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Adaptability and horticultural characterization of Moringa accessions under Central Philippines conditions

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Proceedings of the Regional Symposium on High-Value Vegetables in Southeast Asia: Production, Supply and Demand (SEAVEG January 2012, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Limitations and Prospects of Low-Cost Drip Irrigation Technology for Smallholder Vegetable Farming in Southeast Asia.

The Nourished Millennium: How vegetables put global goals for healthy, balanced diets within

The available data show a wide diversity, both in terms of the range of nutrients in the fruit and quantity of those nutrients, as with the exotic fruits (Table 3). There are currently almost 60,000 vegetable accessions in AVRDC - The World Vegetable Center's genebank and of these approximately 12,000 accessions of around 200 species of indigenous vegetables.

Table 1. Mortality rate of children under five years old in Southeast Asia linked to the target for  Millennium Development Goal 4 (Reducing child mortality), and compared with countries most at  risk, and best-performing countries
Table 1. Mortality rate of children under five years old in Southeast Asia linked to the target for Millennium Development Goal 4 (Reducing child mortality), and compared with countries most at risk, and best-performing countries

Growing role of vegetables in food security and nutrition in Asia

China was the top in the world in the production of vegetables, followed by a distant second India (Table 3). Appropriate interventions should be designed to improve market efficiency that stimulate incentives for increasing the production of vegetables.

Table 1: Extent of dietary imbalance in selected countries of South Asia, 1990-1992 to  2003-2005
Table 1: Extent of dietary imbalance in selected countries of South Asia, 1990-1992 to 2003-2005

Breeding of leafy amaranth for adaptation to climate change

One line and five cultivars were screened for white rust resistance in the grow room Red', 'Deep Red', 'Yellow Leaf', 'Tainung No. 1' showed a lower white rust disease prevalence and disease severity than the local cultivar 'Yellow' Leaf' (Table 2).

Table 1. Marketable yield z  of ‘Tainung No. 1’ and ‘Yellow Leaf’ in regional trials in Taiwan  from 1995 to 1998
Table 1. Marketable yield z of ‘Tainung No. 1’ and ‘Yellow Leaf’ in regional trials in Taiwan from 1995 to 1998

Pepper (Capsicum spp.) germplasm

Thirty fifty-seven pepper germplasm accessions were tested for resistance to the Malaysian fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons). Highly resistant stocks of pepper germplasm to root knot nematode were found 11 accessions and highly resistant accessions were 13 accessions.

Figure 1. Net cage for producing good quality seed and preserving   genetic constitution of the pepper germplasm
Figure 1. Net cage for producing good quality seed and preserving genetic constitution of the pepper germplasm

Breeding for disease resistance of melon in Taiwan

The leaf disc test is feasible for use in a powdery mildew resistant melon breeding program in Taiwan (Huang et al. 2002). In: Belanger RR, Bushnell WR, Dik AJ, Carver LW (eds) The Powdery Mildews, a comprehensive discussion.

Genetic improvement of adopted okra cultivars for YVMV disease resistance involving wild

Okra, originally included in the genus Hibiscus, section Abelmoschus, is currently accepted as a separate genus based on the cadiucaus nature of the calyx. These are conflicting reports with no definitive conclusion on the nature of resistance to yellow vein mosaic virus disease in okra, which may be due to the complexity of the disease and more so to obtaining a suitable environment for the establishment of the vector, the whitefly .

Figure 1. Homozygous lines obtained numbered as Line No.15, 16, 25 and 10.
Figure 1. Homozygous lines obtained numbered as Line No.15, 16, 25 and 10.

Adaptability and horticultural characterization of Moringa accessions under Central Philippines

Gram for gram Moringa leaves contain 7 times the vitamin C of oranges, 4 times the calcium of milk, 4 times the vitamin A of carrots, 2 times the protein of milk/yogurt and 3 times the potassium of bananas (Fuglie 2001 from http:// deepfitness.com/3244/Moringa-Leaf-Powder—The-Worlds-Greatest-.UnknownSupplement.aspx; Fuglie 1999). Research conducted at AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center revealed that the four Moringa species (M. oleifera, M. peregrina, M. stenopetala and M. drouhardii) studied contain high amounts of antioxidants and nutrients, high antioxidant activity and low oxalate content. There are several Moringa accessions in the germplasm bank AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center in Shanhua, Taiwan.

Table 1. Moringa germplasm accessions selected for horticultural characterization study  at CPU, Iloilo, Philippines
Table 1. Moringa germplasm accessions selected for horticultural characterization study at CPU, Iloilo, Philippines

FAO at work: Case studies of vegetable integrated pest management and farmer

Asian smallholder vegetable farmers as IPM experts Experiences from the FAO Regional IPM Programme. Reducing the incidence of pesticide poisoning by educating farmers on integrated pest management in southern India. Integrated pest management of eggplant for eggplant and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) in South and Southeast Asia: past, present and future.

Figure 1. The average potato yield (tons/ha) from 2009-2011
Figure 1. The average potato yield (tons/ha) from 2009-2011

Towards developing a sustainable management strategy for legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata on

Identification of female sex pheromone from the pod borer, Maruca vitrata and antagonistic effects of geometric isomers. Re-examination of the female sex pheromone of the pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Parasitoids of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. Lepidoptera: Pyraustinae), a pest of Vigna sesquipedalis in the Philippine lowlands.

Figure 1. Genitalia of Maruca vitrata
Figure 1. Genitalia of Maruca vitrata

Area-wide promotion and adoption of fruit fly IPM: innovative experiences of curriculum

Background preparation: After the official approval of the project, a regional inception and planning workshop was organized in Bangkok from September 1 to 3, 2010. A short training (7-10 days) for trainers (TOT) was organized in each of the participating countries. Equip IPM trainers with basic fruit fly information (life cycle, ecology, biology, management, monitoring, etc.). Farmer Participation: Farmers participated enthusiastically in this FFS and learned about the life cycle, ecology, biology and also practiced management strategies as part of the 1-2-3 management of FF (Figs 1 and 2).

Figure 1. Knowledge and skill gains as expressed in pre and post ballot box scores achieved by  FF-IPM trained farmers (Trang village, Ou Ta Ky commune, Thmor Koul district, Battambang  province)
Figure 1. Knowledge and skill gains as expressed in pre and post ballot box scores achieved by FF-IPM trained farmers (Trang village, Ou Ta Ky commune, Thmor Koul district, Battambang province)

Emergence of begomoviruses: a major threat to vegetable production in Southeast Asia

Tomato leaf curl New Delhi (ToLCNDV) is the most widespread begomovirus infecting tomato crops in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan (Table 2). For example, Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV), Tomato leaf curl Gujarat virus (ToLCGV) and ToLCNDV are bipartite begomoviruses, while Tomato leaf curl Bangalore virus (ToLCBV), Tomato leaf curl Virus Joydebpur (ToLCJoV) and Tomato leaf curl Karnataka virus are (ToLCKV) ) are monopartite begomoviruses. Tomato leaf curl Guangxi virus (ToLCGxV), a recombinant monopartite WTG containing sequences from Ageratum yellow vein virus, Euphorbia leaf curl virus and Tomato leaf curl China virus (ToLCCNV), has emerged as a serious problem in Guangxi Province, China (Xu and Zhou 2007). ).

Table 1: Emergence of diseases caused by begomoviruses in cucurbits in Southeast  Asia and the adjoining regions (Varma et al
Table 1: Emergence of diseases caused by begomoviruses in cucurbits in Southeast Asia and the adjoining regions (Varma et al

Toxicity of insecticides on diamondback moth from three areas in Thailand

Clear differences in susceptibility or resistance factor to most insecticides were also detected in the diamondback moth from the Sai Noi population in 2011. Our data showed that resistance to insecticides in the diamondback moth from important vegetable growing areas in Thailand has increased. Regular monitoring of diamondback moth resistance from important vegetable growing areas in Thailand is critical for the sustainable use of insecticides for control.

Table 1. Susceptibility to various insecticides of F1 generation P. xylostella collected  from crucifer fields of Tha Muang district, Kanchana Buri in 2008; Tub Berg district,  Petchabun in 2009 and Sai Noi district, Nonthaburi in 2010; Thailand
Table 1. Susceptibility to various insecticides of F1 generation P. xylostella collected from crucifer fields of Tha Muang district, Kanchana Buri in 2008; Tub Berg district, Petchabun in 2009 and Sai Noi district, Nonthaburi in 2010; Thailand

Control of root gall disease in chili caused by root-knot nematodes

In 2007, about 3,000 chili plants grown in Ubon Ratchathani province were severely damaged by root gall disease caused by root nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita). Chilli cultivation technologies in the test plot were the same as in the control plot, except for root nematode control techniques. Chili root gall disease caused by root gall nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) could be effectively controlled by burning the seedling bed with rice husks 8 hours before sowing and planting hemp (Crotalaria juncea) as a green manure, then plowing and letting, to decompose 2 weeks before planting the chillies.

Figure 1. Root gall index (Hussey and Jansen 2001)
Figure 1. Root gall index (Hussey and Jansen 2001)

The control of tomato root knot nematode by Jeevatu based organic liquid manure

Diluted decoction washing of Jeevatu based liquid organic manure was started 10 days after transplanting of seedlings. Two months later in July, after transplanting seedlings, root-knot nematode infection was detected in the control plot (T-3) and 3 months later in the formaldehyde-treated plot (T-1). As in other crops, the use of Jeevatu-based liquid organic manure played a vital role in controlling root-knot nematode in tomato.

Figure 1. Infestation of root-
Figure 1. Infestation of root-

Comparison of cultivation systems for Asian leafy vegetables and herbs in greenhouse

In this experiment, water spinach fresh matter in aeroponics was significantly lower compared to substrate culture for clone 216 – the most productive of all clones in all crops (Fig. 1), although there were significant differences between crops. Nitrate content of three clones of Ipomoea aquatica grown in aeroponics and in substrate culture (Kruskall-Wallis test α ≤ 5. The Mg content in water spinach grown in aeroponics was significantly higher than in substrate culture.

Figure 1. Fresh matter yield of three clones of Ipomoea aquatica of three subsequent   harvests in aeroponics and in substrate-culture
Figure 1. Fresh matter yield of three clones of Ipomoea aquatica of three subsequent harvests in aeroponics and in substrate-culture

Onion production: Challenges and ways to meet out the demand of the country

The details of area, production and productivity of onion in different countries of the world during the year 2009 are given in table 1 and state wise area, production and productivity of onion in India during the year 2010-11 are given in table 2. There exist thus a surplus of 9.68 lakh MT, even though prices sometimes rise due to crop schedule disruptions and more losses in stocks, the gap, if any, needs to be bridged based on defining medium and long term strategies to ensure availability of onions all year round in the country. There has been a significant increase in onion research infrastructure and development programs in the recent past, which has helped increase production, productivity and availability in the country.

Table 1. Estimate for onion storage of capacity 50 M.T.
Table 1. Estimate for onion storage of capacity 50 M.T.

Low pressure drip irrigation for commercial vegetables in Myanmar

Flow rates were determined before each test by direct measurement at the end of the main pipe. As a result of the performance testing conducted in the spring of 2010, significant system component changes have been made for the 2010-2011 dry season. We think this happened because of the wide bottoms and the high currents.

Figure 1. Sprinkler cans used on vegetable crops.
Figure 1. Sprinkler cans used on vegetable crops.

Assessing technology and socioeconomic constraints and prospects of low-cost drip

The ready availability of low-cost drip kits is also important in several other countries in Asia. In the case of the Philippines, if there was a local manufacturer, the low-cost drip kits would be distributed to a large number of farmers. In addition to the dissemination of low-cost drip kits, issues of crop production also need to be addressed.

Table 1. Number of sites and vegetable crops grown by farmers under low-cost drip kits
Table 1. Number of sites and vegetable crops grown by farmers under low-cost drip kits

Effect of organic matter application and

Lettuce yield in treatments HM40 (LT10-12) was significantly higher than HM0 (LT2-4) in the second season. In the first crop year (first to third cropping season), the increase in SOC of the CLB treatments (LT3, 7 and 11) was higher than the CLF treatments (LT2, 6 and 10) (or the decrease in SOC was lower) (Table 8). The application of horse manure fertilizer in the same amount showed the advantage for lettuce yield.

Table 1. General properties of the soil (Fauzi and Agus 2008)  Horizon  Depth
Table 1. General properties of the soil (Fauzi and Agus 2008) Horizon Depth

Demonstration of the scope and feasibility of organic farming in vegetable crops – an

The nutrient composition of different organic fertilizers used in the organic farming demonstration is shown in Table 1. It can be seen that the impact of organic farming systems on pH, EC, OC and nutrient status was substantial. Organic farming improved these parameters by indirectly increasing soil physical and chemical properties (Table 2). Unlike conventional and chemical farming systems, organic farming brings the pH of the soil towards the neutral limit, and at such a neutral pH most of the soil's nutrients will be available to plants.

Table 1. Nutrient composition of organic manures used in the organic farming demonstration
Table 1. Nutrient composition of organic manures used in the organic farming demonstration

Performance of vegetable soybean cultivars under organic crop management system

Carter and Shanmugasundaram (1993) compiled a list of vegetable soybean cultivars grown in Japan and Taiwan. The experimental treatments were the four vegetable soybean cultivars (Cha-name, KS 6, KS 9 and TNAV 2). This result suggests that for the production of organic vegetable soybeans, the cultivar Cha-mame has great growth potential in Southeast Asia.

Table 1.  Total pod yield of vegetable soybean cultivars grown under organic  management system
Table 1. Total pod yield of vegetable soybean cultivars grown under organic management system

Studies on evaluation for adoption of high value cole crops in the plains of West Bengal

The experimental site design for Red Cabbage was a Randomized Block Design replicated five times. The higher head weight may be due to the resulting higher head diameter of the respective varieties. The results given in Table 1 reflected significant differences in sprout weight of different varieties.

Table 1. Varietal evaluation of different varieties of Broccoli
Table 1. Varietal evaluation of different varieties of Broccoli

Production of high value vegetables in the

In the case of flowers, it is noted that CostA1 is highest in Aster and lowest in Cock's Comb. In the case of flowers, the costs D are highest with Aster and lowest with Cockscomb. It is noted that the costs A1 are highest for Aster Pea and lowest for Rooster's comb tomato.

Table 1. Gross Return, Cost A1 and Cost D of Different Vegetables and Flowers in the   Study Area (2010-11) (   per ha
Table 1. Gross Return, Cost A1 and Cost D of Different Vegetables and Flowers in the Study Area (2010-11) ( per ha

Pigura

Table  3.    Nutritional  contents  of  common  Southeast  Asian  traditional  fruits  and  traditional  and  exotic vegetables
Figure 1.  Home garden layouts from AVRDC – The World Vegetable Center.
Table 1: Extent of dietary imbalance in selected countries of South Asia, 1990-1992 to  2003-2005
Table 4: Harvested Area (million ha) and Production (million tons) of Vegetables in Asia
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Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

February 1998 to present Other Corporate Affiliations: Member, Board of Directors, FERN Realty Corporation; Corporate Secretary and Trustee, Nicanor Reyes Educational Foundation,