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Despite continued progress in reducing the burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region, tuberculosis remains a leading cause of death from infectious diseases in the region.1 The burden of tuberculosis ranges widely across the region, from countries where TB has been eliminated as a public health problem for countries with some of the highest burdens of TB globally. The authors wish to thank the national TB programs of the countries of the Western Pacific region who shared their experiences.

Fig. 1A. PEN: penicillin; OXA: oxacillin; VAN: vancomycin.
Fig. 1A. PEN: penicillin; OXA: oxacillin; VAN: vancomycin.

RESULTS

The Philippine genomes clustered into several clades related to, but distinct from, the Southwest Pacific clone, representing a new diversification of this clone (Fig. 3B). In addition, genomes from the Philippines clustered with genomes from Argentina, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States (Fig. 3C), indicating that diversification of the epidemic from the Southwest Pacific clone was accompanied by global spread.

Table 3.  Comparison of genomic predictions of antibiotic resistance with laboratory susceptibility testing at the  ARSP reference laboratory
Table 3. Comparison of genomic predictions of antibiotic resistance with laboratory susceptibility testing at the ARSP reference laboratory

DISCUSSION

Longitudinal genomic surveillance of MRSA in the UK reveals transmission patterns in hospitals and the community. Characterization of the dsDNA prophage sequences in the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and visualization of productive bacteriophage.

Table 4.  Distribution of isolates, STs,  spa  types, resistance profiles and AMR genes and mutations at the 17  sentinel sites
Table 4. Distribution of isolates, STs, spa types, resistance profiles and AMR genes and mutations at the 17 sentinel sites

ACTION

PROBLEM

A steering committee was convened to coordinate the outbreak response and was made up of representatives from the Communicable Disease Control Branch, CHSALHN and the Media and Communications Branch of SA Health; the Aboriginal Health Council of South Australia; and Ceduna Koonibba Aboriginal Health Service. Given a lack of knowledge of meningococcal W carriage rates and the likely extent of population admixture, all Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal persons ≥ 2 months of age were targeted for vaccination (meningococcal ACWY vaccines are not licensed for individuals < 2 months of age) . At the time, Menveo® (GlaxoSmithKline) was the only vaccine registered for use in infants younger than 12 months and was used to vaccinate children from 2 months to < 12 months.

Nimenrix® (Pfizer) was originally intended for use in all subjects ≥ 12 months of age because only one dose is required for all age groups in the absence of medical risk factors. Standing order forms for the administration of Menveo and Nimenrix had to be signed by each participating service.

OUTCOMES

The dosing schedule recommended in the Australian Immunization Handbook for individuals traveling to epidemic areas or mass gatherings9 was used, i.e. a primary vaccination course consisting of one to three doses, depending on the vaccine, the age of the individual and their medical risk factors. Including the contacts of the first two cases, the program reached nearly 3700 people, an estimated 71-85% of the target population (Table 1). During the duration of the vaccination campaign, no cases of IMD or meningococcal conjunctivitis caused by the quadrivalent vaccine serogroups were reported in any of the zip codes targeted by the program.

Overall, between the end of the program in June 2017 and the end of 2018, there were 11 cases of serogroup W meningococcal disease in SA, including two cases in the Ceduna area targeted by the vaccination program: in July 2017, a case was reported in an adult non-Aboriginal man who refused vaccination in Ceduna and whose three household contacts were also not vaccinated. Accurate typing for the first case in the post-vaccination period showed that the strain was of the same type as the two pre-vaccination cases.

DISCUSSION AND LESSONS LEARNT

Given the history of fever, the patient was treated as a suspected case of COVID-19. This study aims to evaluate the use of open-source data from the epidemic observatory, EpiWATCH, to identify the early signs of pneumonia of unknown cause as a proxy for COVID-19 in Indonesia. There were 304 reported cases of pneumonia of unknown cause, including 30 before the identification of the first COVID-19 cases on March 2, 2020.

The largest number of reports (184 entries) was from March 2020, after the official identification of the first cases of COVID-19 in Indonesia. These 211 records correspond to 304 reported cases of pneumonia of unknown cause in Indonesia, of which occurred before the identification of the first cases of COVID-19 on March 2, 2020. The number of reports increased slightly from the end of January (six identified cases) in February 2020 (19 identified cases), six weeks before the official identification of the first two COVID-19 cases in Indonesia.

These cases of pneumonia of unknown cause in Indonesia reported by EpiWATCH have increased since late January 2020, which may reflect the presence of COVID-19 cases in the country prior to the official identification of two cases in early March 2020.

Fig. 1.  Epidemic curve of Chinese New Year restaurant dinner COVID-19 outbreak
Fig. 1. Epidemic curve of Chinese New Year restaurant dinner COVID-19 outbreak

CONCLUSION

Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with ICU admission requiring intubation/mechanical ventilation in cases with COVID-19. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with intubation/mechanical ventilation in cases with COVID-19. In addition to age and underlying hypertension, presenting symptoms of COVID-19 infection also predict a severe outcome.

Characteristics of COVID-19 patients dying in Italy: a report based on available data March 20, 2020. Presentation of characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the New York area.

Table 1.  Socio-demographic characteristics, comorbid- comorbid-ity and clinical presentation of COVID-19-  positive cases in Selangor ( n  = 1287)
Table 1. Socio-demographic characteristics, comorbid- comorbid-ity and clinical presentation of COVID-19- positive cases in Selangor ( n = 1287)

THE PHILIPPINE HEALTH SYSTEM AND THE THREAT OF PUBLIC HEALTH EMER-

EARLY RESPONSE TO COVID-19

The government declared “extended community quarantine” (ECQ) for Metro Manila between March 15 and April 14 (Fig. 2a), which was then extended to the entire island of Luzon (Fig. 2b). The quarantine consisted of: strict home quarantine of all families, physical distancing, suspension of classes and introduction of work from home, closure of public transport and non-essential businesses, ban on mass gatherings and non-essential public events, regulations. of providing food and essential health services, curfews and bans on the sale of alcoholic beverages, and an increased presence of uniformed personnel to enforce quarantine procedures.12 The ECQ—an unprecedented move in the country's history—was modeled after the isolation in Hubei, China, which was reported to have slowed disease transmission.13 Region-wide disease control interventions, such as the quarantine of the entire island of Luzon, were challenging to implement due to their scale and social and economic impacts. economic, but they were deemed necessary to "flatten the curve" so. Provinces placed under extended community quarantine (ECQ). 2a) Government declared ECQ in Metro Manila effective March 15, 2020; (2b) Government declared ECQ throughout the island of Luzon effective March 17, 2020.

Testing is key to containing the pandemic, but has been done on a small scale in the Philippines. Due to limited testing capacity at the start of the pandemic, the Department of Health implemented strict protocols to allocate testing resources while increasing testing capacity.

Fig. 1a.  New cases of COVID-19 in the Philippines, 30 January–21 March 2020
Fig. 1a. New cases of COVID-19 in the Philippines, 30 January–21 March 2020

CONCLUSIONS

Transmissibility and severity of COVID-19 in the first wave in China outside Hubei after control measures and scenario planning in the second wave: an assessment of modeling impact. Isolation, quarantine, social distancing and community containment: the key role of legacy public health measures in the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak. Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding COVID-19 among low-income households in the Philippines: a cross-sectional study.

A State of Emergency (SoE) was declared on 26 March 20202 to strengthen preventive and containment measures in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic (Figure 1). As the global COVID-19 pandemic has affected work and study abroad, many of these have expressed interest in repatriating to Vanuatu.

CONTEXT

1 March First death from covid-19 in the Pacific (Australia) 8 March 100 countries with confirmed cases 11 March WHO designates COVID-19 as a global pandemic 17 March 200 countries with confirmed cases 20 March 10,000 deaths worldwide March 26 First covid-19 death in PICT* (Guam). 4 April 1 million confirmed cases worldwide 157 cases in PICT 12 April 100,000 deaths from COVID-19 worldwide 17 April 2 million confirmed cases worldwide 28/29 April 3 million confirmed cases worldwide 200,000 deaths worldwide. The annual activity report highlights the need to strengthen coordination of health operations between the Ministry of Health and provincial health offices to avoid duplication and undue burden on managers and to ensure joint daily meetings, reporting and preparation of consolidated status reports.

In Phase 1, the Ministry of Health requested pre-travel information from foreign missions about repatriates (eg, age, gender, health problems, health status, and required medication), but little information was provided. The annual activity report recommended that the Ministry of Health develop an electronic system to collect information on repatriated persons 72 hours before travel to enable the Ministry of Health to carry out an epidemiological risk assessment and medical clearance before travel; preparation for quarantine, including pre-assignment to quarantine facilities based on health and medical needs; and systematic registration and tracking of all arriving repatriates.

Fig. 1.  Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, in the Pacific and in Vanuatu and beyond, 31 December  2019 to 30 July 2020
Fig. 1. Timeline of the COVID-19 pandemic globally, in the Pacific and in Vanuatu and beyond, 31 December 2019 to 30 July 2020

ACTIONS

The AAR strongly recommended limiting the number of returning repatriates and those in quarantine to a manageable number, based on the number of staff and availability of quarantine facilities. AAR also stressed the need to strengthen coordination with other agencies involved in repatriation. The AAR recommended that MoH establish clear selection criteria for quarantine facilities and decide which facilities would be suitable for Phase 2.

Problems were found in 42 people upon entry or registration; these include medication requirements (41), pregnancy (14), allergies (30), addiction5 and disability.3 The AAR recommended that pre-existing health conditions or problems, origin of travel and travel history be taken into account when allocating to quarantine facilities. The health operations team also liaised with hotel management on health-related issues; the AAR recommended that this additional role be clearly defined for phase 2.

Table 1.  Purpose and description of health operation activities for Phase 1 of repatriation and quarantine in  Vanuatu, May–July 2020
Table 1. Purpose and description of health operation activities for Phase 1 of repatriation and quarantine in Vanuatu, May–July 2020

ETHICS STATEMENT

The following departments of the Government of Vanuatu are acknowledged for their key support to the repatriation process: National Disaster Management Office; Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation and Foreign Trade; Vanuatu Customs and Inland Revenue;. The following development partners are acknowledged for their technical and financial support: World Health Organization; Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade; New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade; French Embassy in Vanuatu; Van Smolbag; and confused Chaos. The following are acknowledged for their assistance with data entry and other information management: Charity David, Rebecca Iaken, Menie Nakoham, Norah Nombong, Lina Rabty, Sandy Moses Sawan and Edrien Walter.

Medical operations launched in Vanuatu to support government-managed repatriation and quarantine from May to July 2020 were successful. Lessons learned from Phase 1 medical operations were documented during the Annual Activity Report at the end of July 2020.

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies among adults in Los Angeles County, California, on April. Third, in a population with a low incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections, as was the case in Yamagata, false positives are more likely than in a population with a high incidence. This cross-sectional seroepidemiological study in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan, identified low seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, suggesting that the population is highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2.

Further studies with population-based sampling are needed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 in this population over time. Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in Geneva, Switzerland (SEROCoV-POP): a population-based study.

WPS R

Pigura

Fig. 1A. PEN: penicillin; OXA: oxacillin; VAN: vancomycin.
Table 3.  Comparison of genomic predictions of antibiotic resistance with laboratory susceptibility testing at the  ARSP reference laboratory
Table 4.  Distribution of isolates, STs,  spa  types, resistance profiles and AMR genes and mutations at the 17  sentinel sites
Fig. 2.  Genomic surveillance of  S. aureus  from the Philippines, 2013–2014
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Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

Complete Peer review History:http://www.sdiarticle4.com/review-history/56504 Received 26 February 2020 Accepted 03 May 2020 Published 09 May 2020 ABSTRACT Introducing virtual

Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal WPS R Volume 11, Number 4, 2020, Pages 1–45 p-ISSN: 2094-7321 e-ISSN: 2094-7313 COVID-19: Outbreak Investigation Report A