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Academic year: 2023



Buong text

During the yellow fever epidemic in Angola in 2016, cases of yellow fever were reported for the first time in China. We describe the 11 cases of imported yellow fever in China, most of which were detected within two weeks of the peak of the outbreak in Angola in 2016. For the imported yellow fever cases, new surveillance of mosquito-borne vectors was also performed.

The proof of vaccination against yellow fever is now valid for the life of the vaccinated person.17. An estimated half a million doses of the vaccine would be needed annually to cover the Chinese population traveling to yellow fever endemic countries. Late or lack of vaccination related to importation of yellow fever from Angola to China.

Fig. 2.  Transmission chain of the HKIA outbreak  (n = 32)
Fig. 2. Transmission chain of the HKIA outbreak (n = 32)


The regional EBS system provides information and data with which to perform the risk assessment, which is then used to make decisions about WHO's response to public health events in accordance with the WHO emergency preparedness framework.7 Key preparedness actions at the regional level may include ongoing monitoring of the event; provide technical support; or the deployment of human, material or financial resources, or a combination of these, to affected countries and territories. The EBS database serves as a repository of events with public health implications for the Western Pacific region. A retrospective descriptive analysis of events in the Western Pacific EBS database was conducted for the period July 2008 to June 2017.

Number (%) of events recorded in the WHO event-based surveillance database in the Western Pacific region by year, 2008 to 2017a. all types) and other arrangementsc.

Fig 2.  WHO’s Western Pacific Region algorithm for initial public health risk assessments
Fig 2. WHO’s Western Pacific Region algorithm for initial public health risk assessments


There was an increasing trend in the percentage of events that were identified by official sources of information until a subsequent decrease during Fig. 4). Based on data from these events, member states responded without WHO support (although WHO monitored and evaluated the events). Sixty-five (30%) were supported by WHO country offices, and 22 (10%) were supported either by WHO country, regional and central offices or by the regional office if there was no country office.

With the adoption of an all-hazards approach within the WHE programme, there has been increased effort to monitor small-scale disasters in the region, which may be due to the increasing trend seen in such events within the base of data. The number of animal outbreaks is underestimated because during previous years of data collection, only avian influenza A(H5N1) events were recorded. APSED III, a revision of APSED (2015), was published in 2017 and aims to further strengthen surveillance to support Member States in the Western Pacific Region.6 The availability of new and innovative technologies for data management provides opportunities to improve surveillance systems, both by simplifying current processes for data management and providing improved functionality for analysis and reporting.

To ensure that the regional surveillance system meets the needs of Member States, partners and internal stakeholders within the WHO, especially those in country offices, we recommend continuous evaluation and monitoring of the system.


Objective: The study aimed to determine factors influencing vaccine hesitancy among parents and caregivers of children 2 years of age and older in selected urban communities in Manila, Philippines. Methodology: The study used a cross-sectional study design with a modified questionnaire adapted from the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. The majority of respondents (95.5%) believed that vaccines are protective, however the rate of vaccine hesitancy among respondents reached 36.4%.

Respondents who believed in the protective nature of vaccines were less likely to report vaccine hesitancy and were nine times less likely to refuse vaccination for their children because of negative media exposure. The main reasons identified for vaccine hesitancy were exposure to negative media information and concerns about vaccine safety. The role of mass media in vaccine hesitancy was highlighted in this study, supporting previous evidence that vaccine hesitancy parents tend to be more receptive to media messages.

The lack of association between sociodemographic factors and vaccine hesitancy implies that the determinants of vaccine hesitancy may vary greatly depending on the context and environment. The study sites were two small and highly urbanized barangays (smallest administrative divisions) located in the district of San Miguel in Manila, Philippines. Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. College Station, TX) Categorical variables were summarized using frequencies and percentages; χ2 analyzes with post-hoc Phi coefficient tests were used to determine correlations with and between factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and refusal.

The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with vaccine hesitancy in urban communities in Manila, Philippines. We developed a survey that was adapted from previous research on vaccine hesitancy.15 The revised questionnaire contained 10 key closed-ended questions to assess vaccine hesitancy.

Fig. 1.  Summary of survey responses of parents or caregivers of children 2 years old or younger in two baran- baran-gays in Manila, Philippines (n = 100)
Fig. 1. Summary of survey responses of parents or caregivers of children 2 years old or younger in two baran- baran-gays in Manila, Philippines (n = 100)


Many reasons have been identified as potential sources of vaccine hesitancy, and beliefs and attitudes toward vaccine efficacy and safety are among them.14,15 One study reported that vaccine hesitancy was found to be low among parents who perceived vaccination as important.19 This is consistent with the results of our study which showed that respondents who believe in the protective nature of vaccines were less likely to have hesitated or refused to vaccinate their child. There were no significant associations between vaccine hesitancy and demographic data (respondent's age, gender, educational attainment, religion, income category, and respondent's relationship with the child). This study identified the presence of vaccine hesitancy in about one-third of respondents from two highly urbanized communities in Manila, Philippines.

The results of this study suggest that vaccine hesitancy could be addressed through a community multi-stakeholder approach. In a previous study, they were found to be the most influential individuals addressing vaccine hesitancy. The results of our study suggest that vaccine hesitancy is a problem for parents and caregivers of children aged 2 years and younger, regardless of age, gender, education level, religion, income class or relationship to the children.

One study suggested that caregivers' educational levels and religious beliefs may influence hesitancy to vaccinate; however, we did not find this in our research. Because the determinants of vaccine hesitancy can be very varied, it is advised by the experts to contextualize the determinants in each setting (rather than general assumptions) before interventions can be devised.12. The targeted nature of the study site and the facile sampling method in selecting respondents limits the generalizability of the study to comparable study locations (i.e. small, highly urbanized communities); however, literature suggests that different communities have different determinants of vaccine hesitancy.

Overview of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, vaccine hesitancy, and vaccine acceptance among mothers of infants in Quebec, Canada. Larson HJ, Jarrett C, Schulz WS, Chaudhuri M, Zhou Y, Dube E, et al.; SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy.


We also obtained mean daily outpatient attendance for chickenpox (varicella) as chickenpox is a possible cause of fever or upper respiratory symptoms in the early stages of infection. One of these time series, a parametric component of the model, should reflect the changing prevalence of influenza in the population over time. In the initial model with all available independent variables, weekly occurrences of laboratory-confirmed influenza infections and dengue fever, and of physician-diagnosed chickenpox, were statistically significantly associated with weekly rates of acute URTI outpatient attendance.

In the revised model, chickenpox, influenza and dengue remained statistically significantly associated with the number of acute URTI outpatient attendances. Estimates of hospitalization attributable to influenza and RSV in the United States by age and risk status. Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem, with 10 million people newly diagnosed with the disease and 1.2 million deaths from it in 2018.1 The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the End TB Strategy in 2014 with three main goals to be achieved by 2035: a 90 % reduction in TB incidence compared to 2015, a 95% reduction in TB deaths compared to 2015, and no affected families facing catastrophic financial loss as a result of TB.2 Early detection of cases is one of the key components in this strategy, not only to allow for early diagnosis and treatment and thus better treatment results for the patients, but also to end the chain of infection.3 Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that delays on the part of the patient and the health system have continued to be unacceptably high, where factors such as unemployment and poverty play a major role in influencing a delay in diagnosis.4,5.

The trends in the share of the delay categories have also been calculated for each country of birth. Factors related to patient and health care system delay in diagnosing tuberculosis in France. Patient and health care providers delay diagnosis of tuberculosis in southern Thailand after health care reform.

Patient delay in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in China: findings from case-finding projects. Patient and healthcare system delays in initiation of tuberculosis treatment in Norway. Rubella is a typically mild infectious disease caused by the rubella virus.1 However, when a pregnant woman is infected with rubella virus, fetal death or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur.1 The number of rubella and CRS cases is reduced in many countries due to rubella vaccinations.2 To prevent the occurrence of CRS, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011–.

The latest outbreak involved more than 17,000 cases of rubella and 45 cases of CRS.4 From 2013 to mid-2018, only sporadic or imported cases of rubella were reported in Japan.4,5 However, an increase in rubella cases was observed between July and August 2018 in the southern Kanto region (Chiba, Kanagawa and Tokyo prefectures), and subsequently epidemics were reported in regions of Japan. as a notifiable disease in Japan.6 Cases of rubella and three cases of CRS were reported during the first half.7 The characteristics of rubella epidemics in Osaka Prefecture are described in this text.

Table 1.  Descriptive statistics of variables considered
Table 1. Descriptive statistics of variables considered



Fig. 2.  Transmission chain of the HKIA outbreak  (n = 32)
Table 1.  Demographic characteristics of imported cases of yellow fever
Fig 1.  WHO’s Western Pacific Region event-based surveillance, risk assessment and response system
Fig 2.  WHO’s Western Pacific Region algorithm for initial public health risk assessments

Mga Sanggunian


In 1958, he and his colleagues Dioscoro Rabor, his former professor and former fellow student Abner Bucol Silliman University Angelo King Center for Research & Environmental

Age and sex distribution of cases by group, hospitalization and death 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 10-Mar 12-Mar 14-Mar 16-Mar 18-Mar 20-Mar 22-Mar 24-Mar 26-Mar 28-Mar 30-Mar 01-Apr 03-Apr