 2.53 25 673 3.71

2002 – 2003 52 835 6.23 17 794 2.14 18 576 3.13 29 879 3.07

2003 –2004 13 817 1.59 4 706 0.57 7 614 1.14 2 849 0.24

2004 – 2005 4 728 0.55 2 405 0.49 0 301 0 7 597 1.17

TOTAL 289 5,975 4.84 144 4,669 3.06 93 3,596 2.59 117 5,037 2.32

MEAN 4.83 2.93 2.57 2.36

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22 Table 9. Drop out rate according to year level from 1998-2005

ACADEMIC YEAR 1st YEAR 2nd YEAR 3rd YEAR 4th YEAR

1998 – 1999 - - - -

1999 – 2000 -0.38 -0.21 0.70 0.06

2000 – 2001 0.51 0.30 1.93 0.35

2001 – 2002 -0.68 -0.04 -0.04 0.09

2002 – 2003 1.33 -0.55 0.23 -0.17

2003 – 2004 -0.74 -0.72 -0.64 -0.92

2004 – 2005 -0.65 -0.13 -1 3.98

MEAN -0.10 -0.22 -0.13 0.56

Drop Outs as to Province of Origin per Academic Year

Students of Benguet State University come from the provinces from the highlands of Cordillera to the lowland areas of Northern Luzon. Some are even coming from the Visayas and the Tagalog regions. However, majority of the students of BSU are coming from the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). For the period 1998-2005, majority of the drop out students come from the province of Kalinga. The mean percentage drop out is 7.54%. Students coming from Benguet follow this with a mean percentage drop out of 5.29%.

By academic year, 22% of the students from Kalinga dropped out in 1998-1999, 11% in 1999-2000 and 14% in 2000 –2001. Subsequently, it is quite notable that no

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23 more drop outs from Kalinga were noted. For Benguet, academic year 200-2001 registered the highest percentage drop at 9.3%.

In terms of the number student drop out it is clearly observed that Kalinga and Mountain Province had the highest enrolment size. In terms of drop percentage, it is observed that Kalinga had the highest drop out percentage from year 1998-2000.

Given the academic year, and the provinces of the student enrolled at Benguet State University, it is observed that in between the academic years 1999-2000 and 2000- 2001, the positive drop out rate of 13.23 was observed for students coming from Benguet.

Another high positive drop out rate was observed for students coming from Kalinga with a rate of 9.41 and observed between academic years 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. A positive drop out rate indicates an increase in the occurrence of drop out between the academic years concerned.

In terms of the mean drop out rates for the majority of the provinces from which the students are coming, there is a mean negative drop out rate which indicates that the trend has been decreasing largely over the academic periods studied. However, this is not true for students who dropped out notably coming from Benguet, Kalinga and Apayao.

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24

Table 10. Distribution of drop outs according to province of origin from 1998-2005

PROVINCE/CITY YEAR

1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 MEAN

F TE % F TE % F TE % F TE % F TE % F TE % F TE %

Abra 2 56 3.6 4 56 7 6 60 10 0 68 0 0 65 0 0 62 0 0 32 0 2.94

Apayao 3 63 4.8 2 59 3.4 0 67 0 0 87 0 0 72 0 1 69 1.4 0 35 0 1.37

Baguio 3 92 3.3 1 174 0.60 3 126 2.4 5 120 4.2 2 118 1.7 0 61 0 0 96 0 1.74

Benguet 71 1,005 7.1 52 993 5.24 93 996 9.3 54 1,091 0.5 75 1,042 7.38 19 1,015 1.9 9 760 1.2 5.29

Cagayan 0 45 0 1 70 1.4 0 46 0 0 71 0 0 62 0 0 48 0 0 46 0 0.2

Ifugao 2 37 5.4 4 71 5.6 3 46 6.5 7 86 8.1 0 89 0 0 60 0 1 47 2.1 3.96

Ilocos Norte/Sur 1 54 1.9 2 66 3 3 61 4.9 3 82 3.7 0 85 0 0 63 0 0 42 0 1.93

Isabela 1 59 1.7 1 79 1.3 0 67 0 0 68 0 2 67 2.9 0 65 0 0 50 0 0.84

Kalinga 11 50 22 7 65 10.8 8 58 13.8 0 77 0 7 79 8.9 0 61 0 0 41 0 7.92

La Union 3 52 5.8 5 80 6.3 5 77 6.5 6 76 7.9 6 82 7.3 0 79 0 3 56 5.4 5.6

Mt. Province 28 755 3.7 16 759 2.1 20 760 2.6 21 833 2.5 20 934 2.1 5 776 0.6 0 562 0 1.94

Negros and Visayas provices

0 36 0 0 79 0 0 82 0 2 86 2.3 0 84 0 0 71 0 0 55 0 0.33

Nueva Ecija 0 51 0 0 64 0 0 60 0 3 97 3.1 0 88 0 0 63 0 0 40 0 0.44

Nueva Viscaya 0 45 0 4 70 5.7 3 52 5.8 1 81 1.2 0 79 0 1 54 1.9 0 53 0 2.09

Pangasinan 5 52 9.6 3 60 5 10 53 18.9 0 67 0 2 62 3.2 0 49 0 0 36 0 5.24

Tarlac 0 39 0 2 58 3.4 0 45 0 0 31 0 0 34 0 0 38 0 0 34 0 0.49

TOTAL 130 2,491 4.3 104 2,803 3.8 154 2,656 5.0 102 3,021 2.4 114 3,042 1.7 26 2,634 0.4 13 1,985 0.5

MEAN 4.31 3.73 5.73 2.37 2.08 0.36 0.6

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25

Table 11. Drop out rate by province of origin from 1998-2005

PROVINCE/CITY 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 MEAN

Abra - -0.486 -15.41 0 0 0 0 -2.65

Apayao - -0.412 7.26 0 0 -1 0 1.11

Baguio - 4.5 -0.87 -0.43 1.47 0 0 0.778

Benguet - 0.37 13.23 0.897 8.8 -0.74 0.58 3.86

Cagayan - -1 -2.4 0 0 0 0 -0.57

Ifugao - -0.036 -157.8 -0.197 0 0 -1 -26.51

Ilocos Norte/Sur - -0.37 -9.18 0.32 0 0 0 -1.54

Isabela - -0.308 3.23 0 -1 0 0 0.423

Kalinga - 1.037 9.41 0 -1 0 0 1.57

La Union - -0.079 -80.38 -0.18 0.082 0 -1 -13.59

Mt. Province - 0.76 1.76 0.04 0.19 2.5 0 0.875

Negros & Visayas - 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -0.17

Nueva Ecija - 0 0 -1 0 0 0 -0.17

Nueva Viscaya - -1 -6.7 3.83 0 -1 0 -0.812

Pangasinan - 0.92 4.43 0 -1 0 0 0.725

Tarlac - -1 -4.4 0 0 0 0 -0.9

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The study was centered on tracing the students who dropped out of the College of Agriculture, Benguet State University from 1998 – 2005. The study sought to determine the trends in the dropped out rate over the years and the general profile of the drop outs according to : a) gender, b) year level, c) degree programs, d) academic year and semester, and e) by province of origin.

There were 643 students who dropped out from the records of the Registrar’s Office from academic year, 1998-2005. methods and tools used in the conduct of the research is through desk research using a dummy tables as data sheet. Data were tabulated and analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.

Overall, the drop out percentage from 1998-2005 is decreasing. Bt degree programs, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (BSA). This course has the highest drop out percentage because it also has the highest drop out percentage because it also has the highest population of enrollees with 14,547 and has the highest drop percentage rate at 0.67 compared to the other degree programs. The Bachelor of Science in Agribusiness (BSAB) also has 2,334 enrollees and out of these 2.5% dropped having the lowest drop out rate at 0.06. Agro forestry is a 2-year diploma course and contributed 1,078 enrollees under the College of Agriculture with a drop out percentage at 8.83%. Bachelor of Science in Development Communication had an increasing percentage of drop outs.

Summary

There were more males overall who dropped compared to females with a drop out mean percentage of 3.69. More drop outs were generally observed during the first

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27 semester with a mean drop out percentage of 3.57 as well as the mean percentage is highest among the freshmen at 4.83.

Majority of the drop outs based on the total population of students originating from the place came from Kalinga, followed y Benguet.

In terms of percentage changes in drop out between academic years also termed as the drop out rate, all the degree courses exhibited mean negative drop out rates. The smallest mean decrease was observed in the Bachelor of Science in Agriculture. Drop out rate by gender also had mean negative drop out rates, but the rate of the decrease for males was smaller. Mean negative drop out rate was found also true for the first and second semester with the rate for the first semester slightly lower. As to year level, mean negative drop out rates were observed for the first year to third year level except for the fourth years. The lowest mean negative rate was observed for the first years. As to student drop out by provincial origin, mean negative drop out rates were computed negative with provinces except notably for Benguet, Kalinga and Apayao. The lowest mean negative drop out indicates that the occurrence of drop outs is highest over the academic periods studied.

1. Relative to total enrolment and over the academic periods studied.

Conclusions

1.1. There are greater percentage of drop out in Diploma of Agroforestry in contrast with the total number of enrollees in the college.

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28 1.2. Bachelor of Science in Agriculture has the highest percentage drop out of students and the least is from Bachelor of Science in Development Communication.

1.3. Majority of the drop out students are males and the drop outs are mostly from first year level and during the first semester.

1.4. Majority of the drop outs are from the Cordillera Administrative Region.

2. Relative to the drop out rates over the academic years studied; the results corroborate the findings on percentage drop outs that:

2.1. drop-out rate for BSA is greatest;

2.2. drop-out rate of males exceed that of females;

2.3. drop-out rate for first semesters are higher;

2.4. more first years drop out than the other year levels; and 2.5. drop out rate for students coming from Benguet is greatest.

Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following recommendation are made:

Recommendations

1. A study to trace the student drop-outs and to identify their reasons for dropping is proposed to greatly enhance understanding of the drop-out phenomenon.

2. Appropriate school orientation activities to all student issues possibly related to why students drop out should be considered.

3. A study to look closer into why specific courses, gender types, year level, semester and provincial origin have more drop out occurrences should be made.

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LITERATURE CITED

BULATLAT, K. 2002. The Philippine’s Alternative Weekly Magazine December 16, 2005.

CHED. 2005. Institute for Nationalist Studies/CHED report on College Dropouts.

DACALOS, D.P. 2002. Student Personal Services; Policies and Practices of the Philippines in the Visayas, Cebu College, PAASA Journal. Vol. 1, No. 2 P. 52 FERNANDEZ, W.B.. 2002. Partnership in Student Services PAASA Journal, Vol.1,

No. 2. p.22.

LIDAYAN, B.G. 1997. Employment Status of Graduates of the College of Teacher Education of the BSU, Education 33 (Introduction to Research) BS Thesis.

Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. P.5 MARX, K. 2005. College Drop Out News. December 16, 2005.

MATSURA, K. 2003. Youth Ecology Heritage Campus. UNESCO Philippines. Vol. 13, No. 34. p. 6.

OLNOSEN, G. R. 2002. Level of Self Concept of the Education Students at Benguet State University, Education 33 (Introduction to Research Methodology). BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 12.

PADTOC, A.I. 2004. Adjustment Problems and Coping Patterns of First Year College Students in Saint Louis University, Research Journal. Vol. 135, No. 2. p. 303.

RAMOTA, C. M., 2005. Institute for National Studies. Retrieved March 12, 2005

SABAS, V.H. 2002. Preventing and Confronting Campus Violence Journal on Student Affairs Administration, Vol. 1, No. 2. p. 42.

Pigura

Fig. 1.  The conceptual paradigm of the study General profile
Table 1 shows that there are 643 students who dropped out from school years  1998-2005
Table 2b. Distribution  of drop outs in Bachelor of Science  in  Agribusiness  from  1998-      2005
Table 2a. Distribution of drop outs in Bachelor of Science in Agriculture from 1998-2005
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