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CALAMA, GRACE L. APRIL 2006. Characterization and Correlation of Characters at Vegetative Stage in Rice Landraces Collected from Benguet Province.

Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Danilo P. Padua, PhD.

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted at Cabanao, La Trinidad, Benguet from January 2005 to June 2005 to characterize the 16 selected rice landraces collected from Benguet Province based on vegetative characters. Correlation analysis was also done in the different vegetative characters measured.

There were 16 rice landraces of Benguet field evaluated namely; Bongkitan, Butalga, Diket, Diset, Kabal, Kintoman, Lalay, Longgot, Makamining, Maximu, Monay, Nawal, Oplan, Red diket, Saba and Walay. The landraces were characterized before the seeds were sown and differences in grain characters were observed.

Significant differences were observed in number of days from transplanting to tillering, leaf angle, leaf area, initial height, height at 130 DAT, stem diameter, and number of tillers per hill. Leaf length and number of nodes per plant showed significant differences among the landraces.

In the correlation analysis, there was significant positive correlation between number of days from transplanting to tillering and number of tillers, leaf length, leaf area and height at 130 DAT, stem diameter and number of nodes. However, negative

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diameter. The findings revealed that almost all the characters are correlated, thus, such characters could be used as selection indices during the vegetative stage of rice landraces.

 

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Page

Bibliography. . . i

Abstract . . . . . . i

Table of Contents . . . iii

INTRODUCTION . . . 1

REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . 4

MATERIALS AND METHODS . . . 8

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . 14

Meteorological Data . . . . . . 14

Grain Characteristics . . . . . . 15

Number of Days From Transplanting to Tillering . . . . . . 17

Leaf Characters . . . . . . . 18

Other Leaf Characters . . . . . . 20

Plant Height . . . . . . . . . 22

Number of Nodes per Plant . . . . . . 23

Stem Diameter and Stem Strength . . . . . . 24

Internode Color . . . . . . . 25

Number of Tillers Per Hill . . . . . . 25

Pest and Disease Incidence . . . . . . 26

Correlation Among Vegetative Characters . . . . . . 27

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Summary . . . . . . 30

Conclusions . . . . . 31

Recommendations . . . . . . 31

LITERATURE CITED . . . 33

APPENDICES . . . . . . . . 36

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a well-known cereal plant cultivated in warm and cool areas. It provides 25 - 80% calories of the daily diet of over 2.7 billion people and a good source of protein, minerals and vitamins (White, 1994). It provides employment and income to the largest sector of the rural population in most Asian countries. In the Philippines, rice plays an important role in the stabilization of the Philippine economy.

Filipinos are highly and entirely dependent on rice as their staple food and hence the lifeblood of the nation. It comprises the whole of their diet. Nearly all their agricultural endeavor revolves as well as much of their hope is inclined to it (IRRI, 1971).

Furthermore, rice throughout the country is consumed primarily in plain boiled form and in other various preparations. In areas where rice is the staple food, it is processed in many, varied and often novel products such that it appears in breakfast cereals, soup and baby food and in a wide array of traditional rice products "kakanin"

mostly in the form of snacks or desserts (Bean et al, 1983). In industry, rice hulls are used as insulation materials and ingredient in the liquid chemical furfural. Dried stalks in Asia are used to hatch roofs, weave sandals, baskets and hats (Teason, 1994).

Although many studies had been conducted in research stations to increase rice productions still large number of people face widespread hunger, malnutrition and poverty. Hence, increasing rice production should be of top priority. One way to increase rice production is through the use of High Yielding Varieties (HYV's). However, HYV's potential is achieved by applying more inputs such are fertilizers and pesticides, thus, there is an additional cost with effects to both humans and environment (Dalrymple, 1986). Another way of increasing rice production is expanding the area of cultivation,

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which would require more people to go into rice farming and perhaps mechanization of farm operations. However, vast rice lands had been converted to commercial establishments, residential areas and vegetable gardens, thus could not guarantee food security.

In the search for improving rice production, there is a need to identify potential varieties adaptable to specific conditions like those prevailing in the mountainous and cool areas of Cordillera region. Determining the characteristics of these varieties must be of significance. These characters maybe physiological and agro morphological in nature.

Along this line, the study of traditional rice would be very useful.

Production of traditional rice is slow and decreasing due to the introduction of many high yielding rice varieties. However, here in Benguet and other provinces of the Cordillera region, native rice is still preferred by the people because of its aroma, good eating quality, minimum inputs and management, adaptability to the locality, stable yield and their use in traditional practices. The introduction of modem varieties is a growing disadvantage to the local rice germplasm pool as the traditional rice are fast vanishing.

Before these traditional rices are lost, collection, characterization and stabilization should be done. Characterization is the first step in the evaluation of germplasm collection. It is done to establish the identity of each accession basing on the agro morphological characters of the plant. Standardized descriptions are used so that genetic resources are more accessible to researchers and plant breeders (Borromeo et al., 1994).

The study aimed to characterize selected rice landraces collection from the Province of Benguet and to correlate the vegetative characters measured during the vegetative stage.

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The study was conducted at the Benguet State University experimental field at Cabanao, La Trinidad, Benguet from January 2005 to June 2005.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Importance of Varietal Characterization And Varietal Improvement

Borromeo et al. (1994) stated that characterization is the first step in evaluation of germplasm collection. It is done to establish the identity of each accession basing on the agro morphological characters of the plant.

Ayfa (1998) cited that increased yields have been the ultimate goal of most plant breeders. Sometimes, it is accomplished by providing varieties basically more productive not because of specific improvements but as result of generally greater physiological efficiency.

Urbanes as cited by Salcedo (2002) stated that in low income countries, research managers give priority to genetic improvement of seeds to increase their yield potential.

As economies progresses utmost priority is given to research for improving grain quality;

increasing labor productivity, adding value to rice through post harvest operations and management practices. Additionally, Hirao (1990) reported that national programs have been studying ways to improve quality and shelf life of traditional and new rice products to generate income and employment in the rural areas.

The search for genetic variation is of great importance for rice breeding.

Anonymous (1998) reported narrow genetic base of irrigated and upland rice cultivars. It was observed that 68% of the gene pool of irrigated rice analyzed was derived from only 10 ancestors and maybe even narrower as just 10 ancestors account 78% of the genes in upland rice. Nevertheless, Rangel (1996) suggested some alternatives for achieving a

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broader genetic base for rice breeding and one of them is the use of landraces (natives) in multiple crosses with inbreeds elite lines.

Genetic analysis using molecular markers was conduced in .wild species and landraces of rice. Buso (1998), studied genetic variability of four rice populations with isozyme and RAPD markers and found out that with both types of markers, a pattern of greater variation between than within populations indicated that large portion of the total genetic was attributable. Similarly, Glaszman (1988) studied the pattern of variation among native rices based on isozyme analysis and found that the geographic pattern of variation among varieties was largely related to the existence of varietal groups. Hence, isozyme polymorphism inhibit strong correlations with both environmental and macro geographic parameters.

The use of biotechnology in the exploitation of the countries biological resources that geared towards the development of High Yielding Varieties and creation of competitive products and services in a sustainable and environmental sustainable manner is recognized in both phases of plant breeding. Some of these techniques are utilization of molecular markers (molecular mapping of resistant genes), quantitative loci trait (QTL) for seeding vigor and yield, wide hybridization and genetic transformation technology or introduction of novel genes into rice, gene cloning and characterization (Obien et al., 1992). Additionally, the applicability of biotechnology to crop improvement involves non-conventional plant breeding technique but should mutually complement them by enhancing efficiency, trait transfer precision and recovery of useful value-added variation (Duncan, 1997).

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Souza and Sorells (1989) reported that pedigree analysis of cultivars is useful for evaluating the effects of crop improvement and provides a basis for selection of cultivars use as parent in breeding programs. Likewise, pedigree evaluation could generate vital information to plant breeders, like the identity of the ancestral parents of crop varieties upon which the present day varieties are founded (Cuevas et al., 1992).

Characteristics of Landraces in the Cordillera Region (CAR)

Several native rice varieties of red, dark red, violet and white colored are being grown in the Cordillera region (Cadatal, 1993). In Benguet Province, the varieties mostly planted by the farmers are Kintoman, Balatinao, Pinidua, Kayaring, Bassal, Talloy, Lagawe, Bayabas and Bongkitan. In Kalinga, the popular varieties that farmers preferred.

are Unoy, Ujak, Pinuswoy, Waray and Intan red and white (Landacan, 1992).

Salcedo (2002) cited some characteristics of native rice grown in the Cordillera as low tillering, awned grains, tall stalks and late maturing.

Characteristics of traditional varieties are mostly tall (l60-200cm) with drooping and longer leaves, photoperiodic, low yielding late maturing and less responsive to nitrogen fertilizer (PhilRice, 1995). This can endure environmental conditions such as submerged regions and low soil fertility.

Maurya and Mall (1986) enumerated characteristics of traditional rice for waterlogged areas such that they have leafy and longer leaves because of faster growth, tall stems, profuse tillering and lodging susceptible that cause mutual shading. They have long growth duration and photoperiodic sensitivity. Peta, Intan and Bengawan which are native to the tropics belong to this type.

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Functional Properties and Nutritional Composition of Indigenous Rice

Juliano (1998) explained that protein content of milled rice is generally lower at 14% moisture level than unmilled rice. Despite its low protein content, rice is the primary source of dietary protein in tropical Asia. For nation- wide health status, iron deficiency, anemia and vitamin A is reportedly prevalent in Asia. In anticipation, low phytate rice mutant has been developed to be nutritionally important in improving iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) availability in rice.

Gonzales (2001) stated that native rice grown in the Cordillera region contains much higher nutritive value than commercial rice. Accordingly, it contains 476% protein, 475% fiber, 346% calcium, 356% iron, 934% phosphorus, 322% food energy, 306%

complex carbohydrates, 400% riboflavin, 1,306% niacin and 2,033% thiamin which are essential in human nutrition.

Brown or rough rice reduces blood cholesterol and decreases urinary calcium for people prone to kidney disorder (Javier, 2001). It contains vitamin B and dietary fibers that help prevents cancer and an effective laxative.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Raising of Seedlings

There were 16 selected rice landraces collected from Province of Benguet used in this study; 8 were from Kibungan, 3 from Bakun municipality, two from Itogon, one from Kapangan municipality, one from Kabayan and one from municipality of Bokod.

Seeds of each landrace was characterized before sowing. Sowing was done and prepared seedbeds through wet bed method. Necessary labels were placed in each seedbed for identification during pulling and transplanting.

Transplanting

An experimental area of 145m2 was thoroughly prepared, puddled and leveled for convenience during transplanting. The area was divided into 3 blocks and further subdivided into 48 beds. Each bed measured 1 m x 3 m. The study was laid out in the field using the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two seedlings transplanted per hill following the straight row pattern with planting distance of 25 cm between hills and rows which were replicated 3 times. Processed chicken manure (PCM) was broadcasted an hour before during transplanting. Urea and 14-14-14 were broadcasted at 64 days after transplanting (DAT). Care and maintenance was done throughout the experimentation period.

Serving as treatments, the following were the landraces used:

Landraces Place of Collection

T1 Bongkitan Tinongdan,. Itogon, Benguet T2 Butalga Poblacion, Kibungan, Benguet T3 Diket Poblacion, Kibungan, Benguet

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T4 Diset Poblacion, Kibungan, Benguet T5 Kabal Poblacion Kibungan, Benguet T6 Kintoman Poblacion, Kibungan, Benguet T7 Lalay Poblacion, Kibungan, Benguet T8 Longgot Poblacion, Kabayan, Benguet

T9 Makamining Poblacion, Kibungan, Benguet T10 Maximu Gadang, Kapangan, Benguet T11 Monay Poblacion, Bakun, Benguet T12 Nawal Tinongdan, Itogon, Benguet T13 Oplan Poblacion Kibungan, Benguet T14 Red Diket Bila, Bokod, Benguet

T15 Saba Poblacion, Bakun, Benguet T16 Walay Sinacbat, Bakun, Benguet

Data gathered:

The parameters collected were:

1. Meteorological data. Temperature, relative humidity, total brightness and rainfall during the conduct of the study were taken from the BSU- PAGASA station, Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

2. Seed/Grain characteristics. This was taken by determining the seed characteristics of the 16 selected rice landraces before sowing in prepared seedbeds.

3. Number of days from transplanting to tillering. This was taken when 50% of the crops produced tillers.

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4. Leaf Characters

a. Leaf length (cm). This was taken by measuring 10 sample leaves per treatment from the base of the leaf blade to the tip of the leaf at 90 DAT. The middle leaves were used as samples.

b. Leaf angle. This was taken by measuring the angle form between the leaf blade and stem using protractor.

c. Leaf area (cm2). This was taken by measuring 10 fully expanded sample leaf per treatment during growth period using replica weight method:

Area of ordinary paper (cm) x weight of replica (g) Leaf area (cm2) = ---

Weight of ordinary paper (g)

d. Leaf sheath color. This was taken using the scale used by Borromeo et al., (1994).

Rating Remarks 1 green

2 purple lines

3 light purple 4 purple tips

e. Blade color. This was taken by determining the color of the leaves using the following scale (Borromeo et al., 1994).

Rating Remarks 1 pale green 2 green 3 dark green 4 purple tips

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5 purple margins 6 purple blotch 7 purple

f. Blade pubescence. This was taken using the following scale by Borromeo et al., (1994).

Rating Remarks 1 glabrous

2 intermediate

3 pubescent

g. Ligule color. This was taken using the scale used by Borromeo et al., (1994).

Rating Remarks

0 absent

1 whitish

2 purple lines

3 purple

h. Auricle color. This was taken using the following scale (Borromeo et al., 1994).

Rating Remarks 0 absent

1 pale green

2 purple 5. Culm/Stem Characteristics

a. Initial height (cm.). This was taken by measuring ten sample plants at 30 DBT per treatment during pulling from the base to the youngest leaf of the plant using tape measure.

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b. Final height (cm). This was taken by measuring ten sample plants from the base to the tip of the flag leaf at 130 DAT using tape measure.

c. Stem diameter (cm). This was taken by measuring the stem of the same sample plant at the basal internode using vernier caliper.

d. Stem strength. This was taken using the following scale (Borromeo et al., 1994).

Rating Remarks 1- strong no lodging

3-moderately strong most plant leaning

5- intermediate most plant moderately lodging 7 - weak most plant nearly flat

9-very weak all plants flat

e. Number of nodes. This was taken by counting the total number of nodes of ten samples plants.

f. Internode color. This was taken by determining the color of the internode at the tip of the main stem using the scale by Borromeo (1994).

Rating Remarks

1 green

2 light gold

3 purple lines

4 purple

6. Number of tillers per hill. This was taken by counting the number of tillers of ten sample hills per treatment.

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Pest and Disease Incidence

a. Stemborer infection. This was taken using the following scale (NCT for Rice, 1996).

Index Rating % Dead Heart % White Head Description 1 1 – 10 1 – 5 Resistant

3 11 – 20 6 – 10 Moderately Resistant 5 21 – 30 11 – 15 Intermediate

7 31 – 60 16 – 25 Moderately susceptible 9 61 – above 26 – above Susceptible

b. Rice blast (neck, leaf). This was taken from the center row at hill 4-2.

Computation on percent infection following the formula:

Number of Infected Plants

Percent Infection = --- x 100 Total Number of Plants

Index Rating % Infection Description 1 0 – 25% Resistant 2 26 – 50% Intermediate 3 51 – 100% Susceptible

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Meteorological Data

Table 1 presents the monthly air temperature (maximum and minimum) relative humidity (RH), rainfall amount and total sunshine brightness. Mean air temperature (maximum and minimum)relative humidity, total rain fall amount and total sunshine brightness were 23.26 oC, 14.77 oC, 77.76%, 6.24 mm and 374.17 mm, respectively.

Maximum temperature (24oC) was highest during the month of June and lowest minimum temperature was obtained in January (11.06 oC).

Leonard and Martin (1970) reported that temperature is the most important factor in rice production, rice can grow successfully in areas that have mean temperature of 21

oC or above. Furthermore IRRI (1975) as cited by Salcedo (2002) explained that rice is considered as short day plant which grows better in places with temperature ranges from 21 to 32 oC. Higher than 32 oC and lower than 21oC may cause injury or sterility at ripening stage. As explained by De data (1981), low temperature (15-20oC) delay panicle initiation and heading, causes failure of an anther dehiscence and fertilization, spikelet sterility and poorly filled grains. This could be the reason why rice planted in areas with temperature lower than 21oC were late maturing and low yielding. In this experiment, it was observed that grains were not filled resulting to empty grains at harvest.

Relative humidity during the conduct of the study ranged from 70.81% to 85.33%. Belino (1999) cited that RH may affect grain formation during milk stage, ripening and disease incidence. High RH favors crop growth at vegetative stage while low humidity favors diseases during grain formation particular in rainfed rice fields.

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Total rainfall amount was highest in the month of June (16.35) with the highest total sunshine brightness (493mm) in the month of February.

Table 1. Meteorological data during the conduct of the study MONTH TEMPERATURE RELATIVE

HUMIDITY (%)

RAINFALL AMOUNT

(mm)

TOTAL SUNSHINE BRIGHTNESS

(mm) Max Min

January 21.29 11.06 00 Trace 383

February 22.40 12.16 77.14 00 493

March 23.31 14.35 70.81 0.91 443

April 23.80 16.11 77.77 2.80 355

May 24.74 16.48 77.74 11.13 287

June 24.01 18.46 85.33 16.35 235

Mean 23.26 14.77 77.76 6.24 374.17

Source: BSU PAG-ASA office

Grain Characteristics

Table 2 shows the source or place of collection of the 16 rice landraces and their respective grain characteristics such as seed coat color, presence and absence of awn, color of awn, grain color, aroma and their sources.

Seed coat color. The landraces have different seed coat color but most of them show light brown seed coat. Four landraces (Butalga, Diket, Red Diket and Dicet) displayed dark brown seed coat. Lalay, Kabal, Makamining and Luk-ab expressed speckled seed coat and Kintoman and Gal-ong however, had stripe color of seed coat.

Presence, absence and color of awn. Most of the landraces with brown seed coat are awned. It was also observed that most of the awned grains exhibited straw awn while others had black (Monay and Nawal), brown (Red Diket) and white (Saba) awns.

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Salcedo (2002) found that some characteristics of rice grown in Cordillera region as awned grains, low tillering, tall stalks, and late maturing. The present study corroborates such result.

Table 2. Grain characteristics of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES SOURCE SEED PRESENCE/ AWN GRAIN AROMA

COAT ABSENCE COLOR COLOR

COLOR OF AWN

Bongkitan Tinongdan, Light Absent - White Aromatic

Itogon brown

Butalga Poblacion, Dark Present Straw Red Not aromatic

Kibungan brown

Diket Poblacion, Dark Present Straw White Aromatic

Kibungan brown

Diset Poblacion, Dark Present Straw Red Not aromatic

Kibungan brown

Kabal Poblacion, Speckled Absent - Red Aromatic Kibungan

Kintoman Poblacion, Striped Absent - Red Sligtly

Kibungan aromatic

Lalay Poblacion, Speckled Absent - Red Not aromatic Kibungan

Longgot Poblacion, Light Absent - Red Not aromatic

Kabayan brown

Makamining Poblacion, Speckled Present Straw White Aromatic Kibungan

Maximu Gadang Light Present Straw White Slightly

Kapangan brown aromatic

Monay Poblacion, Light Present Black White Not aromatic

Bakun brown

Nawal Tinongdan, Light Present Black Red Aromatic

Itogon brown

Oplan Poblacion, Light Present Straw White Not aromatic

Kibungan brown

Red Diket Bila, Bokod Dark Present Brown Red Aromatic

brown

Saba Poblacion, Light Present White Red Not aromatic Bakun

Walay Sinacbat, Light Absent - White Not aromatic

Bakun brown

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Grain color. Grain color was recorded by determining the color of uncoated seeds.

It was observed that the color of the grains vary from red to white. Varieties with red grains are Lalay, Butalga, Kabal, Red Diket, Kintoman, Nawal, Saba, Longgot, and Dicet, while the white grains are Bonkitan, Diket, Oplan, Monay, Walay, Makamining and Maximu.

Aroma. Observation shows that Lalay, Butalga, Oplan, Monay, Walay, Saba, Longgot and Dicet are not aromatic. Maximu and Kintoman had slight aroma and the rest are aromatic. These landraces exhibit the exotic aroma and flavor compared to the fancy rice (such as jasmine, milagrosa and dinorado) sold in the market that have nutty aroma and flavor similar to that of roasted nuts or popcorn. This aroma is attributed to a much higher proportion of 2-acytel – 1-pyroline that is present in all rice but have much higher concentration in aromatic rice, (Anonymous, 2004).

Number of Days From Transplanting to Tillering

Number of days from transplanting to tillering was recorded when 50% of the total plant in a bed started producing tillers. It was observed that Saba, Maximu and Dicet took longer days to produce tillers (Table 3). On the other hand, Longgot was the earliest to produce tillers among the landraces with average mean of 19.00 days. This finding is an indicative of the later maturity of Saba, Maximu and Dicet while it would mean earlier maturity for Longgot, Monay, Makamining and Lalay.

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Table 3. Number of days from transplanting to tillering of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES DAYS

Bongkitan 21.00abcde

Butalga 22.00abcd

Diket 22.00abc

Diset 23.00a

Kabal 21.00abcde

Kintoman 21.00abcde

Lalay 20.00cde

Longgot 19.00e

Makamining 20.00cde

Maximu 23.00a

Monay 20.007de

Nawal 21.00bcde

Oplan 22.00abcd

Red Diket 21.00abcde

Saba 23.00ab

Walay 20.00cde

CV (%) 5.21

Means in a column with the same letter are not significantly different by DMRT (P>0.05).

Leaf Characters

Data on leaf characters such as leaf length, leaf angle and leaf area are presented in Table 4 while other leaf characteristics such as leaf sheath color, blade color and blade pubescence, and ligule and auricle color are presented in Table 5.

Leaf length. This was measured from the base of the leaves to the tip of the leaves. Results show that leaf has comparable length ranging from 37.96 to 42.25 cm.

Butalga (42.25cm), Makamining (41.08cm) and Nawal (41.09cm) recorded the longest leaves while Bongkitan (37.96cm), Monay (38.67cm) and Diket (38.92cm) displayed the

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shortest leaves. Further observation shows that the landraces possess relatively long leaves.

Vergara (1992), reported that long leaves are an indication of drooping. Droopy leaves means that the lower leaves receive little light, thus, production of food is lesser.

However, Butalga, Nawal and Makamining did not exhibit a high leaf angle which is an indication of droopy leaves. These findings might contradict other studies reporting that longer leaves are droopy leaves because they have more weight to carry hence, lesser photosynthetic efficiency and eventually low yield. However, it should be understood that different genotypes have different photosynthetic capacity to adapt in the environment to which they are introduced.

Leaf angle. Results shows that Red diket variety has the highest leaf angle (29.10) comparable to Butalga (28.90) and Kintoman (28.63) degrees while Nawal and Lalay revealed the lowest leaf angle of 21.77 and 22.13. This means that the leaves of the plant is spreading.

Leaf area. Highly significant differences were observed among the landraces on leaf area. Butalga exhibited the largest leaves with an average mean of 24.65 while Saba, Dicet and Monay had the smallest leaves of 21.19, 21.00 and 20.80cm2, respectively.

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Table 4. Leaf characters of the 16 rice landraces LANDRACES LEAF LENGTH

(cm)

LEAF ANGLE LEAF AREA (cm2) Bongkitan 37.96d 23.27bcd 23.14b

Butalga 42.25a 28.90a 24.60a

Diket 38.92bcd 24.43bcd 21.47c

Diset 39.08bcd 23.57bcd 21.00c

Kabal 39.36bcd 23.73bcd 21.64c

Kintoman 40.74abc 28.63a 21.40c Lalay 40.56abc 22.13cd 23.40b Longgot 40.12abcd 25.90abcd 21.41c Makamining 41.08ab 27.03ab 23.58b Maximu 40.18abcd 24.17bcd 21.59c

Monay 38.67cd 24.10bcd 20.80c

Nawal 41.09ab 21.77d 23.75ab

Oplan 40.52abc 23.97bcd 21.60c

Red Diket 40.09abcd 29.10a 21.60c

Saba 39.75bcd 23.17bcd 21.19c

Walay 40.53abc 26.20abcd 21.67c

CV (%) 2.97 8.37 3.00

Means in a column with the same letter are not significantly different by DMRT (P>0.05).

Other Leaf Characters

Leaf sheath color. Other leaf characteristics such as leaf sheath color are presented in Table 5. Butalga, Makamining and Dicet exhibited purple lines color of leaf sheath while the other landraces had green color.

Blade color and blade pubescence. Almost all the landraces displayed green leaves except Red Diket and Kintoman which had dark green; Butalga and Dicet with purple margins and Makamining with purple tips color of leaves. This could be attributed

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to the leaf sheath color of the plant . Vergara et al., (1992) explained that the more green color of the plant the higher the carbohydrates production, thus, higher in food production.

Table 5. Other leaf characteristics of the 16 rice landraces LANDRACES LEAF

SHEATH COLOR

BLADE COLOR

BLADE PUBESCENCE

LIGULE COLOR

AURICLE COLOR

Bongkitan Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Butalga Purple lines Purple

margins

Intermediate Purple lines

Pale green

Diket Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Diset Purple lines Purple

margins

Intermediate Purple lines

Pale green

Kabal Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Kintoman Green Dark

green

Intermediate Whitish Pale green Lalay Green Green Intermediate Purple

lines

Pale green

Longgot Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Makamining Purple lines Purple tips Intermediate Purple

lines

Pale green

Maximu Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Monay Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Nawal Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Oplan Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Red Diket Green Dark

green

Intermediate Purple lines

Pale green

Saba Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green Walay Green Green Intermediate Whitish Pale green

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Leaf pubescence. All landraces exhibited intermediate leaf pubescence. Salcedo (2002) conducted a study on characterization of collected traditional rices from Mountain Province and Ifugao Province and found out the same result on leaf pubescence which are intermediate. This means that some traditional varieties grown in Cordillera region have hairy and some have smooth or hairless leaves.

Ligule and auricle color. The auricle color of the landraces are all pale green.

Lalay, Butalga, Red Diket, Makamining and Dicet displayed purple lines ligule among the varieties and the rest had whitish ligule.

Plant Height

Initial height. Initial height was measured at 30 days before transplanting using tape measure. Red Diket recorded the tallest rice seedlings at transplanting with an average mean of 15.20 cm comparable with Saba with 14.78. Makamining, Dicet, Oplan and Diket revealed the shortest with means of 11.70cm, 12.17 cm, 12.90cm and 12.35 cm respectively (Table 6).

Final height. Final height was measured at 130 DAT. Walay and Maximu had the tallest at 130 DAT with means of 84.98 cm and 83.64 cm. However, statistically they were not significantly different from each other. Makamining showed the shortest height at 130 DAT with 63.99 cm.

Walay and Maximu which displayed the tallest plants at 130 DAT also revealed the highest number of nodes which determines the final height of the plant. This could mean that the longer the stem, the more nodes component of the plant. However, it should be consider that different genotypes have different genotypic constitution.

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Number of Nodes per Plant

Significant difference was observed in number of nodes per plant. Almost all the landraces had 4.00 nodes per plant except Maximu, Saba and Walay which has the highest nodes of 5.00.

Table 6. Plant height and number of nodes of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES PLANT HEIGHT (cm) NUMBER OF NODES 30DAS 130DAT

Bongkitan 13.67cd 77.45abc 4.00b

Butalga 13.29cd 71.39cd 4.00b

Diket 12.35ef 70.43cd 4.00b

Diset 12.17ef 73.43cd 4.00b

Kabal 13.96bc 70.19cd 4.00b

Kintoman 13.84bcd 74.89bcd 4.00b

Lalay 13.88bcd 71.73cd 4.00b

Longgot 13.39cd 76.33abcd 4.00b

Makamining 11.70f 66.90cd 4.00b

Maximu 14.03bc 83.64ab 5.00a

Monay 13.83bcd 73.97bcd 4.00b

Nawal 13.62cd 77.65abc 4.00b

Oplan 12.90de 68.25cd 4.00b

Red Diket 15.20a 70.96cd 4.00b

Saba 14.78ab 75.34abcd 5.00a

Walay 13.61cd 84.99a 5.00a

CV (%) 3.91 7.09 7.35

Means in a column with the same letter are not significantly different by DMRT (P>0.05).

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Stem Diameter and Stem Strength

The stem diameter and stem strength of the different landraces are shown in Table 7.

Stem diameter. Results revealed that stem size of the 16 landraces ranged from 1.08cm to 0.7 5cm. Highly significant differences were observed among the varieties.

Bongkitan show the widest stem (1.08 cm) while Longgot had the narrowest diameter with 0.75 cm only.

Table 7. Stem diameter of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES STEM DIAMETER

(cm)

STEM STRENGTH

Bongkitan 1.08a Strong

Butalga 0.88b Strong

Diket 0.80b Strong

Diset 1.03a Strong

Kabal 0.78b Strong

Kintoman 0.80b Strong

Lalay 1.04a Strong

Longgot 0.75a Strong

Makamining 0.78b Strong

Maximu 1.02a Strong

Monay 1.07a Strong

Nawal 1.07a Strong

Oplan 0.78b Strong

Red Diket 0.78b Strong

Saba 1.07a Strong

Walay 1.04a Strong

CV (%) 19.67

Means in a column with the same letter are not significantly different by DMRT (P>0.05).

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Stem strength. It was observed that all the landraces exhibited strong stem m during the growth stage of the plant indicating that all the landraces are resistant to lodging. This findings gives support to the explanation that traditional rices are good sources of resistance and grain quality traits which a plant breeder desires (PhilRice, 2001).

Internode Color

Table 8 shows the internode color of the plant. It was observed that almost all the landraces displayed purple lines internode except that Lalay, Red Diket and Longgot exemplified light gold internode. Walay however, is the only variety with green internode.

Number of Tillers Per Hill

The number of tillers per hill was presented also in Table 8. Every sample hill consists of two mother rice plants. Result shows that Dicet recorded the highest number of tillers per hill with mean average of 16.00 comparable with Kabal and Walay (14.00).

Vergara (1992) explained that the number of tillers determines the number of panicles, thus, the most important in achieving high grain yield. On the other hand Maximu and Nawal produce the least number of tillers per hill with means of 9.00. This findings corroborates with the CECAP and PHILRICE (2000) reports that the some characteristics of traditional rice being grown in the Cordillera region are awned grains, tall stalks, low tillering and late maturing.

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Table 8. Internode color and number of tillers per hill of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES INTERNODE COLOR NUMBER OF TILLERS PER HILL

Bongkitan Purple lines 11.00cde

Butalga Purple lines 12.00cd

Diket Purple lines 11.00cde

Diset Purple lines 16.00a

Kabal Purple lines 14.00abc

Kintoman Purple lines 10.00de

Lalay Light gold 1.3.00bcd

Longgot Light gold 12.00cd

Makamining Purple lines 11.00cde

Maximu Purple lines 9.00e

Monay Purple lines 10.00de

Nawal Purple lines 9.00e

Oplan Purple lines 13.00bcd

Red Diket Light gold 10.00de

Saba Purple lines 10.00de

Walay Green 14.00abc

CV (%) 7.35 16.49

Means in a column with the same letter are not significantly different by DMRT (P>0.05).

Pest and Disease Incidence

There were no spraying of chemical pesticides during the conduct of the study.

Stemborer damage. Infestation of stemborer damage particularly dead heart was noted at 35 and 50 days after transplanting (Table 9). Observation shows that there are no incidence of dead heart infestations both at 35 and 50DAT. All the landraces were strongly resistant against stemborer.

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Rice blast (leaf blast). The Table shows the rice blast infestation particularly in the leaves of the plant. Results shows that all the landraces exhibit strong resistance to leaf blast .

Table 9. Reaction of the 16 rice landraces to stemborer and rice blast incidence

LANDRACES STEMBORER RICE BLAST

35 DAT 50 DAT

Bongkitan Resistant Resistant Resistant

Butalga Resistant Resistant Resistant

Diket Resistant Resistant Resistant

Diset Resistant Resistant Resistant

Kabal Resistant Resistant Resistant

Kintoman Resistant Resistant Resistant

Lalay Resistant Resistant Resistant

Longgot Resistant Resistant Resistant

Makamining Resistant Resistant Resistant

Maximu Resistant Resistant Resistant

Monay Resistant Resistant Resistant

Nawal Resistant Resistant Resistant

Oplan Resistant Resistant Resistant

Red Diket Resistant Resistant Resistant

Saba Resistant Resistant Resistant

Walay Resistant Resistant Resistant

Correlation Among Vegetative Characters

Table 10 summarizes the correlation coefficient of eight rice characters such as number of days from transplanting to tillering, leaf length, leaf angle, leaf area, height at 130 DAT, stem diameter, number of nodes per plant and number of tiller per hill.

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Strong correlation were noted mainly involving leaf length and number of tillers per hill produced. Other significant correlations however, were observed involving stem diameter, height at 130 DAT and number of nodes per plant.

Correlation coefficient of number of day from transplanting to tillering with other characters were not significant except with number of tiller per hill which has positive correlation with number of days from transplanting to tillering. This may means that as the number of days from transplanting to tillering lengthens, the number of tillers per hill increases.

Significant positive correlation was obtained between leaf length and that of leaf area and height at 130 DAT, but negative correlated with number of tiller per hill. This suggest that as the leaf length increases, so is the leaf area and height at 130 DAT. These results agree with what Tanaka et al., (1966) found by Salcedo (2002) that leaf area is influenced by leaf length, hence, the longer the leaves, the more bent they are. He further explained that tall stature plant was associated with long leaves and so NT reduces as the leaf length increases.

Stem diameter is positively correlated with leaf area and height at 130 DAT suggesting that an increase in stem diameter will result to a similar increase in the other two parameters. While, strong negative correlation was obtained between stem diameter and number of nodes per plant indicating that when stem diameter is greater, fewer number of tillers are produced.

As to number of nodes per plant, all characters are not significantly correlated except that of height at 130 DAT which is positively correlated with number of nodes per plant but not so strong.

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The number of tillers per plant produced seem to be the most affected by other negative traits of rice. It is negatively correlated to both stem diameter and leaf length but is positively influenced by number of days from transplanting to tillering and leaf angle.

The negative correlation could mean that as the plants produce more tillers, the thinner the stem and the longer the leaves become, while at the lower tiller number, the stem becomes wider. Vergara et al., (1990) claims that a lower tiller number type would ensure a higher number of vascular bundles.

Table 10. Correlation among vegetative characters of 16 rice landraces

DTT LL LAn LAr FH Sdm NN NT

DTT 1.000

LL -0.205 1.000

LAn 0.282 -0.280 1.000

LAr 0.279 0.745* 0.449 1.000

FH 0.265 0.791* -0.325 -0.266 1.000 Sdm -0.256 0.396 -0.402 0.705* 0.658* 1.000

NN -0.243 -0.164 0.494 0.439 0.547* -0.131 1.000

NT 0.748* -0.835* 0.536* -0.282 0.234 -0.806* 0.377 1.000 Legend:

DTT – Number of Days from Transplanting to Tillering LL – Leaf Length

LAn – Leaf Angle LAr – Leaf Area

FH – Height at 130 DAT Sdm – Stem diameter

NN – Number of Nodes per plant NT – Number of Tillers per hill

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

There were 16 rice landraces collected from Benguet Province that represented variability for leaf, stem and grain characters were used in the study. They were characterized and statistically analyzed from January 2005 to June 2005.

Based on the results, Monay and Longgot were the earliest to produce tillers.

However, neither of the two landraces produce the most number of tillers which determines the number of panicles and component of yield. Moreover, Dicet produce more tillers although it took longer days to produce tillers.

As to leaf length, Butalga, Nawal and Makamining displayed the longest leaves, however, these landraces produce lesser tillers, thus, the three said landraces could be assumed as medium tillering and low yielding because of this traits.

In terms of leaf angle, Red diket, Butalga and Kintoman had comparable leaf angle. These landraces exhibited the widest leaf angle which determines the spread of the leaves. Nonetheless, only Butalga exhibited the longest leaves among the three said landraces. Furthermore, almost all the landraces expressed dark green to green leaves that could be attributed to its leaf sheath color with intermediate leaf pubescent.

Among the landraces, Red diket and Saba recorded the tallest seedlings when transplanted but the tallest at 130 DAT were Walay and Maximu. Saba, Walay and Maximu displayed the widest stem, nevertheless, all the landraces had strong stem.

For number of nodes, Walay had the most nodes, which could be attributed to its height. It also displayed green internodes.

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Considering the correlation analysis between characters, leaf length revealed most significant relationship between other characters. While significant correlation was found between other characters that could be used as selection index for specific characters.

Significant positive correlation were obtained between number of days from transplanting to tillering, leaf length, height at 130 DAT, stem diameter and number of nodes per plant indicating that as one character increases so is the other parameter measured. On the other hand, strong significant negative correlation were observed between number of tillers per hill, leaf length and stem diameter suggesting that lesser tillers are produced when leaf length increases and stem diameter expands.

Conclusion

The findings showed differences in leaf and culms/stems characters of the rice landraces. It showed that leaf length influenced the leaf area as shown by Butalga.

Among the landraces, Oplan has the traits of landrace a rice breeder desired. With these characters such as short, dark green, and erect leaves (Tanaka et al., 1966), this landrace could be used in improving the existing rice cultivars. Moreover, the leaf and stem characters could be used as descriptors to determine the differences among cultivars.

Furthermore, correlation analysis among the vegetative characters measured showed correlations between the characters, thus, such traits could be used as selection indices.

Recommendation

Although all the landraces studied possess some of the characters desired by rice breeders, closer observation showed that Oplan displayed more of the characters of plant

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breeder desired such as short, with green leaves, strong stems, and resistant to pest and diseases. Thus it may be recommended for inclusion in a breeding program or it may be included in further evaluation for yield and adaptability.

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APPENDICES

Appendix Table 1.Number of days from transplanting to tillering of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 23.00 21.00 20.00 64.00 21.00

Butalga 21.00 22.00 22.00 65.00 22.00

Diket 22.00 23.00 21.00 66.00 22.00

Diset 24.00 23.00 23.00 70.00 23.00

Kabal 20.00 23.00 21.00 64.00 21.00

Kintoman 19.00 23.00 22.00 64.00 21.00

Lalay 20.00 20.00 20.00 60.00 20.00

Longgot 19.00 19.00 20.00 58.00 19.00

Makamining 20.00 20.00 20.00 60.00 20.00

Maximu 23.00 24.00 23.00 70.00 23.00

Monay 19.00 20.00 20.00 59.00 2.00

Nawal 22.00 20.00 21.00 63.00 21.00

Oplan 22.00 21.00 22.00 65.00 22.00

Red Diket 23.00 21.00 20.00 64.00 21.00

Saba 24.00 23.00 21.00 68.00 23.00

Walay 20.00 22.00 19.00 61.00 20.00

TOTAL 341.00 345.00 335.00 1,201.00

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01

Block 2 3.17 1.58

Treatment 15 65.48 4.37 3.55** 2.02 2.70 Error 30 36.83 1.23

TOTAL 47 105.48

** = highly significant Coefficient of Variation = 5.21%

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Appendix Table 2. Leaf length (cm) of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 37.78 38.82 37.28 113.88 37.96

Butalga 44.40 42.31 40.05 126.76 42.25

Diket 38.53 38.29 39.95 116.77 38.92

Diset 38.44 40.19 38.60 117.23 39.08

Kabal 39.54 38.97 39.58 118.09 39.36

Kintoman 40.42 40.88 40.93 122.23 40.74

Lalay 42.47 41.35 37.85 121.67 40.56

Longgot 39.80 41.86 38.72 120.38 40.12

Makamining 41.84 40.78 40.63 123.25 41.08

Maximu 40.99 40.74 38.80 120.53 40.18

Monay 37.53 38.24 40.24 116.01 38.67

Nawal 41.20 40.37 41.70 123.27 41.09

Oplan 39.55 41.89 40.29 127.73 40.52

Red Diket 39.79 39.93 40.56 120.28 40.09

Saba 38.88 39.96 40.42 119.26 39.75

Walay 40.91 41.25 39.43 121.59 40.53

TOTAL 642.07 645.83 635.03 1,922.93

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01

Block 2 3.76 1.88

Treatment 15 51.96 3.46 2.45* 2.02 2.70 Error 30 42.44 1.41

TOTAL 47 98.16

* = significant

Coefficient of Variation = 2.97%

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Appendix Table 3. Leaf angle of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 22.30 26.00 21.50 69.80 23.27

Butalga 26.30 28.40 32.00 86.70 28.90

Diket 22.40 23.00 27.90 73.30 24.43

Diset 21.60 25.60 23.50 70.70 23.57

Kabal 21.30 23.50 26.40 71.20 23.73

Kintoman 26.00 30.90 29.00 85.90 28.63

Lalay 22.50 21.90 22.00 66.40 22.13

Longgot 24.20 25.50 28.00 77.70 25.90

Makamining 27.00 26.00 28.10 81.10 27.03

Maximu 23.00 28.00 21.50 72.50 24.17

Monay 22.40 26.40 23.50 72.30 24.10

Nawal 22.40 21.40 21.50 65.30 21.77

Oplan 25.00 22.10 24.80 71.90 23.97

Red Diket 29.40 30.00 27.90 87.30 29.10

Saba 25.00 23.00 21.50 69.50 23.17

Walay 25.70 23.90 29.00 78.60 26.20

TOTAL 386.50 405.60 408.10 1,200.20

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01 Block 2 17.45 8.73

Treatment 15 249.59 16.64 3.80 2.02 2.70 Error 30 131.52 4.38

TOTAL 47 398.56

** = highly significant

Coefficient of Variation = 8.37%

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Appendix Table 4. Leaf area (cm2) of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 23.02 23.44 22.95 69.41 23.14

Butalga 25.40 24.70 23.87 73.97 24.66

Diket 21.13 21.40 21.88 64.41 21.47

Diset 22.00 20.18 20.83 63.01 21.00

Kabal 22.00 21.40 21.51 64.91 21.64

Kintoman 21.37 22.06 20.77 64.20 21.40

Lalay 23.05 24.35 22.81 70.21 23.40

Longgot 21.40 20.80 22.03 64.23 21.41

Makamining 23.30 23.38 24.07 70.75 23.58

Maximu 21.97 21.37 21.43 64.77 21.59

Monay 20.23 20.80 21.37 62.40 20.80

Nawal 23.90 24.03 23.33 71.26 23.75

Oplan 21.40 22.03 21.37 64.80 21.60

Red Diket 21.97 21.40 21.43 64.80 21.60

Saba 20.20 21.97 21.40 63.57 21.19

Walay 21.91 21.60 21.43 65.00 21.67

TOTAL 354.31 354.91 352.48

MEAN 22.41 22.18 22.03

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01 Block 2 0.1972 0.0986

Treatment 15 61.45501 4.0967 12.32** 2.02 2.70 Error 30 10.0461 0.3349

TOTAL 47 71.6934

** = highly significant

Coefficient of Variation = 3.00%

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Appendix Table 5. Initial height (cm) at 30DAS of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 13.14 13.59 14.28 41.01 13.67

Butalga 13.29 13.63 12.96 39.88 13.29

Diket 13.14 11.90 12.00 37.04 12.35

Diset 12.10 11.40 13.00 36.50 12.17

Kabal 13.90 13.99 14.00 41.89 13.96

Kintoman 13.71 13.70 14.12 41.53 13.84

Lalay 13.62 14.15 13.86 41.63 13.88

Longgot 14.09 13.08 13.00 40.17 13.39

Makamining 11.90 11.20 12.00 35.10 11.70

Maximu 14.01 14.08 13.99 42.08 14.03

Monay 13.43 13.76 14.31 41.50 13.83

Nawal 13.37 13.69 13.81 40.87 13.62

Oplan 12.80 13.00 12.90 38.70 12.90

Red Diket 15.90 14.70 15.00 45.60 15.20

Saba 16.10 14.05 14.20 44.35 14.78

Walay 13.85 13.98 13.00 40.83 13.61

TOTAL 218.35 213.90 216.43 648.68

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01

Block 2 0.62 0.31

Treatment 15 36.65 2.44 8.71** 2.02 2.70 Error 30 8.36 0.28

TOTAL 47 45.63

** = highly significant

Coefficient of Variation = 3.91%

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Appendix Table 6. Final height (cm) at 130 DAT of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 78.00 80.31 74.05 232.36 77.45

Butalga 78.65 66.40 69.12 214.17 71.39

Diket 68.20 77.33 65.75 211.28 70.43

Diset 78.00 70.00 72.30 220.30 73.43

Kabal 68.00 76.09 66.50 210.59 70.19

Kintoman 72.69 69.00 83.00 224.69 74.89

Lalay 70.18 67.00 78.00 215.18 71.73

Longgot 85.00 74.99 69.00 228.99 76.33

Makamining 65.41 65.00 70.30 200.17 66.90

Maximu 78.00 83.92 89.01 250.93 83.64

Monay 72.80 69.00 80.10 221.90 73.97

Nawal 82.83 74.00 76.12 232.95 77.65

Oplan 67.38 70.44 66.94 204.76 68.25

Red Diket 75.87 67.00 70.01 212.88 70.96

Saba 75.38 70.66 80.00 226.04 75.34

Walay 80.95 85.01 89.00 254.96 84.99

TOTAL 1,197.34 1,166.15 1,199.20 3,562.69

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01 Block 2 43.10 21.55

Treatment 15 1,135.10 75.67 2.74** 2.02 2.70 Error 30 829.67 27.66

TOTAL 47 2,007.86

** = highly significant

Coefficient of Variation = 7.09%

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Appendix Table 7. Number of nodes per plant of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 3.90 3.70 4.40 4.00 4.00

Butalga 34.00 4.00 4.00 4.37 4.00

Diket 4.60 3.90 3.70 4.07 4.00

Diset 3.90 4.20 4.00 4.03 4.00

Kabal 4.60 4.70 4.20 4.50 4.00

Kintoman 4.40 3.80 3.90 4.03 4.00

Lalay 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.20 4.00

Longgot 4.20 3.90 3.90 4.10 4.00

Makamining 4.70 4.40 4.40 4.50 4.00

Maximu 3.90 4.40 4.30 4.20 5.00

Monay 4.70 3.80 4.00 4.16 4.00

Nawal 4.40 4.60 4.30 4.43 4.00

Oplan 3.90 4.10 4.00 4.00 4.00

Red Diket 3.80 3.90 4.30 4.00 4.00

Saba 4.70 4.70 4.90 4.77 5.00

Walay 4.90 4.90 4.80 4.87 5.00

TOTAL 69.00 67.60 67.80

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01

Block 2 0.05 0.03

Treatment 15 3.64 0.24 2.67* 2.02 2.70 Error 30 2.95 0.09

TOTAL 47 6.64

* = significant

Coefficient of Variation = 7.35%

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Appendix Table 8. Stem diameter (mm) of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 1.08 1.07 1.08 3.23 1.07

Butalga 0.75 0.81 1.08 2.64 0.88

Diket 0.82 0.78 0.81 2.41 0.80

Diset 1.07 0.97 1.06 3.10 1.03

Kabal 0.77 0.76 0.80 2.33 0.78

Kintoman 0.76 0.86 0.77 2.39 0.79

Lalay 1.08 1.07 0.99 3.14 1.04

Longgot 0.75 0.72 0.79 2.26 0.75

Makamining 0.78 0.77 0.78 2.33 0.78

Maximu 1.07 0.92 1.08 3.07 1.02

Monay 1.06 1.08 1.07 3.21 1.07

Nawal 1.08 1.07 1.06 3.21 1.07

Oplan 0.77 0.75 0.82 2.34 0.78

Red Diket 0.75 0.80 0.80 2.35 0.78

Saba 1.06 1.06 1.08 3.20 1.07

Walay 1.01 1.07 1.06 3.14 1.04

TOTAL 14.66 14.56 15.13 44.35

MEAN 1.466 1.456 1.513 1.475

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01 Block 2 0.0116 0.0058

Treatment 15 0.8519 0.0568 17.75** 2.02 2.70 Error 30 0.0946 0.0032

TOTAL 47 0.9581

** = highly significant

Coefficient of Variation = 6.08%

(48)

Appendix Table 9. Number of tillers per hill of the 16 rice landraces

LANDRACES REPLICATION TOTAL MEAN

I II III

Bongkitan 13.20 8.40 11.10 32.70 11.00

Butalga 14.40 9.00 12.40 35.80 12.00

Diket 10.40 12.30 9.00 31.70 11.00

Diset 15.60 17.10 14.50 47.20 16.00

Kabal 13.60 15.30 14.00 42.90 14.00

Kintoman 10.70 9.50 8.90 29.10 10.00

Lalay 13.10 12.20 13.50 38.80 13.00

Longgot 10.30 11.70 12.70 34.70 12.00

Makamining 10.20 11.40 11.70 33.30 11.00

Maximu 6.30 8.60 12.30 27.20 9.00

Monay 11.40 7.50 11.10 30.00 10.00

Nawal 7.80 10.20 10.00 28.00 9.00

Oplan 10.30 15.70 11.80 37.80 13.00

Red Diket 9.50 10.80 10.50 30.80 10.00

Saba 13.40 8.10 8.90 30.40 10.00

Walay 13.90 13.40 13.20 40.50 14.00

TOTAL 184.10 181.20 185.60 550.90

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARES

MEAN OF SQUARES

COMPUTED F

TABULAR F 0.05 0.01

Block 2 0.63 0.31

Treatment 15 162.28 10.82 3.02** 2.02 2.70 Error 30 107.41 3.58

TOTAL 47 270.32

** = highly significant

Coefficient of Variation = 16.49%

Pigura

Table 1. Meteorological data during the conduct of the study  MONTH TEMPERATURE  RELATIVE
Table 2. Grain characteristics of the 16 rice landraces
Table 3. Number of days from transplanting to tillering of the 16 rice landraces
Table 4. Leaf characters of the 16 rice landraces  LANDRACES LEAF  LENGTH
+7

Mga Sanggunian

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COURSE CALL NUMBER TITLE AUTHOR YEAR MBA Masters of Business Administration TH 001 MBA Total Quality Management Practices and their Relationship to Organizational Performance of a