• Walang Nahanap Na Mga Resulta

IN THIS ISSUE

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2023

Share "IN THIS ISSUE"

Copied!
40
0
0

Buong text

This study aims to determine whether the death rates for drowning in the Philippine Health Statistics (PHS) reports from 1980 to 2011 were underestimated. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted to describe the trend of drowning deaths in the Philippines from official and unofficial sources during the period 1980 to 2011. Passive surveillance and irregular data management contribute to underestimation of drowning in the Philippines.

This study aims to provide a more comprehensive documentation of drowning deaths in the Philippines from 1980 to 2011. A descriptive retrospective study was conducted to describe the number and trend of drowning deaths in the Philippines from official and unofficial sources from 1980 to 2011. In the future, consolidating the aforementioned drowning-related codes into a single category would facilitate evaluation.

Special mention goes to the entire administrative staff of the Office of the WHO Representative in the Philippines for their support to the authors. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive study in 11 sentinel sites in Vanuatu conducting syndromic surveillance between July and December 2015. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive study in 11 sentinel sites in Vanuatu conducting syndromic surveillance between July and December 2015 to determine the number of weekly consultations and.

If sentries observe an unusual increase in the number of cases with a nuclear syndrome, this is reported to the central unit within 24 hours and the central unit then recommends an investigation.

Figure 1.  Combined number of drowning and other water-related deaths, Philippines, 1980 – 2011
Figure 1. Combined number of drowning and other water-related deaths, Philippines, 1980 – 2011

DISCUSSION

RESULTS

Details of health presentations that did and did not result in measles transmission were also analyzed. The changing epidemiology of measles in an era of eradication: lessons from facility-based transmission of measles during an outbreak in New South Wales, Australia, 2012. In countries where measles is rare, facility-based transmission has been an important contributor to outbreaks8,9 and a challenge to containment measles elimination status.

A secondary case was defined as a previously uninfected person who was infected by a source case in a healthcare facility. Secondary cases were only classified as infected in a healthcare setting if there was no other more likely source of transmission (e.g. household). Characteristics of the cases from the source of measles and cases that presented to a healthcare facility and did not transmit disease were compared.

Characteristics of individual health presentations were described to compare health presentations that led to transmission events and those that did not. Overlap times in health facilities for presentations resulting in transmission with the presentation times of their subsequent secondary cases were estimated by calculating the difference in minutes between recorded arrival and discharge times. The 2010 NSW Public Health Act requires all measles cases to be reported to local public health units by doctors and laboratories.13 Health care transmission of measles in NSW was well documented in the 2012 Australian outbreak.

A descriptive routine database study was performed to compare characteristics of the measles cases that met the definition of a source case and cases that occurred at a health care facility and did not transmit disease. Data collected included age, gender, ethnicity and/or country of origin, second language, number of health care presentations prior to diagnosis, and vaccination status. Health care provision did not result in measles transmission/s Health care provision resulted in measles transmission/s.

A significantly higher proportion of source cases were of Pacific Island origin compared to cases that did not lead to healthcare-acquired transmission (50.0% vs. 19.6%, p = 0.009). Demographics of total outbreak measles cases presenting to healthcare facilities and total healthcare-acquired measles cases, NSW, Australia, 2012. Demographics of measles cases presenting to healthcare facilities resulting in transmission ( source cases) versus no transmission , NSW, Australia, 2012.

Information from healthcare presentations that resulted in measles transmission versus no transmission, NSW, Australia, 2012. As more countries make progress towards elimination of measles, transmission in healthcare facilities is becoming increasingly important as an ongoing obstacle.

Figure 1.  Weekly consultations along with the number of patients with core syndromes of influenza-like illness,  acute watery diarrhoea, acute fever rash and prolonged fever in the 11 sentinel sites, Vanuatu, July to  December 2015
Figure 1. Weekly consultations along with the number of patients with core syndromes of influenza-like illness, acute watery diarrhoea, acute fever rash and prolonged fever in the 11 sentinel sites, Vanuatu, July to December 2015

CONCLUSION

Methods: We performed active surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than 5 years of age before and after vaccine introduction. We examined the hospitalization rates for rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, from 2007 to 2015 and examined the number of outpatient visits to a Tsu City clinic from 2010 to 2015. Conclusion: After the introduction of the vaccine , hospitalization rates and outpatient visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis have declined sharply.

2003 to 2007 in Mie Prefecture, Japan.6 The annual hospitalization rate for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the two cities was estimated to be 3.8 and 4.9 per person, respectively. 1000 person years. Since then, we have conducted active surveillance for rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalization in children under 5 years of age in three cities (Matsusaka City in addition to the two cities mentioned above) in Mie.7 The annual hospitalization rate for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the three cities from 2007 to 2009 was estimated to be 2.8 to 4.7 per 1000 person years. In this study, we report monitored trends in the hospitalization rate and number of outpatient visits due to rotavirus gastroenteritis and prevalent rotavirus genotypes in Tsu City, Mie, Japan before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine.

We performed active surveillance of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age in Tsu, Mie, Japan, before and after vaccine introduction. From November 2007 to October 2015, we investigated the rates of hospitalizations due to rotavirus gastroenteritis in children under 5 years of age. From November 2010 to October 2015, we simultaneously investigated outpatient visits of children under 5 years of age who were diagnosed with rotavirus gastroenteritis in one outpatient clinic in the same city.

We summarized the demographic characteristics of hospitalized cases and outpatient visits for rotavirus gastroenteritis using a standardized abstraction form. We obtained population data from the statistics office in Mie every year on the number of children under 5 years old in the city. Of the 543 children, 44.8% completed the two-dose series of RV1 and 9.6% completed the three-dose Trends in Outpatient Rotavirus Gastroenteritis.

Outpatient visits were surveyed for only one season in the years before vaccination, in which 66 cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were diagnosed. During the 2013–2014 season, a very strong decrease in the number of rotavirus-positive cases was observed (Figure 1b). Ten cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis were reported among vaccinated children, including four hospitalized cases and six outpatients (Table 2).

The average hospitalization rate in the years before vaccination was 4.2 cases per 1000 person-years, which can be compared to. There may have been unmeasured changes during the study period that contributed to the decline in rotavirus gastroenteritis.

Figure 1a. Number of hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis
Figure 1a. Number of hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis

CONCLUSIONS

The authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to Ms. Manami Negoro and Ms. Maiko Kinoshita (National Hospital Organization Mie Hospital) who managed stool samples from the study and organized the Rotavirus Epidemiology Study Group. A retrospective evaluation of hospital admissions for acute gastroenteritis in 2 sentinel hospitals in central Japan to estimate the health burden of rotavirus. Rotavirus-associated acute gastroenteritis hospital admissions in Japanese children <5 years: active rotavirus surveillance in Mie Prefecture, Japan.

Study of the distribution of the gene 4 alleles of human rotaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. As we continue our study at the same site, continuous monitoring of the genotype is important. Second, this study is limited to only one city in Japan and is not nationally representative.

Third, because the rotavirus vaccine is currently optional in Japan, it is difficult to assess appropriate vaccine coverage in an area. Finally, this study is based on surveillance data of rotavirus gastroenteritis and is not a study to assess the causal relationship between vaccination and disease reduction. Diversity of rotavirus strains circulating in northern Brazil after introduction of a rotavirus vaccine: high prevalence of G3P [6] genotype.

Nosocomial surveillance and analysis of genotype variation in Nicaragua following the introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. Ruiz-Palacios GM, Pérez-Schael I, Velázquez FR, Abate H, Breuer T, Clemens SC, et al.; Human Rotavirus Vaccine Study Group. Hospitalizations associated with rotavirus diarrhea in the United States from 1993 to 1995: surveillance based on a new rotavirus-specific ICD-9-CM diagnosis code.

Ichihara MY, Rodrigues LC, Teles Santos CA, Teixeira MG, De Jesus SR, Alvim De Matos SM, et al. Detection and genetic characterization of group A rotavirus strains circulating among children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan.

Pigura

Figure 1.  Combined number of drowning and other water-related deaths, Philippines, 1980 – 2011
Figure 2.  Drowning death rate of the PHS data only and the combined drowning deaths rate*, Philippines,  1980–2011
Table 1.  Core syndromes, case definitions, other important diseases to consider and laboratory actions
Table 2.  Demographic characteristics of patients  presenting with influenza-like illness and  acute watery diarrhoea
+7

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

reported that people with more knowledge and experience are more aware of food safety risks.4 Given that people who are aware of the issue of foodborne diseases may be more motivated to