• Walang Nahanap Na Mga Resulta

bibliography - BSU ICT Project: Portal

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2023

Share "bibliography - BSU ICT Project: Portal"

Copied!
46
0
0

Buong text

(1)

PINDOG, ANNA LIZA A. APRIL 2012. Hudhud Schools for Living Tradition (HSLT): An Educational Communication Strategy for Indigenous Knowledge Conservation. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Maria Luz D. Fang-asan, PhD ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to document the efforts of Hudhud Schools for Living Tradition (HSLT) in transmitting the ‘hudhud’ to the younger generations of Ifugao with the aid of formal education, paying attention to the elements of Educational Communication.

This study specifically aimed to characterize the people involved in the HSLT;

describe the procedures that have been applied in the HSLT; identify ideas generated from the implementation of HSLT; determine the communication devices or materials used in the HSLT; determine the challenges faced by the HSLT; and to describe the organizational strategy that was used in analyzing problems and in managing solutions to problems in the HSLT.

The researcher interviewed key informants and students from TungngodElementary School, Lagawe, Ifugao to gather information about HSLT in the transmission of ‘hudhud’ to younger generation using formal education.

Results were summarized, organized and presented in narrative form, it was found out that formal education can be a great help in Indigenous knowledge conservation.

 

(2)

Page

Bibliography... i

Abstract……... ……... i

Table of Contents …... ii

INTRODUCTION... 1

Rationale... 1

Statement of the Problem ... 4

Objectives of the Study... 4

Importance of the Study …... 5

Scope and Limitations... 5

REVIEW OF LITERATURE... 7

The Ifugaos ……….………... 7

Indigenous Knowledge ………... 8

The ‘Hudhud’ Chant of Ifugao …... Taking Care of the Master Piece ……..……… Communication Strategy ………... 8 9 11 Cultural Transmission ……….……... 12 Challenges in Cultural Transmission...

Definition of Terms………...

13 14

(3)

Locale and Time of the Study ………...……….. 15

Respondents of the Study.………..…. 15

Data Collection ……….………...………..………. 17

Data Gathered ………..……….……….……. 17

Data Analysis …...………... 17

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION... 18

HSLT Stakeholders……….………... 18

Management Strategies Adopted……….. 21

Ideas Generated from HSLT... …... Communication Materials Produced ……..……… Challenges Faced by HSLT ………... 25 27 27 Organizational Strategy ……….……... 31

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS... 33

Summary………….………... 33

Conclusions…………... ………... 34

Recommendations………... 34

LITERATURE CITED……….. 35

 

(4)

INTRODUCTION

Rationale

The traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples (IPs) is their identity but modernization is changing their views, attitudes and behavior thus, the impending erosion of this identity. According to Inglehart and Welzel (2005), modernization strongly shaped self-expression and values and it is an overwhelming force that drives cultural changes.

Ifugao, one of the provinces of Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), is home to indigenous peoples and it is not spared from these cultural changes.

With their famous Banaue Rice Terraces, Ifugao IPs are known worldwide for carving terraces from the mountainside using primitive hand tools since time immemorial. This indigenous knowledge (IK) of the Ifugao IPs was formally recognized as an important heritage with the enlistment of the rice terraces as a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in 1995. Other sites accorded the same honor were Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park of Canada and United States of America and the Historic Villages of Shirakawa-go and Gokoyama in Japan in the same year.

Along with the rice terraces are other tangible heritage of the Ifugao IPs like their crafts and architecture that have become icons of their culture. Even their intangible heritage has not gone unnoticed. UNESCO recognized their ‘hudhud’ chants as another National Cultural Treasure when these were inscribed as Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001.

‘Hudhud’ is one of the old oral traditions of the Ifugao. It is a non-ritual chant that reflects the creativity of the Ifugao and the wealth of his traditions. It is chanted by the

(5)

natives in different occasions -- during rice sowing, at harvest time, funeral wakes and other occasions.

The international recognition by UNESCO of the rice terraces and the ‘hudhud’

enhances the value of cultural heritage and gives honor not only to the Ifugao but to the entire nation as well. However, the recognition does not guarantee the perpetuation of this cultural heritage. The initiatives and efforts should emanate and be sustained at the local level where the culture is being observed.

It is therefore sad to note that the elders who are experts in chanting ‘hudhud’ are decreasing in number and that the younger people seem not to appreciate the ‘hudhud’ at all. Furthermore, factors like education, media, religious beliefs, absence of experts who could teach it, and the dearth of written materials are all contributing to the deterioration of the ‘hudhud’.

The Department of Education- Division of Ifugao (DepEd-Ifugao) decided to arrest this trend by submitting a proposal to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) - Intangible Heritage Committee. The proposal was approved and so the

‘Hudhud’ Schools for Living Tradition (HSLT) was put in place in 2004.

‘Hudhud’ Schools for Living Tradition (HSLT) is an Educational Communication (EdComm) strategy applied by Ifugao province to arrest the rapid deterioration of

‘hudhud’. HSLT involved the people of the locality and some procedures, ideas, devices and organization in analyzing the growing problem of the province in terms of culture deterioration particularly that of the ‘hudhud’ chant.

The HSLT aims to make use of education as a tool to revitalize and transmit

‘hudhud’ to the younger generation by integrating its teaching in the curriculum at the

(6)

lower school levels. Furthermore, it aims to collect data and other materials related to the

‘hudhud’; and to transcribe, translate and publish them in different versions. In order to generate public interest, awareness and appreciation of ‘hudhud’, the HSLT also carries out information dissemination and production of materials in multi-media.

The HSLT is an Educational Communication (EdComm) strategy. As a field of discipline in Development Communication, EdComm is defined by Rogers (1976) cited by Cadiz (2003), as “a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices and organization for analyzing problems and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.”

Like EdComm, the HSLT approach has all the elements mentioned in the definition.

Also, the HSLT focuses on the process of human learning and on the learners.

From its establishment in 2004 up to the present, the HSLT has already shown indicators of success. Young school children from Ifugao’s Tungngod Elementary School have performed the ‘hudhud’ at the Cultural Center of the Philippines in May 2010. The learning continues up to this day.

Initial success outcomes of the HSLT indicate that the strategy is effective in IK conservation. With all the good things about indigenous knowledge, it is imperative that every successful initiative must be carefully studied for possible replication in other areas, hence this study.

Statement of the Problem

The pressing concern being addressed by many researchers is the documentation of the indigenous knowledge itself. Little attention is being given to the processes of

(7)

documentation, thus, the information gap on how strategies are applied in actual situations. The general question is “How did they do it?”

Guided by the definition of educational communication (Rogers, 1976), the specific questions were answered:

1. Who are the people involved in the HSLT?

2. What procedures have been applied in the HSLT?

3. What ideas have been generated from the implementation of HSLT?

4. What communication devices or materials were used in the HSLT?

5. What were the challenges faced by the HSLT?

6. What organizational strategy was used in analyzing problems and managing solutions to problems in the HSLT?

Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study was to document the efforts of the HSLT program in transmitting ‘hudhud’ to the younger generations paying attention to the elements of educational communication. The specific objectives were to:

1. Characterize the people involved in the HSLT;

2. Describe the procedures that have been applied in the HSLT;

3. Identify ideas generated from the implementation of HSLT;

4. Determine the communication devices or materials used in the HSLT;

5. Determine the challenges faced by the HSLT; and

6. Describe the organizational strategy used in analyzing problems and managing solutions to problems in the HSLT.

(8)

Importance of the Study

The results of the study are expected to reflect the significant lessons derived from the endeavors of ‘Hudhud’ Schools for Living Tradition (HSLT). Thus, it will serve as an eye opener not only to the community of Ifugao but to all IPs in the country that while indigenous knowledge systems and practices and culture are already deteriorating, something can still be done to preserve, revitalize and transmit these to the next generation.

It will also serve as a feedback channel for the community to give their perceptions, comments on and suggestions for the program.

Results may be used by teachers, researchers and communication practitioners in improving their strategies.

Scope and Limitations

The study documented the HSLT efforts as an Educational Communication Strategy for the preservation and transmission of ‘hudhud’ in Lagawe, Ifugao. It looked into the communication strategies and processes applied by the program and the challenges the program encountered. Data were gathered from key informants using guide questions and also from those who were educated through the HSLT. Phone interviews were done in the case of Jacqueline Lunag because of some circumstances.

Data gathering was done from December 2011 to January 2012. Documentation of the

‘hudhud’ was not included in the study

(9)

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The Ifugaos

The Ifugaos immortalized by their magnificent rice terraces and their literary traditions of ‘hudhud’ and Alim constitutes one of the most fascinating ethnic groups of the Philippines. Inhabiting the rugged terrains of the extensive Cordillera Mountain ranges of Central Luzon with their centuries-old beliefs and practices, they have developed and maintained a distinct culture (Dumia, 1979).

According to their oral traditions embodied in their myths, the Ifugaos are descendants of beings from Kabunyan (Sianghio, n. d). But historians and anthropologists, however, believed that the Ifugaos are the descendants of the first wave of Malay immigrants to the country (Dulawan, n. d.).

The Ifugaos are sometimes referred to as the “people of the skylands” because they carved the terraces from the mountainside which are sometimes called ‘stairways to the skies’. And they took centuries to build the terraces and the work continues until today, making the rice terraces the longest agricultural project in history (The Philippine Profile, 2009).

On the other hand, while the Ifugaos have no knowledge in writing, they developed a literature which can compare favorably with the country’s finest in the field of epics and folktales. They do not have a systematic form of writing, but their oral literature-- recorded traditions, beliefs and rituals-attest to the vast wealth of literature arts in the region (Sianghio, n. d.).

(10)

Indigenous Knowledge

Indigenous knowledge is the unique, traditional, local knowledge existing within and developed around the specific conditions of women and men indigenous to a particular geographic area (Grenier, 1998) as cited by Rovillos (1999).

According to Cobo (1998) as cited by Corpuz (1999), indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories.

This IK is not passive, accidental accumulation about how the natural environment works. Rather, it is an organized dynamic system of investigation and discovery that has yielded- and continued to yield – information that could be critical to the survival of the planet (RAFI, 1999).

Rovillos (1999) also stated that in many cases of the indigenous peoples, their ecological knowledge is an asset of incalculable value: a map of global biological diversity upon which all life depends. Encoded in indigenous languages, customs and practices is a vast store of information about nature. He further stated that indigenous knowledge systems and resources management practices embody principles of sustainability and biological conservation.

The Hudhud Chant of Ifugao

The oral traditions of the Ifugaos come in many different varieties, but the oldest and most well-known is that of the ‘hudhud’ (Stanyukovich, 2006).

(11)

The ‘hudhud’ is a non-ritual chant that describes the Ifugao world of old. It is said that there are more than two hundred (200) chants, each divided into forty (40) episodes (Palcon and Sandoval, 2011).

It consists of narrative chants traditionally performed by the Ifugao community, which is well-known for its terraces extending over the highlands of the Northern Island of the Philippine archipelago. It is practiced during the rice sowing season, at harvest time and at funeral wakes and rituals (Stanyukovich, 2006).

Although not as famous as the Ilocos region’s ‘Biag ni Lam-ang’ (Life of Lam- ang), or the world famous Beowulf, the Ifugao epic ‘hudhud’ continues to become a favorite among students or researchers of Philippine literature. The reason is because it illustrates some very important lessons -- the evils and foolishness of warfare and the goodness and advantage of upholding peace (Dechavez, 2009).

Because of its classic theme, the stories of ‘hudhud’ remain relevant even up to these days making it worthy to be a masterpiece.

In 2001, UNESCO designated the chants a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity as cited by Stanyukovich (2006).

Because of its social significance in upholding tradition, the ‘hudhud’ deserves the recognition of the UNESCO, and ought to be considered and protected as a valuable cultural heritage (Dechavez, 2009).

Taking Care of a Master Piece

Diversity in the world today is being destroyed at alarming and unprecedented rates. This includes culture and knowledge systems (Corpuz, 1999).

(12)

Like any other masterpiece, ‘hudhud’ chants are also in danger. In an article written by Palcon and Sandoval (2011) they have mentioned that many of the Ifugaos especially the young people have no idea on how to chant the episodes of ‘hudhud’.

There is then a need to develop a more in-depth understanding of culture so that true understanding among diverse population will be brought about. The need is dictated upon by the ongoing demographic changes across the nation and the movement towards globalization (Portuando, 2002).

In a convention on Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2003 by the UNESCO, they have mentioned that the national government has to designate and empower organizations to document intangible cultural heritage and create inventories thereof, and also to encourage the preservation, protection, and transmission of intangible cultural heritage by working closely and cooperatively with the relevant communities.

Policies and strategies sensitive to cultural realities, therefore, must be pursued so that the country can embark on meaningful but relevant development (De Leon, 2011).

As an initiative to rekindle this dying heritage, the NCCA through its intangible heritage committee undertakes the inventory of the Philippines intangible heritage, such as ‘hudhud’ and safeguard them (NCCA-IHC, n. d.).

The NCCA as funded by the UNESCO/ Japan Funds-In-Trust for the Preservation and Promotion of the Intangible Cultural Heritage implemented the ‘hudhud’ Schools for Living Traditions (HSLT) in safeguarding and transmitting the ‘hudhud’ chants of the Ifugao (NCCA-IHC, n. d.).

(13)

The creation of the HSLT is a prelude to the idea of integrating the teaching of the

‘hudhud’ in the provincial school curriculum concentrating in the lower school levels (De Leon, 2011).

The study on the indigenous institution by NEDA-CAR (1991), as cited by Maguen (2005), recommended that school curricula in the Cordillera should include at least a subject focused on indigenous culture, the struggle for autonomy, the geography and resources of Cordillera, their homeland. The study further said that such recommendation will promote better understanding of the various ethno-linguistic groups.

With this, the government created Republic Act No. 8371 otherwise known as the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997. The act embodies the rights and aspirations of the indigenous people (Awas, 2010).

“The State shall respect, recognize and protect the right of ICCs/IPs to preserve and protect their culture, traditions and institutions. It shall consider these rights in the formulation and application of national plans and policies (IPR Act of 1997).”

Thus, there is a need to call for sustained partnership and to use education to the advantage of the holders of the legacy and their destiny (Palcon and Sandoval, 2011).

Communication Strategy

Communication strategy for a project is the documentation of how implementation will be disseminated to and received from all stakeholders in the activity.

It identifies the mean/s medium and frequency of communication between the different parties. It is used to establish and manage ongoing communication throughout a program or project (OGC, 2001 as cited by Bawas, 2008).

(14)

On the other hand, communication strategy can be used as a device which enables the learners to bridge gap between classroom interaction and various communicative competences of the learners (Blum-Kulka and Levenston, 1983 as cited by Cayat, 2009).

Cultural Transmission

Cultural transmission is the process of passing on culturally relevant knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values from person to person or from culture to culture (SIL International, 1999).

According to Yim (n. d.) the most knowledgeable and skilled persons who maintained the particular art or technique was encouraged to transmit it to others in order to preserve and continue the transmission on the culture.

Furthermore, those involved in the condition of this traditional knowledge constitute one of the most interesting aspects of our living heritage. Each member of the community possesses a piece of stored knowledge. Crucial knowledge is passed on during community activities, frequently without any conscious attention to the process (Bisin and Verdier, 2010).

Passing information by “word-of-mouth” has been shown to be one of the most effective communication channels for acquiring knowledge and promoting desire changes in behavior (UNFPA, 1999).

Challenges in Cultural Transmission

A number of scholars have found that concepts like mutation, selection and random drift, which emerged from the theory of biological evolution, may also explain evolutionary phenomena in other disciplines as well.

(15)

According to Alkullo as cited by Awas (2010), there are some constraints that hinder the transmission of knowledge. These were: a) education and exposure especially of the young to modern training have biased people’s attitudes towards IK; b) some members of the community feel it is time consuming, exhausting and sometimes dangerous to hunt for herbs in the forest and bushes; c) IK was reported as not effective in large scale production; d) some religious beliefs do not encourage traditional beliefs and technologies regarding them as demonic and superstitious; e) regressive government laws prohibiting some practices like growing cannabis, un-authorized tree cutting and rudimentary castration of livestock; and f) selfishness that inhibits people from passing on knowledge to other.

Definition of Terms

‘Mun-abbog’. They are the rest of the choir who chant the ‘hudhud’.

‘Munhaw-e’. He/She is lead chanter of the choir.

‘Point Teachers’. They are the appointed teachers in the schools who monitor the teaching of ‘hudhud’.

‘Stakeholders’. They are the people involved in HSLT program.

(16)

METHODOLOGY

Locale and Time of the Study

The study was conducted at Lagawe, Ifugao. Lagawe is one of the ten (10) municipalities of Ifugao province which in turn is one of Luzon’s prime tourist destinations in the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR).

Lagawe, a fourth class municipality, is politically subdivided into twenty (20) barangays namely: Abinuan, Banga, Boliwong, Burnay, Buyabuyan, Caba, Cudog, Dulao, Jucbong, Luta, Montabiong, Olilicon, Poblacion South, Ponghal, Pullaan, Tungngod, Tupaya, Poblacion East, Poblacion North and Poblacion West. It is located approximately 348 km away from Manila and 333 km from the city of Baguio.

Lagawe residents are Tuwali, Iloco, Ayangan and English speakers related to the other people of the Ifugao region. They practice a mixture of indigenous religion, Catholicism and other forms of Christianity. According to the latest census it has a population of 15,269 people in 2,944 households.

This place was chosen to be the place of study because it is where the ‘hudhud’

was strongly practiced and it was one of the municipalities where HSLT program was implemented.

The study was conducted from December 2011 to January 2012.

Respondents of the Study

The key informants of the study were selected stakeholders of the ‘Hudhud’

Schools for Living Tradition (HSLT) – the project proponent Jacqueline Lunag, two

(17)

Figure 1. Map of the Lagawe, Ifugao

(18)

teachers, namely Fatima Tugunen and Ellenora Aliguyon. They were identified through the DepEd Ifugao Division and the barangay officials of Lagawe, Ifugao.

Survey respondents were 20 students of HSLT in Tungngod Elementary School.

The respondents were chosen through Fatima Tugunen, the point teacher of Tungngod Elementary School.

Data Collection

The data were gathered through key informant interviews using guide question.

The researcher did the interview in Tuwali, Iloco and English.

The researcher also conducted a survey among the twenty students of the HSLT using an interview schedule. They were interviewed individually by the researcher.

Data Gathered

The researcher gathered data on the characteristics of the people involved in the HSLT; the procedures that have been applied; the ideas have been generated from the implementation; the communication materials used; the challenges faced by the HSLT;

and, the organizational strategy that was used in analyzing problems and in devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to problems in the HSLT.

Data Analysis

The data gathered from the key informants was summarized, organized and presented in narrative form. Data from the survey was consolidated, tabulated, and analyzed using means and percentages.

(19)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

HSLT Stakeholders

Agencies. The agencies involved in the HSLT were the NCCA, DepEd and the Local Government Units of Ifugao.

NCCA is a national government agency that supports programs on cultural development. It is the overall policy making body and grants-giving agency for the preservation, development and promotion of Philippine arts and culture. One of its programs is the Schools for Living Traditions (SLT) established among different ethno- linguistic groups in the Philippines. SLT is used as a strategy to safeguard intangible cultural heritage of the country. For Ifugao, NCCA suggested that a proposal be submitted by DepEd Ifugao for the establishment of an SLT for the teaching of ‘hudhud’.

DepEd is the national government agency responsible for the management of the Philippine system of basic education. DepEd- Ifugao Division, just like all DepEd offices in all provinces, oversees the delivery of educational services which include cultural preservation and other cultural endeavors. It established Schools of Living Traditions across the province. The Schools Division Superintendent (SDS) approved the organization of HSLT classes.

For its part, the Local Government Units at the provincial and municipal levels played an essential role in establishing the HSLT. Provincial and Municipal officials actively supported the program by assuming the financial responsibility for sustaining the HSLT and other related activities.

The HSLT Executive Commission was later created. It is composed of school heads, community heads, and barangay officials. Its main role is to oversee the operations

(20)

of the program.

Key individuals. Key persons in the conceptualization and implementation of the program are listed and characterized in Table 1. They also served as key informants for this study.

Jacqueline Lunag was invited by NCCA as DepEd representative to the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) Committee in 2004. She was tasked to submit a proposal for the establishment of the HSLT which was approved by the NCCA the same year. Mrs.

Lunag coordinated several seminar workshops as part of HSLT activities. She now serves as consultant, resource person, trainor and coordinator for the program. She claims that her involvement in the program strengthened her love for Ifugao culture. It also fired up her passion to safeguard and preserve the Ifugao culture even to the extent of sacrificing her time, money and energy.

Ellenora Aliguyon was one of the first students of the SLT headed by Manuel Dulawan in 2001. Aliguyon never thought that she would be involved in cultural endeavors. But when she joined the SLT, she fell in love with the chant and the Ifugao culture. She devoted her time every Saturday to teach willing children on how to chant the ‘hudhud’ and execute other cultural performing arts like playing gongs, dancing. She is now the Cluster Head for SLT in Kiangan, Ifugao.

For Aliguyon, being part of the HSLT is a rewarding endeavor. She said, “I am fulfilled that I learned about my culture and that I was able to share its importance to my people. With this I am able to contribute to the preservation of our culture. At least, I leave a legacy to my co-Ifugao.”

(21)

Fatima Tugunen is a teacher of Tungngod Elementary School. She was one of the participants of the first seminar-workshop on ‘hudhud’ chants conducted by DepEd in August 2004. She was not able to learn the ‘hudhud’ chant instantly during the seminar so she supplemented it by learning on her own. She looked for old ‘hudhud’ chanters in their place and asked them to chant for her. She recorded the chants and meditated on them afterwards. Continuous practice improved her chanting the ‘hudhud’.

Because of the passion she demonstrated for ‘hudhud’ she became one of the point teachers of HSLT in Lagawe. That passion inspired her to be more creative in teaching ‘hudhud’. She translated the stories in the ‘hudhud’ in English and compiled them. She also organized a ‘hudhud’ club to train interested children in chanting the

Table 1. General characteristics of key informants

NAME AGE SEX POSITION/ ROLE IN THE

ORGANIZATION HSLT

Jacqueline 49 F Educational Supervisor I Consultant,

Lunag of DepEd-Ifugao Coordinator,

Division Resource Speaker,

Trainor

Ellenora 54 F Internal Auditor of SLT Cluster Head-

Aliguyon Ifugao Electric Community

Cooperative Inc. (IFELCO) Ifugao

Lagawe, Ifugao

Fatima 52 F Teacher at Tungngod Point Teacher

Tugunen Elementary School

(22)

‘hudhud’. Tugunen said that after eight years of teaching the ‘hudhud’, she appreciated and valued the Ifugao culture more. She even devoted her time every summer with students and elders to prepare them for the annual ‘hudhud’ competition in Ifugao.

Students. Twenty HSLT students from Tungngod Elementary School represented the learners in this study. These 20 students were from grade three to grade six and they all belonged to the ‘hudhud’ club. The club joined contests and performed in different festivals in Ifugao. Moreover, the club was invited to perform at the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) complex in May 2010.

Among the 20 respondents, 17 (80%) said that they learned to chant the ‘hudhud’

in school with the help of their teacher. Only three students said that they learned

‘hudhud’ in their homes. All of the students said they enjoy chanting the ‘hudhud’.

Among the 20 students was Danica Garcia, a nine year old grade four student who was the munhaw-e or the lead chanter of the group. The rest of the chanters were called the mun-abbog. Tugunen said that being a munhaw-e is the most crucial role because he or she provides the go-signal for the chorus. But Danica was able to manage to learn the part of a munhaw-e. Danica is one of the students who learned to chant ‘hudhud’ in school.

Management Strategies Adopted by the HSLT Planning Stage

Proposal preparation. The recognition of ‘hudhud’ by UNESCO in 2001 as Masterpiece of Oral Intangible Heritage of Humanity chants, prompted NCCA to suggest that a School of Living Tradition specifically for ‘hudhud’ be established. NCCA saw the need to safeguard and transmit the ‘hudhud’ through formal education. Aliguyon

(23)

Figure 2. Interview with ma’am Ellenora Aliguyon.

Figure 3. Photo of ma’am Fatima Tugunen together with the Tungngod Elementary chanters.

(24)

supported the idea. She said, “Integrating the teaching of ‘hudhud’ in formal education could mean a lot because in school, children think that they are compelled to learn the things that teachers teach them.” Furthermore, she mentioned that it is easier to monitor the interest and development of the students inside the classroom.

Through the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) Committee under the NCCA, it was suggested to the DepEd Ifugao Division representative that a proposal be submitted for this purpose.

Action planning. Upon the approval of the proposal by NCCA, DepEd-Ifugao called for a meeting and an action plan was drawn for implementation.

Implementation Stage

Organization of HSLTs. With the supervision of DepEd-Ifugao, HSLTs were established in key areas across the province. Table 2 lists the seven municipalities and 23 schools that hosted the HSLTs.

Recent activities. At present HSLT is conducting workshops like ‘hudhud’ for beginners. Furthermore, HSLT continuously invites different schools to present the

‘hudhud’ at different occasions. The latest activity was the presentation of the different schools in Banaue hotel in 2012.

Identification of ‘hudhud’ chanters. A survey was done to trace the remaining

‘hudhud’ chanters who were then requested to share the art and knowledge through seminar-workshops organized by DepEd.

Seminar-workshops. In August 2004, DepEd organized a seminar-workshop which aimed to teach school teachers how to chant the ‘hudhud’. The identified ‘hudhud’

(25)

Table 2. Areas covered by HSLT

MUNICIPALITIES SCHOOLS INVOLVED

Lagawe Lagawe Central School

Cudog Elementary School

Burnay Elementary School

Buliwag Elementary School

Tungngod Elementary School

Kiangan Kiangan Central School

Baguinge Elementary School

Duit Elementary School

Nagacan Elementary School

Lamut Nayon Elementary School

Ilap Elementary School

Bliss Elementary School

Panopdopan Elementary School

Hingyon Hingyon Central School

Umalbong Elementary School

Pitawan Elementary School

Hungduan Hungduan Central School

Hapao Elementary School

Pula Elementary School

Asipulo Asipulo Central School

Pula Elementary School

Banaue Amganad Elementary School

Balawis Elementary School

(26)

chanters became teachers to teacher-participants from different schools. The seminar became a venue for the identification of point teachers for the program.

Legislative intervention. The provincial government of Ifugao issued Executive Order 003, s.2004 which stipulated that teaching of the ‘hudhud’ be integrated in Music, Arts, Physical Education and Health (MAPEH). The order was used by DepEd –Ifugao in communication with the different schools.

Production of teaching materials. Teaching guides were produced by DepEd- Ifugao through a writeshop among selected teachers. Blurt website (2010) said that a teacher is nothing without something to teach; that something comes from a subject matter with a background. This teaching matter comes from resources that create the bulk of understanding surrounding the particular subject. Therefore, a teacher is helped greatly by the resources that back them up.

Elders as teachers. Elders were invited and became teachers for the program.

They taught teachers on how to chant the ‘hudhud’ in seminars. Even teachers like one of the key informant Mrs. Tugunen ask the elders assistance on the chant.

Other interventions. ‘Hudhud’ competitions were organized to encourage schools to participate. Different techniques on teaching ‘hudhud’ were developed.

Ideas Generated from HSLT Implementation

To identify points for improvement on how the program is being implemented, this section presents ideas that were generated from the implementation of the program.

Without ideas, no progress occurs, change does not happen and much of human development will stop (University Blog, 2010).

(27)

Annual’ hudhud’ competition. The provincial government of Ifugao and Dep-Ed Ifugao came up with annual ‘hudhud’ competitions involving the whole province. Cash prizes and perpetual awards for the best ‘hudhud’ chanters were given. These competitions motivated the different schools to participate. Even in local festivals, there were ‘hudhud’ competitions that were organized. According to the student-respondents, these competitions give them the chance to sing the ‘hudhud’. The competition is composed of two categories, the children and adult category.

Innovative teaching techniques. As for the point teachers they were able to formulate different techniques in teaching the ‘hudhud’.

Fatima Tugunen saw the need to raise the interest of students first. As a prelude, she told the story of the chant first. Then she translated the stories in English, had them printed and compiled. The compilation contains the lyrics of the chant, the story and some visual representation of the story. It contains 23 episodes of the chant and ten stories. Then after that she taught the ‘hudhud’ to the students slowly. “Parang nagtuturo ka lang ng reading so kailangan mong ituro ang proper articulation of words,”

Tugunen said. This means that it is like you are teaching reading so you need to teach the proper articulation of words.

As for Ellenora Aliguyon, she recorded the ‘hudhud’ done by the elders using tape recorder and let the students listen to it. She also she gave printed materials of the

‘hudhud’ to students for them to be able to follow the recorded chant.

‘Hudhud Club.’ Tugunen organized the ‘Hudhud’ Club in Tungngod Elementary School with students, teachers and elders as members. This was expected to strengthen the teaching of ‘hudhud’ because the members get more time to practice

(28)

outside their MAPEH subjects. They also get more guidance from the elders who are also members of the club

Real life ‘hudhud’ chanting. Among the students, their initiative to chant the

‘hudhud’ during occasions was developed. Tugunen said that the students would go to her saying “im-me ami nun ‘‘hudhud’’ hidin awadan di nate” which means that the students attended a burial and chanted the ‘hudhud’ there.

Communication Materials Produced by HSLT

HSLT produced communication materials in order to strengthen the program.

This is recognizing that teaching materials can support student learning and increase student success (Right, 2012). Without information materials, the whole teaching process could be very boring.

Audio visual materials. CD’s and Videos about ‘hudhud’ chants were produced to help the students and even the teachers follow proper articulation and pronunciation of words. Furthermore, they serve as guide for the correct melody and rhythm of the chant.

Books. HSLT produced two books Pumbakhayon: An Origin Myth of the Ifugao and Halikpon: A Retelling of an Ancient Ifugao Chant. These books were reproduced into 400 sets and were distributed to the schools. A compilation of stories with illustrations together with the chant lyrics were also produced and reproduced by Fatima Tugunen (Figures 2 to 4).

(29)

Figure 2. Samples 1 of the story translated by Mrs. Tugunen

(30)

Figure 3. Sample 2 of the translated story of Mrs. Tugunen

(31)

Figure 4. Continuation of the sample 2

(32)

Challenges Faced by HSLT

Lack of resources. The major problem the program encountered was the scarcity of both human and material resources. Material resources include funds that make the program possible. For point teachers, problems like not enough money to use for expenses like fare and others are common. This lack of resource was highlighted when point teachers voiced out that there should be honorarium for their services. The importance of funds is highlighted in the statement, “Fund is a fuel of an organization or any kind of business” (Francis, 2009).

As for the human resource, HSLT do not have elders who are expert in chanting the ‘hudhud’. There is a lack of point teachers and other organizations that support the program. The teachers’ ability to chant the hudhud’ was also a pressing problem. Very few among them could do the chant.

Raising the interest of the students on the ‘hudhud’ became also a problem for the teachers.

Time constraint. The stakeholders of the HSLT are not only focused on the program because they have their own responsibilities in their work so sometimes conflict with their schedules arises.

Organizational Strategies Applied by HSLT in Analyzing and Solving Problems

Challenges or problems will always be part of an organization. But understanding organization challenges is the heart of successful strategic plans as mentioned in The Promoting Leadership cite. Furthermore, it mentioned that the clarity of challenges enables an organization to assess probability of achieving goals, and formulating plans to

(33)

remove the road blocks on the way and identifying latent opportunities in the challenges.

It also mentioned that challenges are hidden opportunities and strategic plans.

Planning. The key informant of the study said that in order to address these problems they need to make plans. When they were planning they were able to anticipate some problems they would be encountering in the future.

What they did to analyze problems was to conduct meetings and ask the people involved to raise suggestions and comments about the problems. Possible solutions and options they would undertake were listed down.

“It’s a matter of advocacy,” Lunag said. “You need to encourage the people in the community to accept the change you want for the benefit of everybody in order to gain their support,” she added. So to achieve their advocacy to let the community accept HSLT, they involved local officials; teachers and parents who would help them introduce the program in the community.

Looking for sponsorship. To address the problem on lack of funds, Lunag, asked the NCCA for support. They also involved different people in the locality who could help them in their endeavor like provincial officials, barangay officials and the people in the community. Reproduction of teaching materials on the ‘hudhud’ got the most of the budget.

Teachers’ initiatives. The point teachers were able to devise solutions with the help of their respective schools. In raising the interest of students in the ‘hudhud’, the point teachers were able to device different techniques in teaching the ‘hudhud chant to the students like creating story books, recording the chant etc.

(34)

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

This study specifically aimed to characterize the people involved in the HSLT;

describe the procedures that have been applied in the HSLT; identify ideas generated from the implementation of HSLT; determine the communication devices or materials used in the HSLT; determine the challenges faced by the HSLT; and to describe the organizational strategy that was used in analyzing problems and in managing solutions to problems in the HSLT.

Key informant interviews were done using a recorder and a digital camera for full documentation. The survey among the students were done using interview schedule.

HSLT is an EdComm strategy applied by Ifugao province to arrest the growing problem of the deterioration of ‘hudhud’. The key players of HSLT were the people of the locality. Different ideas were generated by the people involved like ‘hudhud’

competitions, creation of different techniques in teaching the ‘hudhud’ and the creation of

‘hudhud’ club. It also produced communication materials that will aid in the learning of

‘hudhud’ chants like compilation of translated stories, teaching guides, creation of videos and CDs and books.

The challenges the program encountered were on the scarcity of both human and material resources. In order to solve the problems, project implementers discussed things in a meeting with the different stakeholders of HSLT. Networking with other agencies was also explored.

(35)

Conclusions

Based on the findings, the following conclusions were derived:

1. Community people who are differently situated can contribute to the common cause of cultural conservation in different capacities.

2. The encouraging output of the HSLT may be attributed to the processes put in place for the implementation of the program.

3. A development opportunity like the HSLT can generate helpful ideas from the people involved.

4. Communication materials in printed form are important in the transmission of indigenous knowledge even if this had traditionally been transmitted through oral communication.

5. Challenges will more likely be analyzed and solved if an organization undertakes proper planning.

Recommendations

The study recommends that:

1. there must be an extensive evaluation of the program for further improvement;

2. local Ifugao languages be used in documenting the story of ‘hudhud’ for preservation purposes;

3. more development initiatives using educational communication be implemented to generate people participation and ideas in cultural conservation.

(36)

LITERATURE CITED

AWAS, F. Y. 2010. Staged Bendian as a Medium of Community Dialogue and Action for Development and Cultural Integrity in Contemporary Kabayan, Benguet, Philippines. MS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 23 & 24.

BAWAS, J. S. 2008. Communication Strategy Used by Rural Health Unit in Bakkun, Benguet. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 7.

BISIN, A. and T. VIERDIER. 2010. The Economics of Cultural Transmission and Socialization. Retrieved December 10, 2011 fromhttp://www.econ.nyu.edu/user/

Bisina/BV%20Survey8%20corrected.pdf

BLURT WEBSITE. 2010. What is Importance of Resource in Teaching? Retrieved February 8, 2012 from http://www.blurtit.com/q6441880.html

CADIZ, M. C. 2003. Educational Communication for Development, Basic Concepts, Theories and Know-how, Revised Edition. Laguna, Philippines: Information and Communication Services.Pp. 2-4.

CAYAT, M. K. 2009. Communication Strategies Used by Laboratory School Teachers at the University of Cordillera, Baguio City.MS Thesis, BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 1 & 6.

CORPUZ, V.T. 1999. Looking Indigenous Peoples Eyes: Indigenous Perspective: A monthly of the Tebtebba Foundation. Vol.11 (No. 1): Pp. 86-87.

DE LEON, F. M. 2011. Intangible Culture. Retrieved December 8, 2011 from http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/culture-profile/intangible-heritage/

culture-profile-intangible-safeguard.php

DECHAVEZ, A. 2009. Philippine Literature: Philippine Epics: Introduction, Review, Story, Summary of ‘Hudhud,’ a Philippine Epic Story of the Ifugao Province, Cordillera. Retrieved November 5, 2011 from http://socyberty.com/folklore/

hudhud-war-epic-of- ifugao/#ixzztdS7QYsbl

DULAWAN, M. n. d. Indigenous People Keepers of the Past.Retrieved December 11, 2011 from http://library.thinkquest.org/C003235/ifugao.html)

DUMIA, M. A. 1979. The Ifugao World. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publisher P.1.

FRANCIS, K. A. 2008. The Imporatance of Funding. Retrieved February 12, 2012 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/importance-funding-business-59.html

INGLEHART, R. and C.WELZEL. 2005. Modernization, Cultural Change and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. October 7, 2011 from

(37)

http://www.google.com/books?hl=tl&lr=&id=O4APtKh7JqQC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7 &dq=impact+of+modernization+to+human+behavior&ots=UfT76TWZXy&sig=

RyGTLO508qOUEEYvfLinTTuktXA#v=onepage&q=impact%20of%20 modernization %20to%20human%20behavior&f=false

IPR ACT NO. 8371. 1997. Chan Robles Virtual Law Library. Retrieved December 8, 2011 from http://www.chanrobles.com/republicactno8371.htm

MAGUEN, R. K. 2005. Integrating of the Indigenous Knowledge and Practice in the Courses of Mountain Province State Polytechnic College. PhD Thesis, BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 8.

NCCA-IHC. n. d. Intangible Heritage. Retrieved December 2, 2011 from http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/culture-profile/intangible-

heritage/culture-profile-intangible-safeguard.php

PALCON, E. and C. SANDOVAL. 2011. The Hudhud Legacy: Taking Care of the Masterpiece. DepEd-Prime News l. P. 1.

PORTUANDO, M. W. 2002. Principles for Culturally Responsive Teaching. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://www.lad.brown.edu/

RAFI. 1999. Indigenous Peoples: The Key to Biodiversity. Indigenous Perspectives: A Journal of the Tebtebba Foundation Inc. Vol.11 (No.1): P. 13.

RIGHT, J. 2009. The Importance of Learning Materials in Teaching. Retrieved February 8, 2012 from rhttp://www.ehow.com/about_6628852_importance-learning- materials-teaching.html

ROVILLOS, R. 1999. Indigenous People in the Web of Life. Indigenous Perspective: A Journal of the Tebtebba Foundation.Vol.11 (No. 1): P. 1.

SIANGHIO, C. n. d. Ifugao. Retrieved December 8, 2011 from http://literalno.4tripod.

com/ifugaoframe.html

SIL INTERNATIONAL. 1999. The Role of Socialization and Learning in Cultural Transmission Between Generations. Retrieved December 3, 2011 from http://i08.cgpublisher.com/proposals/704/index_html

STANYUKOVICH, M. V. 2006. Ifugao Hudhud in the Philippines. Retrieved November 29, 2011 from http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Linguistic Papers/2007/pyer- pereira_tiana.psf

THE PHILIPPINE PROFILE. 2009. People, Arts and Culture. Retrieved August 8, 2011 from http://www.oocities.org/lppsec/pp/ifugao.htm

(38)

THE PROMOTING LEADERSHIP WEBSITE. 2010. Identifying and Understanding Organizational Challenges. Retrieved February 8, 2012 from http://www. alagse.

com/strategy/s12.php

UNFPA. 1999. The Essentials of IEC. Reproductive Health in refugee Situations: An Interagency Field Manual. Retrieved November 28, 2011 from http://www.unfa.org.emergency/manul/elhtm

YIM, D. n. d. Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage and Living Human Treasure in Korea: Experiences and Challenges. Retrieved December 12, 2011 from http://www.tabunken.go.jp/geino/pdf/sympo/07Session2-1Yim.pdf

(39)

APPENDIX

APPENDIX 1: GUIDE QUESTIONS FOR THE KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS PROFILE OF THE KEY INFORMANT

Name: ________________________________________

Sex: ______Male ______Female Age: _______

Position in the community: _________________

Role in the HSLT: ________________________

QUESTIONS:

1. How did you get involved with the HSLT?

2. Who are the others involved in the HSLT? What are their respective roles?

3. What can you say about the HSLT in terms of:

A. significance to cultural protection and conservation B. acceptability among the community people

4. What are the objectives of the HSLT?

5. How was the HSLT established in terms of:

A. who initiated it

B. its introduction to the community 6. What were the steps followed by the HSLT in

A. Identifying the ‘hudhud’ experts B. Asking the ‘hudhud’ experts to teach C. Identifying the students

(40)

7. How did you come up with an idea in integrating the teaching of ‘hudhud’ to the school curricula?

8. What teaching materials were developed by HSLT? How were these developed?

9. What materials were produced to raise the awareness, understanding and appreciation of the ‘hudhud’ by people?

10. What are the major problems you have encountered during the planning stage?

A. How did you manage the problem?

11. When you were planning did you ever thought of the possible problem you may encounter in the future?

Yes ________ No __________

A. If yes, what are those possible problems you have thought?

a. Among those mentioned problems what did you encounter now that you have been implementing HSLT for few years already? How did you manage those problems?

b. What are the problems you have encountered during the

implementation that you have not thought during the planning stage?

How did you manage those problems?

B. If no, what are the problems that arise during the implementation of the HSLT? How did you manage it?

12. What problems have you encountered in the HSLT? How did you address them?

13. What lessons have you learned from the implementation of the program?

14. Which of the expenses in running the HSLT got the most budget?

(41)

APPENDIX 2: GUIDE QUESTIONS FOR THE KEY INFORMANT (TEACHER) PROFILE OF THE KEY INFORMANT (Teacher)

Name: ________________________________________

Sex: ______Male ______Female Age: _______

Position in the community: _________________

Role in the HSLT: ________________________

QUESTIONS:

1. How did you get involved with the HSLT?

2. How did you learn to chant ‘hudhud’?

3. What is the importance of integrating the ‘hudhud’ to school curricula?

4. What are your experiences in teaching ‘hudhud’?

5. What are the problems you have encountered in teaching ‘hudhud’?

6. How did you address this problem?

7. What are your techniques in teaching ‘hudhud’?

8. After teaching ‘hudhud’, were there any changes in the behavior of the students towards ‘hudhud’ and to Ifugao culture?

(42)

APPENDIX 3: INTERVIEW SCHEDULE

PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS (STUDENTS) Name: ________________________________________

Sex: ______Male ______Female Age: _______

Grade Level: ________

QUESTIONS:

1. Did your parents’ friends or any relative taught you on how to chant ‘hudhud’?

Yes________ No________

• If yes, when did they teach you?

How did they teach you?

• If no, where did you learn how to chant ‘hudhud’?

2. Do you agree that they teach ‘hudhud’ inside the classroom?

Yes _______ No______

• If yes, why? ______________________

• If no, why not? _____________________

3. When do you usually chant the ‘hudhud’?

4. Do you enjoy chanting ‘hudhud’?

Yes __________ No __________

• If yes, why? _________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

• If no, why are you chanting ‘hudhud’?

___________________________________________________________

(43)

5. What did you do after learning ‘hudhud’? (Please Check your answers) ___________ I appreciated ‘hudhud’ after learning it?

___________ I appreciated Ifugao culture more than before

___________ I teach my classmates, friends and family members on how to chant ‘hudhud’

6. Do you understand the message of ‘hudhud’chants?

Yes __________ No ________

• If yes, what does the ‘hudhud’ tells us?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

• If no, why can’t you understand?

____________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________

       

(44)

APPENDIX 4: COMMUNICATION LETTERS AND CONSENT FORM

Republic of the Philippines BENGUET STATE UNIVERSITY La Trinidad, Benguet College of Agriculture DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION

   

GOALS and OBJECTIVES  The Department exists to: 

1. Provide instruction for the acquisition of relevant knowledge and skills essential to development communication work;

2. Provide training ground for development

communicators who will uphold the ideals and standards of instruction, research and extension in the fields of development journalism, community broadcasting and educational communication;

3. Create innovative alternative communication strategies and opportunities that shall draw the full potentials of learners and practitioners of print, radio, and television.

4. To conduct researches or field studies; and 5. To formulate and

implement extension and development programs.

Office Address: 

2nd floor, College of 

Agriculture Complex, Benguet  State University, La Trinidad,  Benguet 

Email Address: 

devcombsu@yahoo.com.ph 

January 27, 2012

JACQUELINE C. LUNAG MES-1, MAPEH

Office of the PEHM Supervisor

Ms. Lunag:

Greetings!

I am a 4th year College student of Benguet State University, taking up Bachelor of Science in Development Communication major in Educational Communication. At present, I am conducting my research titled

“Hudhud Schools for Living Traditions (HSLT): An Educational Communication Strategy for Indigenous Knowledge Conservation”. This entails conducting interviews to DepEd Staff and proponents of Hudhud Schools for Living Traditions (HSLT) in order to gather information that will answer the objectives of the research.

In this regard may I request your good office the permission to conduct interviews for my research?

Thank you very much and your positive response to this request is highly anticipated. Rest assured that the data to be gathered will be used for academic research purposes only.

Respectfully yours,

ANNA LIZA A. PINDOG Researcher

Recommending Approval:

MARIA LUZ D. FANG-ASAN Adviser

ANNA LIZA B. WAKAT Department Chair

(45)

Republic of the Philippines BENGUET STATE UNIVERSITY La Trinidad, Benguet College of Agriculture DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION

   

Benguet State University DEPART

GOALS and OBJECTIVES  The Department exists to: 

6. Provide instruction for the acquisition of relevant knowledge and skills essential to development communication work;

7. Provide training ground for development

communicators who will uphold the ideals and standards of instruction, research and extension in the fields of development journalism, community broadcasting and educational communication;

8. Create innovative alternative communication strategies and opportunities that shall draw the full potentials of learners and practitioners of print, radio, and television.

9. To conduct researches or field studies; and 10. To formulate and

implement extension and development programs.

Office Address: 

2nd floor, College of 

Agriculture Complex, Benguet  State University, La Trinidad,  Benguet 

Email Address: 

devcombsu@yahoo.com.ph 

January 27, 2012

ERNESTO L. PUGONG Principal

Tunggod Elementary School Lagawe, Ifugao

Sir Pugong:

Greetings!

I am a 4th year College student of Benguet State University, taking up Bachelor of Science in Development Communication major in Educational Communication. At present, I am conducting my research titled

“Hudhud Schools for Living Traditions (HSLT): An Educational Communication Strategy for Indigenous Knowledge Conservation”. This entails conducting interviews to DepEd Staff and proponents of Hudhud Schools for Living Traditions (HSLT) in order to gather information that will answer the objectives of the research.

In this regard may I request your good office the permission to conduct an interview to Ms. Fatima Tugunen and to some of the students for my research?

Thank you very much and your positive response to this request is highly anticipated. Rest assured that the data to be gathered will be used for academic research purposes only.

Respectfully yours,

ANNA LIZA A. PINDOG Researcher

Recommending Approval:

   

MARIA LUZ D. FANG-ASAN Adviser

ANNA LIZA B. WAKAT Department Chair

 

(46)

DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNCIATION College of Agriculture

CONSENT FORM

PROJECT TITLE: HUDHUD SCHOOLS FOR LIVING TRADITIONS (HSLT): AN EDUCATIONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE CONSERVATION.

RESEARCHER: ANNA LIZA A. PINDOG

I have read and understood the information in the Explanatory Statement and had been given the opportunity to consider the opportunity to consider and ask questions to the information regarding the involvement in this study. I have spoken directly to my investigator who has answered to my satisfaction all my questions. I have received a copy of the Explanatory Statement and Informed Consent Form. I voluntary agree to participate.

Participant’s Signature

______________________ _________________________ Date: _____________

Name of Participant Signature of the Participant Witness or Legal Guardian’s Signature:

(Only when participant cannot read or sign this Informed Consent)

______________________ _________________________ Date: _____________

Name of Witness/ Signature of Witness/

Legal Guardian Legal Guardian, Investigator’s Signature:

I, the undersigned, certify that to the best of my knowledge, the participant signing this consent form has read the information in the Explanatory Statement fully, that this has been carefully explained to him/ her, and that he/she clearly understands the nature, risks, and benefits of his/

her participation in this study.

______________________ _________________________ Date: _____________

Name of Researcher Signature of Researcher

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

More specifically, this study aims to find answers to the following: 1 to determine the key challenges that Hospitality and Tourism Educators currently facing in this time of global

ABSTRACT This study was conducted to identify the assistance provided by CDA-JICA in Taba-ao- Cuba Multipurpose Cooperative, identify the impact of these assistances on the