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BIBLIOGRAPHY

AMDENGAN, ALEMAR P. APRIL 2010. Development and Evaluation of Information Education and Communication (IEC) Materials for the Ecotourism Program of Kabayan, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Christine Grace B. Sidchogan, BSc

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to develop and evaluate IEC materials of the ecotourism program of Kabayan, Benguet. Specifically, the study aimed to determine the socio- demographic profiles of the respondents; develop IEC materials as determined by intended audience; assess the ratings of the respondents towards the IEC materials based on the factors (content, layout, typography, pictures and graphics used for print medium and video quality, audio quality, and message for audio-visual medium); and determine the respondents’ suggestions to improve the IEC materials.

There were 50 respondents who were randomly selected from Kabayan LGU, local people and foreign and local tourists. The study was conducted on December 2009 to March 2010.

Findings showed that respondents preferred brochure for print and English as its medium and video documentary for audio-visual and English also as its medium.

The developed brochure was folder-type brochure with five leaves. One package was presented in one leaf with description in the front and general information in the

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minutes and twenty seconds.

Results showed that the overall rating of the brochure is good with a mean of 4.11 while the overall rating of the video documentary is good with a mean of 4.28.

Most common suggestions that were gathered to improve the IEC materials were:

enlighten of the color and enlargement of the font size, stability of shots, improvements of voice over and background music.

The study recommends to improve the IEC materials based on the suggestions gathered for the final production and utilization. The Local Government Unit of Kabayan should also consider to allot specific budget if they want to include their cultural activities and handicrafts and agricultural in the brochure and video documentary. The Local Government Unit of Kabayan should disseminate the IEC materials to achieve its purpose for promotion of their ecotourism program. Local Government Unit of Kabayan may also consider to sell the IEC materials to gain the cost of production. Also, there is a need to revise the IEC materials every year or every two years because there is possibility that the sites and rates will change.

 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Bibliography………. i

Abstract ………. ………. i

Table of Contents ……… iii

INTRODUCTION Rationale ……….. 1

Statement of the Problem ………... 3

Objective of the Study ………. 4

Importance of the Study ………... 5

Scope and Limitation of the Study ………... 5

REVIEW OF LITERATURE What is Ecotourism ……….. 6

History of Ecotourism ………... ……… 7

Components of Ecotourism ………... 8

Principles of Ecotourism ………... 9

Who Benefits from Ecotourism ………... 11

Role of the Governments ………. 13

Ecotourism in the Philippines ……….. 13

Ecotourism Program of Kabayan, Benguet ………. 14

Information Education and Communication (IEC) Materials ……… 15

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Audiovisual Media ………... 15

METHODOLOGY Locale Time and Study ……… 16

Respondents of the Study ………... 18

Data Collection Method ………... 18

Data Gathered ……….. 19

Data Analysis……… 19

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Socio-demographic Profile of the Respondents ………... 20

Print Medium Preference of the Respondents ………... 21

Audio-visual Preference of the Respondents ………... 21

Language Preference for Print Medium ………... 22

Language Preference for Audio-visual Medium ……….. 23

Description of the Brochure ………. 24

Description of the Video Documentary ………... 28

Procedures in Producing the Brochure ……… 28

Procedures in Producing the Video Documentary ………... 29

Respondents’ Rating Towards the Brochure ………... 31

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Respondents’ Rating Towards the

Video Documentary ………. 37

Overall Rating of the Brochure ……… 41

Overall Rating of the Video Documentary ……….. 42

Suggestions of the Respondents for the Improvement of the Brochure ……….. 42

Suggestions of the Respondents for the Improvement of the Video Documentary ……… 44

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary ……….. 46

Conclusions ……….. 47

Recommendations ……… 47

LITERATURE CITED...……….. 49

APPENDIX A. Communication Letter ……… 51

B. Survey Questionnaire ……….. 52

C. Script for Video Documentary ……… 54

D. Survey Questionnaire ……….. 59  

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Rationale

The tourism industry nowadays brings a big contribution to the livelihood of individuals. The Department of Tourism (DOT) even made an advertisement that in tourism, there is work. This is a fact that the tourism trade of the country is booming.

Globally, the tourism industry brings in more than $3 trillion annually. However, in places of key importance in terms of biodiversity, tourism can either be a boon or a threat. In response to the threat that traditional tourism is able to pose to the environment, ecotourism has evolved.

Ecotourism, considered as the fastest growing market in the tourism industry by the World Tourism Organization, with a growth rate of 5% worldwide, 6% of the world gross domestic product, and 11.4% of the world’s consumer spending, is defined in various, yet similar, ways (McDonald, 2005).

In addition, ecotourism does not only contribute to the economic side but also has a potential role in sustainable development.

According to Wood (2002), ecotourism frequently operates quite differently than other segment of the tourism industry, because ecotourism is defined by its sustainable development results: conserving natural resources, educating visitors about sustainability, and benefiting local people.

Furthermore, International Union for Conservation of Nature (now called the World Conservation Union) stated in 1996 that ecotourism promotes conservation, has   low negative visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local population.

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This implies that ecotourism is not just about to enjoy travel but also a way of educating people.

According to the fifth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention of Biological Diversity in 2000, ecotourism has a unique role to play in educating travelers about the value of a healthy environment and biological diversity (Wood, 2002).

However, many ecotourism programs are found in developing countries, where monitoring services and even communication systems may not be available (Wood, 2002).

This is one of the country’s problems in ecotourism programs. There are considerably lots of different beautiful places, rich cultures, indigenous products, and preserved artifacts but the problem in promotion remains a great threat to ecotourism development.

Nevertheless, promotion of ecotourism is possible by producing mass media and by disseminating them properly. Publishing, broadcasting and distributing of these materials help to inform people about ecotourism.

Development of information education and communication (IEC) materials is one way of communicating and promoting ecotourism programs effectively. IEC materials comprise a wide range of media, including newspapers, brochures, posters, information leaflets, radio programs as well as audio and video tapes. These can be disseminated to inform and even educate people.

Kabayan, Benguet is gifted with natural and wonderful sceneries. It is the home of the second highest mountain in the Philippines, the Mt. Pulag, mossy forest and Bulalakaw Lake, the cleanest lake in Cordillera Administrative Region. These are only some of the God-given wonders in Kabayan. Aside from that, it is also rich in cultural

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heritage. The town of Kabayan boasts of being recorded in Benguet History as the cradle of Ibaloi culture. It is where world renowned Kabayan mummies are found and where one of the most expensive feast that the nobility of Kabayan can celebrate, the Bendiyan Cañao (Merino, 1989).

However, according to the Local Government Unit of Kabayan in a recent interview with them, they have no available promotional materials to communicate and market their program packages in ecotourism.

Furthermore, according to Kabayan Municipal Tourism Officer Berry Sangao Jr., the production of IEC materials could have helped them in giving opportunities to elevate the livelihood of the local people because they will be informed about the ecotourism programs of Kabayan.

Having seen the role of Development Communication in solving this problem, the researcher then recognizes the necessity to determine, develop and evaluate IEC materials to support, present, promote and market their ecotourism programs.

Statement of the Problems

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents?

2. What are the types of IEC materials to be developed as determined by intended audience?

3. What are the respondents’ ratings towards the IEC materials in terms of the following:

a. Print - content

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- layout

- pictures and graphics - typography

b. Audio-visual - video quality - audio quality - content - message

2. What are the respondents’ suggestions to improve the IEC materials?

Objectives of the Study

This study aimed to develop and promote ecotourism program of Kabayan, Benguet through IEC materials.

Specifically, it aims to:

1. determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents;

2. develop IEC materials as determined by intended audience;

3. assess the ratings of the respondents towards the IEC materials based on the following factors:

a. Print (content, layout, pictures and graphics, typography)

b. Audio-visual (video quality, audio quality, content, message); and 4. determine the respondents’ suggestions to improve the IEC materials.

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Importance of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to come up with IEC materials for Kabayan ecotourism program. These materials served as information campaign material for the ecotourism program of the municipality.

The outcome helped to inform, guide and educate local and foreign tourists for every activity. This also benefited local people for it informed and explained the ecotourism programs of the municipality that could give livelihood opportunities to them.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study covered only the ecotourism program of Kabayan. Other tourism segments available in the place will not be included in this study.

Singasalao, Asapa Falls, Kabayan Weaving, Paltingan – Adiwenben Ecowalk were not included in the brochure and video documentary because they were optional and some falls and rivers were not available during summer time.

Bangao Cave and Timbac Cave were combined because they offered both mummies.

Production of IEC materials was limited only to two types of medium, one in print media and one in audio-visual media.  

         

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

What is Ecotourism?

Ecotourism has been defined as a form of nature-based tourism in the marketplace, but it has also been formulated and studied as a sustainable development tool by NGOs, development experts and academics since 1990. The term ecotourism, therefore, refers on one hand to a concept under a set of principles, and on the other hand to a specific market segment (Wood, 2002).

Wood (2002) further stated that the International Ecotourism Society (TIES) (previously known as The Ecotourism Society (TES)) in 1991 produced one of the earliest definitions:

Ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well being of local people.

In addition, IUCN (now called the World Conservation Union) states in 1996 that ecotourism:

Is environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features - both past and present) that promotes conservation, has low negative visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations (Wood, 2002).

Furthermore, according to Western Samoa, National Ecotourism Programme, ecotourism is cultural tourism (a cross-cultural experience), nature tourism (assisting with conservation programmes), a travel-learn experience (discover how we are coping with

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modernity), a little bit of soft adventure (just being here is an adventure), and benefiting the well-being of indigenous peoples (McDonald, 2005).

History of Ecotourism

According to McDonald (2005) the term “ecotourism” came into being in 1983 from Héctor Caballos-Lascuráin. It was used initially to describe travel, based in the natural world’s attractions, to relatively undisturbed areas with emphasis on educating those visiting. However, ecotourism has grown to include the application of a scientific method of planning, managing, and developing the tourism products, services, and activities.

McDonald (2005) further stated that ecotourism began as an untested idea that many hoped could contribute to the conservation of natural resources worldwide.

Research undertaken in Kenya in the 1970s (Thresher 1981) demonstrated that the economic benefits of wildlife tourism far surpassed hunting – an activity that was banned in Kenya in 1977. In the early 1980s, rain forests and coral reefs became the subject of both innumerable studies by biologists interested in biological diversity and of a plethora of nature film documentaries. This interest helped launch a wide variety of local small businesses specializing in guiding scientists and filmmakers into remote zones. As these small businesses quickly began to prosper in countries such as Costa Rica and Ecuador, a more formal industry soon evolved to meet the needs of small tourism groups that were primarily composed of birdwatchers and committed naturalists. In many areas of the world, pioneer entrepreneurs created special field visits and studies for adult travelers, students and volunteers.

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International nature-based businesses began International nature-based businesses began in outdoor travel and the environment, spurred by excellent new outdoor equipment for camping and hiking, and events such as Earth Day. These companies began to realize that they could take the initiative to conserve the environment by sponsoring local conservation groups in the destinations they visited or by raising funds for local causes.

They soon learned that training and hiring local people to run their businesses was the best way to manage their operations, and an excellent way of creating significant benefits for local people. Tour operators selling trips to the Galapagos Islands, Costa Rica, Kenya and Nepal were some of the early players in this movement. Some of these companies argue that, in fact, they had already been using ecotourism principles for some 20 to 30 years (Wood, 2002).

Components of Ecotourism

Wood (2002) stated that ecotourism aspires in all cases to achieve sustainable development results. These are the following components developed by United Nations Environment Programme:

1. Contributes to conservation of biodiversity.

2. Sustains the well being of local people.

3. Includes an interpretation / learning experience.

4. Involves responsible action on the part of tourists and the tourism industry.

5. Is delivered primarily to small groups by small-scale businesses.

6. Requires lowest possible consumption of non-renewable resources.

7. Stresses local participation, ownership and business opportunities, particularly

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for rural people.

Principles of Ecotourism

Wood (2002) stated that because ecotourism was originally just an idea, not a discipline, many businesses and governments promoted it without an understanding of its most basic principles. Establishing internationally and nationally accepted principles, guidelines and certification approaches proceeded throughout the 1990s but at a modest pace, because the process involves stakeholders from many regions, disciplines and backgrounds. Each region affected by ecotourism should develop its own principles, guidelines and certification procedures based on the materials already available internationally. This process of creating international certification guidelines is far from being completed.

The International Ecotourism Society has tracked the results of stakeholder meetings since 1991 to develop the set of principles, which are being embraced by a growing constituency of NGOs, private sector businesses, governments, academia and local communities (Wood, 2002).

In addition, Wood (2002) stated that once principles have been agreed upon, specific guidelines can be developed that help define the market’s best possible performance. Guidelines offer practical approaches to achieving sustainable development results, as gleaned from survey research on best practices and stakeholder meetings among researchers, the private sector, NGOs and local communities. International review finalizes the guidelines process, helping to assure that a wide variety of viewpoints are incorporated.

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These are the following set of principles being developed:

1. Minimize the negative impacts on nature and culture that can damage a destination.

2. Educate the traveler on the importance of conservation.

3. Stress the importance of responsible business, which works cooperatively with local authorities and people to meet local needs and deliver conservation benefits.

4. Direct revenues to the conservation and management of natural and protected areas.

5. Emphasize the need for regional tourism zoning and for visitor management plans designed for either regions or natural areas that are slated to become eco- destinations.

6. Emphasize use of environmental and social base-line studies, as well as long- term monitoring programs, to assess and minimize impacts.

7. Strive to maximize economic benefit for the host country, local business and communities, particularly peoples living in and adjacent to natural and protected areas.

8. Seek to ensure that tourism development does not exceed the social and environmental limits of acceptable change as determined by researchers in cooperation with local residents.

9. Rely on infrastructure that has been developed in harmony with the environment, minimizing use of fossil fuels, conserving local plants and wildlife, and blending with the natural and cultural environment.

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Who Benefits from Ecotourism?

Wood (2002) stated that the local people are those most immediately affected by the emerging market for international ecotourism. They also have the most to lose.

Ecotourism seeks to increase local control over tourism’s effects by stressing that local communities and business owners should be considered a vital part of an ecotourism programme. One of the principles of ecotourism is that local people are to be informed in advance of all the possible consequences of tourism development, and that they must formally consent to tourism development in their area.

According to the World Bank, ecotourism (along with adventure travel and cultural travel) is one of the three types of tourism most amenable to community-based initiatives. These niche markets provide especially desirable “customers” for culturally or environmentally sensitive areas: i.e. visitors who typically spend more and stay longer at a destination than the average tourist, generating a higher yield but with less impact on the life of the community and on local culture and the environment. Community-based tourism can generate a sense of pride in the local population and make funds available for maintaining or upgrading cultural assets (e.g. archaeological ruins, historic sites, traditional crafts production). It may also provide some of the best opportunities for “pro- poor tourism”, which takes the needs of impoverished local people into account in the planning of tourism development (UNEP, 2001).

Ecotourism can have both direct and indirect economic impacts on a community.

Direct impacts are derived from money spent directly by tourists, for example at a restaurant; indirect impacts occur when the restaurant purchases goods and services from other businesses and pays its employees, who can use their wages to buy other goods and

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services. If the restaurant obtains goods or services outside the local area, the money has no indirect impacts on this area – it is “leakage”

Furthermore, UNEP (2001) considered that ecotourism’s economic contribution to local communities needs to be evaluated based mainly on the success of local vendors.

The types of products and services most often offered to ecotourists by local community members include food (e.g. from stands, restaurants), vehicle rentals, taxis, guided visits, recreation (e.g. using horses, boats, rafts, bikes) and crafts. Vendors are crucial to the success of any ecotourism venture and its ability to benefit local communities. Frequently their businesses are quite small. Owners may need some encouragement or capital assistance to get started. This could be provided by NGOs or the ecotourism industry.

The greater the number of micro-enterprises in a tourism area, the more likely it is that a significant percentage of local people will benefit. In areas where there are few small businesses, leakage can be reduced by instituting lease fees, land rental fees and other per-person use charges, and making sure they go to local residents. Successful efforts to encourage community entrepreneurship are based on local cultural needs and value-added approaches to local products, such as improving packaging and design.

Ecotourism-related goods and services can provide local people with supplemental income, but they are also of importance in creating new jobs. For example, private nature reserves and ecotourist destinations are being developed in Africa. The reserves are generally established primarily for conservation purposes (rather than hunting) and are increasingly viable economically due to tourism income. The average African private reserve, which creates 457 months of employment per year, is an important source of income in a local community. In the case of other types of

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ecotourism projects the number of jobs created may be low. However, in rural areas even a few new jobs can make a big difference (UNEP, 2001).

The Role of Governments

UNEP (2001) said that one of the fundamental problems with respect to environmental protection is the difficulty of putting a value on the environment and on resources such as scenery or biodiversity. Ecotourism helps create a direct commercial value for environmental protection through entry fees charged at national parks and protected areas. Well-regulated protected areas, like the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) have created significant local and national-level benefits from entry fees paid by nature and ecotourism companies on behalf of their clients and from license fees for tour boats.

In 1998, Galapagos entrance fees totalled US$ 4.3 million. Over the years, such fees have enabled Ecuador’s national park service to manage the islands by limiting visitor numbers, requiring high-quality guide services by local people, controlling which islands are visited and which trails are used, and providing some support to park management.

It is important to set fees high enough to cover the expenses of proper park management. When entrance fees are too low, the government may be subsidizing tourism – and its attendant impacts (UNEP, 2001).

Ecotourism in the Philippines

Ecotourism as a concept came into the Philippines in 1992 as the country joined the 4th Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) Adventure Travel and Ecotourism Conference and Mart held in Malaysia. This marked the recognition of the ecotourism as

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a means of redirecting the utility of natural resources to more sustainable ways (Parao, 2003 as cited by Lamirez, 2009).

According to Libosada (1998) as cited by Lamirez (2009), some ecotourism activities have been identified as possible for the Philippines and are currently undergoing development. These are mountaineering/ trekking, bird watching, photo safari, scuba diving, spelunking, and whale and dolphin watching.

Ecotourism Program of Kabayan, Benguet

The municipality of Kabayan, following upon a series of successful tourism activities, launched a four-day ecotourism blitz on April 30 to May 03, 2008, which sought to showcase the town’s natural assets and its centuries-old mummies and culminated in grand cañao. The idea is that after seeing the sights, tourists will have the chance to participate in the activities of the grand cañao and interact with residents. The series of ecotourism activities is meant not only to showcase the town’s natural wonders and rich cultural heritage but also to attract investors to the land-locked town (Laking, 2008 as cited by Lamirez, 2009).

There are six ecotourism packages of the municipality. These are:

1. Natural Museum, Singasalao (Optional), Asapa Falls(Optional), Kabayan Weaving, Opdas cave, Paltingan – Adiwenben Ecowalk(Optional), Besang Footprints.

2. Tinongchol – (ride/ hike) with free package 1 tour 3. Timbac cave - (ride/ hike) with free package 1 tour 4. Bangao cave - (ride/ hike) with free package 1 tour 5. Lakes with free package 1 tour

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6. Mount Pulag

Information Education and Communication (IEC) Materials

International Rice Research Institute (1991) as cited by Solimen (2003) stated that studies have established that communication is more effective when more than one sense at a time is engaged. This means that the more media are employed, the greater is the possibility of the message to reach audience and influence them. Thus a combination of interpersonal and mass communication strategies is often used.

Information Education and Communication (IEC) materials are tools used to influence or change the knowledge base, attitudes, beliefs, values, behavior or norms within individuals or group of individuals (ICPD, 1998 as cited by Enkiwe, 2007).

Print Media

Print media refer to publications. Publications may be classified according to time-bound and timeless. Time-bound publications are those, which contain information that, are useful when new. The timeless publications may remain useful overtime although their content needs to be updated from time to time. Publications include brochure, poster, manual, and leaflet (Cadiz, 1991).

Audiovisual Media

Audiovisual media refer to types of communication materials that can be seen, heard, or both seen or heard (Lustria, 2001). These include soundslides, television and video films like movie, video documentary, and music video.  

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METHODOLOGY

Locale and Time of the Study

The study was conducted in the Municipality of Kabayan, Benguet (Figure 1).

Kabayan is one of the 13 municipalities of Benguet Province. Benguet on the other hand is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) in Luzon.

Kabayan is a fifth class municipality of Benguet politically subdivided into 13 barangays. It is located about 85 kilometers Northeast of Baguio City. The origin of the present Kabayan lies in a small Nabaloi speaking settlement called Embosi that emerged near the Agno River. It is believed that it is this settlement that many of the Kabayan people cultural practices flourished. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 12,344 people in 2,063 households.

The municipality is recognized as the seat of Ibaloi culture. Kabayan is also known for their long traditional practice of mummifying their dead.

Kabayan also owns the biggest territory of Mt. Pulag, the third highest mountain in the Philippines and the highest in Luzon with 9,610 feet elevation.

The area was chosen because the municipality has several ecotourism programs that offer a wide array of related activities for the local and foreign tourists.

The study was conducted from December 2009 to February 2010.

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Figure 1. Map of Benguet showing the locale of the study

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Respondents of the Study

For the pre-production, the respondents were the members of Local Government Unit-Kabayan, tour guides, entrepreneurs, local people, local and foreign tourists.

For the production phase, the key informants were the members of Local Government Unit-Kabayan (LGU-Kabayan) who supplied the needed information for the materials.

For the evaluation phase of IEC materials, the respondents were the local and foreign tourists, local people, tour guides, tour agencies and Local Government Unit- Kabayan.

Data Collection Method

For the pre-production, survey questionnaires were used to gather the data needed on identifying the appropriate IEC materials to be produced.

For the production phase, interview-schedule was used to get the information to be included in the materials.

For the evaluation phase, survey questionnaires were used in gathering the needed data.

A video camera and camera were used to capture footages of ecotourism programs and interviews with the key informants.

Secondary documents and direct observation were used also in gathering data.

Data Gathered

For the pre-production, the data that were gathered were the preference of IEC

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For the production phase, the data that were gathered were the content of the IEC materials to be produced and evaluated. It included the ecotourism packages of the municipality.

For the evaluation phase, there were two different categories for print and audio- visual media. The data that were gathered in the print were the ratings of the respondents in terms of the following: content, layout, typography, pictures and graphics used. While for audio-visual the data that were gathered were the ratings of the respondents in terms of the following: video quality, audio quality, and message.

Data Analysis

The data were analyzed and tabulated using percentage, frequency, ranking and mean. 

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Socio-demographic Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 shows the respondents’ socio-demographic profile in terms of sex, age and civil status.

Out of 50 respondents, twenty-seven (54%) of the respondents were male and twenty-three (46%) were female.

Ten (20%) of the respondents belonged to age bracket of 49-53 while 6%

belonged to age bracket of 14-18. The youngest respondent was 14 years old while the oldest was 53 years old. Twenty-six (52%) of the respondents were married and twenty- four (48%) of them are single.

Table 1. Socio-demographic profile of the respondents

CHARACTERISTICS FREQUENCY (N=50)

PERCENTAGE Sex

Male Female

27 23

54 46

TOTAL 50 50

Age 14-18 19-23 24-28 29-33 34-38 39-43 44-48 49-53

3 5 9 7 4 4 8 10

6 10 18 14 8 8 16 20

TOTAL 50 100

Civil Status Single Married

24 26

48 52

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Print Medium Preference of the Respondents

Table 2 shows the mean and ranking of the medium preference of the respondents. Based on the ranking of preference (4 as the highest and 1 is the least), brochure ranked first with a mean of 3.78, poster ranked second with a mean 2.92, leaflet ranked third with a mean 2.26 and others (magazine and newspaper) ranked fourth with a mean of 1.04.

Some respondents said that this is so because a brochure is handy compared to posters and magazines.

This supports the study of Tierney (2000) that brochures were the most frequently used source of information for during-trip planning.

Tierney (2000) also added that nearly 69% of respondents who got a brochure agreed it was very or extremely helpful in planning their current trip. His research also clearly shows the importance of brochure distribution racks for information, planning and purchases during a trip, especially a multi-day leisure trip by non-residents.

Audio-visual Preference of the Respondents

Table 3 presents the preferred audio-visual medium by the respondents. Video documentary ranked first with a mean of 2.88, followed by music video with a mean of 2 and others (movie) with a mean of 1.3.

The results relate to the study of Tanacio (2004) where it was noted that the respondents chose video documentary because it is a non-fiction film; and the vast majority of facts related films are actually unbiased recordings.

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Table 2. Preferred print medium by the respondents

PREFERRED PRINT MEDIUM MEAN RANK

Brochure 3.78 1

Poster 2.92 2

Leaflet 2.26 3

Others 1.04 4

Table 3. Preferred audio-visual medium

PREFERRED AUDIO-VISUAL MEDIUM MEAN RANK

Video documentary 2.88 1

Music video 2 2

Others 1.3 3

Language Preference for Print Medium

Table 4 presents the respondents ranking on their preferred language. Based on the ranking of preference (5 as the highest and 1 as the least), English ranked first with a mean of 4.88, Tagalog ranked second with a mean of 3.90, Ilocano ranked third with a mean of 2.88, Ibaloi ranked fourth with a mean of 2.30 and others ranked fifth with a mean of 1.04. The other languages that were listed by the respondents were Chinese, Bisaya and Kankaney.

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According to the respondents who chose English, it was the international language, thus more people can understand it since both locals and foreigners were assumed to be more familiar to it.

Table 4. Preferred language for print medium

PREFERRED LANGUAGE MEAN RANK

English 4.88 1

Tagalog 3.90 2

Ilocano 2.88 3

Ibaloi 2.30 4

Others 1.04 5

The data relates to the study of Cristina (2005) where it was noted that English is the language of tourism. It is becoming a global language unlike any other in the history.

So to be able to inform also other nationalities, English must be used in IEC materials.

Language Preference for Audio-visual Medium

Based on the ranking of preference (5 as the highest and 1 is the least), English ranked first with a mean of 4.92, Tagalog ranked second with a mean of 3.86, Ilocano ranked third with a mean of 2.88, Ibaloi ranked fourth with a mean of 2.34 and others ranked fifth with a mean is 1.00 (Table 5). These other languages that were also listed by the respondents were Chinese, Bisaya, and Kankanaey.

Again, according to the respondents, the main reason why English was the most preferred was that it was the international language. This can be understood by both

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Table 5. Preferred language for audio-visual medium

PREFERRED LANGUAGE MEAN RANKING

English 4.92 1

Tagalog 3.86 2

Ilocano 2.88 3

Ibaloi 2.34 4

Others 1.00 5

Description of the Brochure

The print medium that was produced was a folder-type brochure with five leaves.

The measurement of the folder was 9.6” width by 8.5” height while each leaf has a measurement of 4.5” width by 8” height (Figure. 2 to 4).

The folder showed the cover design, brief description of Kabayan, its map, the content of the folder, and the office responsible for the program. It also showed every photo of ecotourism sites.

There were five leaves inside the folder containing the packages of ecotourism.

The front included photographs of the package site with brief information about the area.

At the back, it included general information about transportation, lodging, and package tour rates.

Photograph of the mummy was chosen to be placed in the front cover because it

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was what Kabayan is known for. Green color was selected to compliment ecotourism. It was printed in a special paper.

Figure 2. The whole cover of the folder-type brochure

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Figure 3. Content of the brochure that shows the front figure of every package tour in every one leaf

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Figure 4. Content of the brochure that shows the back figure of every package tour in every one leaf

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28 

Description of the Video Documentary

A voice over was used to narrate the information needed for the video documentary. Running time of the video presentation was ten minutes and twenty seconds. Background music was used to draw attention to the scenes.

The introduction part highlights the ecotourism sites of every package. Every package was consolidated into one part. In the conclusion part, a remark about protecting and preserving the natural sites of Kabayan was included.

Aspect ratio used was 4:3. Dissolve effect was used in some transition and cut-to- cut was also used. Except for still pictures, all footages were taken by the researcher. The researcher also edited the video (Please see Appendix C for the Video Documentary Script).

Procedures in Producing the Brochure

Before designing the brochure, the researcher consulted first the Municipal Tourism Office of Kabayan, the office responsible for tourism program. The designs were suggested and decided by the staff of the office.

The reason why it is a folder-type brochure is for less cost production. Officials stated that putting one ecotourism package to one leaf can cost them less because they

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will only give one leaf if tourists will ask about the specific package tours.

Before starting to make the brochure, elements of visual design were considered and are based on visual designs by Cadiz (1991) and Summers (2000). Content, layout, typography, pictures and graphics, and others were carefully planned to produce a good output for evaluation (Figure 5).

Figure 5. The process of developing the brochure

Procedures in Producing the Video Documentary

Three phases were considered in this production as follows: pre-production, production and post -production.

In the pre-production, the researcher began with a planning discussion with the cooperating partner, Kabayan Municipal Tourism Office.

It was followed by preliminary discussion with the same Office to create a clear and appropriate message. The conception of film was based on the objectives set by the researcher and the officials. Interview was then done to organize story ready for production.

Phase 3 PRODUCTION  

Layouting of the design

conceptualized in the computer and printing of the brochure.

Phase 2 DESIGNING Conceptualization of design and layout of the brochure based on elements of visual design.

Phase 1 PLANNING Interviewed

officials responsible of the ecotourism program for the content of the brochure.

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30 

For the production phase, taking of video footages of this project took days to finish. Interviews were also done to get information about the sites that will be presented.

Script was then developed for recording based on the information gathered.

In the post-production or editing phase, footages were assembled into a finished video documentary based on the story that was conceptualized. A variety of instrumental music were used as background music (Figure 6).

Figure 6. The process of developing the video documentary

Respondents’ Rating Towards the Brochure

Content. Table 6 shows the rating of the respondents on the criteria of the content.

In terms of clear purpose, 56% of the respondents gave a rating of good, 38% of them gave a rating of excellent and 6% gave a rating of average.

This shows that the respondents understand the purpose of the brochure.

For the criterion of clarity and conciseness, 54% of the respondents rated it good, 38% rated it excellent, and 8% rated it average.

One of the respondents, Abner Mercado, host and news reporter of ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, said that the content is clear and informational although it is

Post-Production  

Editing and processing.

Production Location shooting and audio

recording.

Pre-Production Discussion and planning of video documentary to be developed.

Interview and scriptwriting .

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concise.

In the criterion of organization, 58% of the respondents gave a rating of “good”, 32% gave a rating of “excellent”, 8% gave a rating of “average”, and 2% gave a rating of

“fair”. This is the only criterion under the criteria of content that has a rating of fair.

Table 6. Ratings of respondents on the content of the brochure

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

Excellent Good Average Fair Total

Clear Purpose 38 56 6 - 100

Clear and Concise 38 54 8 - 100

Organized 32 58 8 2 100

Significant 40 54 6 - 100

One reason could be was because it was a folder-type. One respondent said that while the contents of the brochure are very good, for mass production it will be better to make it like a booklet because the pages might slip off from the folder.

Moreover, 54% of the respondents rated the significance of material as good, 40% of them rated it excellent, and 6% rated it average.

This criterion gained good ratings maybe because the contents of brochure were important to them.

Respondents even said that there was no need for improvement here because they all got the important facts that are needed.

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According to Wilson (2007) as cited by Pinkihan (2008), one of the major contributors to a good first impression is how easy your content to read. Content should have clear message and purpose.

This implies that the content of the brochure was good enough to satisfy the tastes of most of the respondents.

Layout. Table 7 presents the rating of the respondents on the of layout of the brochure.

The color was rated by the respondents with 56% as good, 22% as excellent, 12%

average, and 10% fair.

Abner Mercado, one of the respondents, commented that there is a need to improve the color correction and tone.

Color correction is the process of regulating and correcting the color value of photo images. This service helps to improve the overall color quality of photographs (Novogratz, n.d.).

This can be related to what Cadiz (1991) noted that color is very important in designs because it makes the presentation more life-like or realistic.

In terms of space, 36% rated it good, 24% rated it average, 22% rated it excellent, and 18% rated it fair. This criterion gained the highest percentage of fair among the criteria under layout.

Table 7. Ratings of respondents on the of layout of the brochure

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

Excellent Good Average Fair Total

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Color 22 56 12 10 100

Space 22 36 24 18 100

Contrast 20 50 20 10 100

Design 44 40 12 4 100

Creativity 56 30 14 - 100

Some of the respondents’ reaction to this criterion was there was not enough space between the text and the graphics. This supported the statement of Summers (2000) that using blank space around paragraphs and columns improves legibility. This may be the reason why it gained the highest percentage of fair among the criteria under layout.

For the criterion of contrast, 50% of the respondents gave a rating of good, 20%

gave a rating of excellent and good and 10% gave a rating of fair.

Based on the respondents, they liked the contrast because the layout used different colors in every leaf. At least they can distinguish that every leaf was different from one another.

Contrast is one of the elements of visual design to be considered most. Jan Tsichold (1967), a famous graphic designer, argues that contrast may be the most important element of visual design (Summers, 2000).  

In addition, Watts and Nesbit (2005) as cited by Egsan (2009) explained that having well contrast and distinctive patterns attracts the eye and the brain of the reader.

In the design of layout, 44% of the respondents rated it “excellent”, 40% rated it

“good”, 12 % rated it “average” and 4% rated it “fair”.

According to the respondents, they liked the layout because it was well organized.

They also added that it was well-designed because the text has different place from the

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pictures which is easier for them to concentrate on one area. However, one said that the layout in the on the other side of the brochure was too formal.

A good design is a powerful tool in layouting. According to Benson (2002) as cited by Pinkihan (2008), a well-designed application will make it easy for the user to understand the information being presented, and show them clearly how they can interact with that information.

In the criterion of creativity, 56% of the respondent gave a rating of excellent, 30% gave a rating of good and 14% gave a rating of average.

In all the criteria of layout, creativity gained the highest rate for excellence.

According to the respondents, the layout and the design of the brochure specially the leaves are different from each other. The colors used were not the same all throughout and contrast was good, they added.

Layout is very important in making IEC materials. Summers (2000) stated that a good layout gets the reader’s attention, and encourages them to keep reading, and is adapted to the audience.

Based on the overall results, this implied that the layout of the brochure was likened by the respondents.

Pictures and graphics. Results for this category are presented in Table 8.

In terms of appearance, 44% of the respondents gave a rating of excellent and good and 12% gave a rating of average.

Table 8. Ratings of respondents on the pictures and graphics of the brochure

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

Excellent Good Average Fair Total

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Appearance 44 44 12 - 100 Appropriateness 32 50 12 6 100

Design 42 36 16 6 100

Size 32 44 18 6 100

Number 34 48 18 - 100

In the criterion of design, the respondents gave a highest rating for excellent (42%). However, 6% respondents gave a rating of fair. According to the respondents, though the design of the picture was simple, it was beautiful and eye-catching.

Forty-four percent of the respondents gave a rating of good, 32% of them gave a rating of excellent, 18% gave a rating of average and 6% gave a rating of fair for the criterion of size of the pictures.

Respondents stated here that though the size of the picture were good, there were some of the pictures that are supposed to be large but are put small and vice versa.

For the number of pictures, 48% of the respondents rated it good, 34% rated it excellent, and 18% rated it average.

Some respondents commented that number of pictures in some package leaves too many especially on the part where the Tinongchol Burial Rock picture was located.

Pictures and graphics are used to attract the attention of the reader or audience. To be effective, Summers (2000) said that pictures should be clear, sharp and looks good.

Typography. In this category, it includes font style, font size, font color and heading used in the brochure. Results for this category are presented in Table 9.

In the category of font style, 50% of the respondents gave a rating of good, 32%

gave a rating of excellent and 18% gave a rating of average.

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One respondent, a French national, claimed that the letters are readable even if they are small because most font styles used are sans serif.

This supported the statement of Cadiz (1991) that sans serif or Gothic lettering style is the most legible and recommended for visuals.

In terms of font size, 50% of the respondents rated it good, 32% rated it excellent, 16% rated it average and 8% rated it fair.

Table 9. Ratings of respondents on the typography of the brochure

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

Excellent Good Average Fair Total

Font Style 32 50 18 - 100

Font Size 26 50 16 8 100

Font Color 32 34 30 4 100

Heading 36 46 18 - 100

Some respondents, especially the old people, said that it is quiet small that they need to use their eyeglasses.

For font color, 34% of the respondents gave a rating of good, 32% of them gave a rating of excellent, 30% gave a rating of average and 4% gave a rating of fair.

Some respondents commented that the color of the font complimented the background.

In the criterion of headings, 46% of the respondents rated it good, 36% of them rated it excellent and 18% rated it average.

According to some respondents, the heading was good because it is not presented

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in all capital letters.

This is supported by Summers (2000) where he noted that avoid putting text in all capital letters (text in all capital letters is harder to read because all the words have the basically the same shape – a rectangle).

Letter legibility is very important in producing print media. According to Cadiz (1991), words must be legible and readable to be effective.

Respondents’ Rating Towards the Video Documentary

Video quality. Table 10 presents the respondents’ rating on the criteria of video quality.

Majority of the respondents stated that the quality of the video is good.

Based on the results, these criteria gained the highest rating for good: clarity (58%), actions (48%), type of shots (44%), appropriateness of shot (42%), angles (48%), focus (42%), and composition (54%).

The respondents commented it good because some of them were satisfied. They appreciated the video because they were pleased although it was made by an amateur student.

Table 10. Ratings of respondents on video quality

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

Excellent Good Average Fair Total

Clarity 30 58 8 4 100

Actions 38 48 14 - 100

Type of Shots 40 44 16 - 100

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38  Appropriateness of

Shot

36 42 14 8 100

Angles 28 48 20 4 100

Creativity 46 44 10 - 100

Stability 36 28 32 4 100

Focus 40 42 18 - 100

Composition 34 54 12 - 100

Abner Mercado, one of the respondents, commented that the video is not that great but not that bad.

However, creativity (46%) and stability (36%) gained a highest rating for excellent. Clarity (4%), appropriateness of shots (8%), angles (4%) and stability (4%) were given a rate of fair.

Some of the respondents commented that the pace of the video is too quick specially the transition. Also some observed that some shots are not stable. These unstable shot were mostly taken hand-held.

This relates to what Casaul, Garcia and Lim (2008) noted that hand-held camera shooting is not encouraged because this tends to be too unstable and jarring.

Audio Quality. Table 11 shows the rating of the respondents on the criteria of quality of audio.

Among the five criteria, only pitch (38%) gained a highest rating for excellent.

Most of the respondents rated the quality of audio good. This was evaluated as to its clarity (44%), appropriateness of background music (46%), voice-over (36%) and quality of sounds (38%).

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Some respondents, mostly foreigners, understood the voice-over clearly. But many commented that there were some words that were swallowed by the narrator during the voice over.

Respondents in the local area commented also on the background music. They said that they prefer ethnic music rather than modern.

Based on the result and comments of the respondents, there are areas that need improvements especially the voice-over and background music.

Table 11. Ratings of respondents on audio quality

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

Excellent Good Average Fair Total

Clarity 40 44 12 4 100

Appropriateness of background music

34 46 16 4 100

Voice Over 32 36 24 8 100

Pitch 38 26 30 6 100

Quality of Sounds 34 38 14 4 100

Content. Table 12 shows the ratings of respondents on the criteria of content.

Majority of the respondents said that the content of the video documentary is excellent. Except for editing (38%), all of the criteria gained a highest rating for excellent: clear purpose (58%), clear and concise (48%), organized (52%) and significant (58%).

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40 

Most of the respondents have good comments for the content. Some said that the presentation of the content is understandable and has enough information.

Message. Table 13 presents the ratings of the respondents on the message of the video documentary.

Based on the results, majority (51.5%) of the respondents gave a rating of excellent for the message. The respondents evaluated the message as to its clarity (46%), appropriateness (52%), purpose (58%), and presentation (50%).

Results show that the message of the video documentary is clear and met its purpose.

The reason maybe was the audience clearly understood and got the important information needed.

According to Soriano (2000), a logical presentation of information is vital to introduce the important impact of the cause and effect, problem to solution, enumeration, classification into logical categories and theme and counter-theme.

Table 12. Ratings of respondents on the content of the video documentary

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

(%)

Excellent Good Average Total

Clear Purpose 58 34 8 100

Clear and Concise 48 44 8 100

Organized 52 42 6 100

Significant 58 32 10 100

Editing 38 50 12 100

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Table 13. Ratings of respondents on the message of the video documentary

CRITERIA PERCENTAGE

(%)

Excellent Good Average Total

Clarity 46 46 8 100

Appropriateness 52 40 8 100

Purpose 58 36 6 100

Presentation 50 42 8 100

Overall Rating of the Brochure

Table 14 presents the overall rating of the brochure. The criterion of each category was interpreted using means and its equivalent.

Mean of 1 to 1.99 is equivalent to P (Poor), mean of 2 to 2.99 is equivalent to F (Fair), mean of 3 to 3.99 is equivalent to A (Average), mean of 4 to 4.99 is equivalent to G (Good), and mean of 5 to 5.99 is equivalent to E (Excellent).

The result of overall rating of the brochure is good with a mean of 4.11. Content has the highest rate with a mean of 4.29 while layout has the least rate with a mean of 4.0.

Based on the results, minor improvement is needed especially on space, color, contrast, font size and font color in order to meet what the audience want.

Table 14. Overall rating of the brochure

MEAN INTERPRETATION

Clear Purpose 4.32 Good

Clear and Concise 4.3 Good

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Significant 4.34 Good

Color 3.9 Average

Space 3.62 Average

Contrast 3.8 Average

Design 4.24 Good

Creativity 4.42 Good

Appearance 4.32 Good

Appropriateness 4.08 Good

Design 4.14 Good

Size 4.02 Good

Number 4.16 Good

Font Style 4.14 Good

Font Size 3.94 Average

Font Color 3.94 Average

Heading 4.18 Good

Total 4.11 Good

Overall Rating of the Video Documentary

Table 15 shows the overall rating of the video documentary. Criterion of each category was interpreted using mean and its equivalent.

Mean of 1 to 1.99 is equivalent to P (Poor), mean of 2 to 2.99 is equivalent to F (Fair), mean of 3 to 3.99 is equivalent to A (Average), mean of 4 to 4.99 is equivalent to G (Good), and mean of 5 to 5.99 is equivalent to E (Excellent).

The result of overall rating of the video documentary is good with a mean of 4.28.

Message has the highest rate with a mean of 4.44 while audio quality has the least rate with a mean of 4.06.

Based on the results, minor improvement is needed specially on stability of shots, voice-over, and pitch in order to meet the taste of the audience.

The implication of the results proved that the ratings of the video documentary were good enough to satisfy the desire of the respondents. However, there are still minor improvements to be done

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Suggestions of the Respondents for the Improvement of the Brochure

Respondents’ suggestions to improve the brochure were also gathered to determine what area needs improvement the most.

Content. For the content, some respondents suggested that it will be revised to add more important pictures and delete unnecessary elements such as names and repeated pictures.

Some suggested that captions of the photos should be brief, highlighting the cultural significance of the site or object only.

Table 15. Overall rating of the video documentary

MEAN INTERPRETATION

Clarity 4.14 Good

Actions 4.24 Good

Type of Shots 4.24 Good

Appropriateness of Shot 4.06 Good

Angles 4 Good

Creativity 4.36 Good

Stability 3.96 Average

Focus 4.22 Good

Composition 4.22 Good

Clarity 4.2 Good

Appropriateness of Shot 4.1 Good

Voice Over 3.92 Average

Pitch 3.96 Average

Quality of Sounds 4.12 Good

Clear Purpose 4.5 Good

Clear and Concise 4.4 Good

Organized 4.46 Good

Significant 4.28 Good

Editing 4.26 Good

Clarity 4.38 Good

Appropriateness 4.44 Good

Purpose 4.52 Good

Clarity 4.38 Good

Total 4.28 Good

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One respondent also suggested that names will be removed for the reason that mentioning names is like promoting the person.

Layout. For the layout, most of the respondents suggested that the dark photos should be brighter and improve the color correction.

Improving the tone of the pictures is the most common suggestion for pictures and graphics. Pictures should be lightened because they are dark. Others said that number of pictures should be lessened, and present the best pictures and angles depicting the sites or object.

Typography. For typography, most common suggestion is to enlarge some text specially on the leaf of Mt. Pulag and Ntural Museum, Opdas Cave and Besang Footprint and delete not so important words to have more white spaces.

This support Summers (2000) who stated that using lots of blank space around text could improve legibility. Text with lots of surrounding blank space may attract and hold readers’ attention longer.

Respondents also suggested that production of brochure should not be limited on the eco-tourism packages but will also include the handicrafts and agricultural products and cultural activities of Kabayan, Benguet.

Suggestions of the Respondents

for the Improvement of the Video Documentary

To further improve the output, suggestions of the respondents were collected.

Video quality. Stability of shots is the number one suggestion for the video quality. Some also said to slow down the transition and have at least minimum of four

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seconds of transition.

More detailed shots also are also encouraged with less dissolve effects. Others also suggested that there is no need for many zoom in/ zoom out technique. However, zoom in/ zoom out technique was used to show perspective to detailed shot of an object or vice versa aside from artistic reason.

Some respondents, mostly local people, suggested that diverse flora and fauna will be included.

Audio quality. For the audio, local respondents suggested that narrator should be an Ibaloi so that Ibaloi terms will be properly pronounced. They also added that background music will be changed to ethnic music.

Some also suggested to use natural sounds because it will make the watcher feel as if they are there and will want to be there. Improvement of the pitch is also suggested.

Editing. Some respondents suggested to improve the editing specially the timing.

According to Casaul, Garcia and Lim (2008), timing is the appropriate moment when a cut should be made. They also stressed that proper use of timing increases the effectivity of the shot sequence.

Content. Local respondents suggested that cultural activities especially Bendyan Festival will be included in the video and local products also of the municipality.

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

The study aims to develop and evaluate IEC materials of ecotourism program of Kabayan, Benguet. Specific objectives of this study are to: determine the socio- demographic profiles of the respondents; develop IEC materials as determined by intended audience; assess the ratings of the respondents towards the IEC materials based on the following factors: content, layout, typography, pictures and graphics used for print medium and video quality, audio quality, and message for audio-visual medium; and determine the respondents’ suggestions to improve the IEC materials.

There were50 respondents of the study for the preliminary survey and and 50 respondents also for evaluation. Respondents were local people and visitors. The study was conducted in Kabayan, Benguet. Data were consolidated and analyzed using frequency counts, percentage weighted mean and ranking.

Based on the result, respondents preferred brochure for print and English as its medium of instruction and video documentary for audio-visual and English also as its medium of instruction.

The developed brochure was folder-type brochure with five leaves. One package was presented in one leaf with description in the front and general information in the back. The produced video documentary is voice over-typed. Its running time was ten minutes and twenty second.

Results showed that the result of overall rating of the brochure is good with a mean of 4.11 while the result of overall rating of the video documentary is good with a mean of 4.28.

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Suggestions that were gathered to improve the IEC materials were enlighten of the color and enlargement of the font size, stability of shots, improvements of voice over and background music.

Conclusions

Based on the result, the following conclusions were derived;

1. The respondents preferred brochure for print because this is handy and frequently used source of information for during-trip planning while video documentary for audio-visual because it is non-fiction.

2. English was the most preferred language for both IEC materials which implies that English is still the universal language and understood by most people.

3. The rating of the brochure was good as well as the video documentary.

4. Minor improvements are needed to enhance the produced materials specially that the outputs will serve as IEC materials of Kabayan, Benguet.

Recommendations

1. Improvements of the IEC materials should be done before disseminating it.

2. The Local Government Unit of Kabayan should also consider to allot specific budget if they want to include their cultural activities and handicrafts and agricultural in the brochure and video documentary.

3. The Local Government Unit of Kabayan should reproduce the IEC materials and disseminate them to achieve its purpose for promotion of their ecotourism program.

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4. Local Government Unit of Kabayan may also consider to sell the IEC materials to gain the cost of production.

5. There is a need to revise the IEC materials every year or every two years because there is possibility that the sites and rates will change.

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LITERATURE CITED

CADIZ, Ma. C.H. 1991. Educational Communication for Development: Basic Concepts, Theories and Know-how. UPLB: CA Publications Program. Pp. 46-47, 128-153.

CASAUL, M., GARCIA, J AND LIM, M. 2008. The Media Kit: A Frame-by-Frame Guide to Visual Production. Pasig City: ANVIL Publishing, Inc. Pp. 24, 121.

CRISTINA, M. 2005. English as a Global Language. Republic of Moldova: Ministry of Education. P. 4.

EGSAN, J. 2009. Evaluation of the Poster on BSU Eco-waste Management Program in Benguet State University. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 26.

ENKIWE, G. 2007. Evaluation of Two IEC Materials on Cordillera Regional Autonomy for La Trinidad Barangay Officials. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 7.

LAMIREZ, A. 2009. Strategies in Promoting Ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, LaTrinidad, Benguet. Pp. 1,3.

LUSTRIA, M.L. 2001. Development of Print and Radio Communication Materials Volume I. Diliman, Quezon City: UP Open University, P. 10.

MCDONALD, C. 2005. Ecotourism. Paris, France: UNEP. P.2.

MERINO, F. 1989. The Kabayan Mummies and the Bendiyan Cañao. Kabayan, Benguet, Philippines: n.d. Pp. 2, 26.

NOVOGRATZ, J .n.d. Getting the Perfect Picture with Color Correction. Retrieved March 31, 2010 from http://www.squidoo.com/Image_editing_tips _colorcorrection.

PINKIHAN, N. 2008. Evaluation of Laboratory Manuals Produced by Teachers in Selected Basic Agricultural Courses in the College of Agriculture, Benguet State University. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 23, 25.

SOLIMEN, C. 2003. Instructional Media Preferences of Students of Basic Agricultural Courses in the College of Agriculture, Benguet State University. BS Thesis.

Benguet State University, LaTrinidad, Benguet. P. 6.

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50  SUMMERS, K. 2000. Elements of Effective Visual Design. Retrieved March 24, 2010

from http://iat.ubalt.edu/courses/old/pbds756.185_Sp02/visual_design_ch.pdf.

TANACIO, P. 2004. Mountain Province State Polytechnic College Story, A Video Documentary. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, LaTrinidad, Benguet. P. 7.

TIERNEY, P. 2000. An International Assessment of the Effectiveness of Brochure Dustribution Racks for During-Trip Planning. Retrieved from March 24, 2010 from http://www.apbd.org/APBDExec_Summ03.pdf.

UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP). 2001. Industry and Environment: Ecotourism and Sustainability. Paris, France: United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE). Pp. 7-8.

WOOD, M. 2002. Ecotourism: Principles, Practices and Policies for Sustainability. Paris, France: United Nations Publication. Pp. 7-14.

WIKIPEDIA. Map of Kabayan, Benguet. Retrieved October 7, 2009 from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Ph_locator_benguet_kaba yan.png.

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Benguet state Univesity College of Agriculture

DEPARTMENT OF DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION La Trinidad, Benguet

FAUSTINO AQUISAN Municipal Mayor Kabayan, Benguet

Sir:

Greetings!

I am Alemar Amdengan, a fourth year student of Benguet State University taking up BS in Development Communication major in Educational Communication. I am currently working on my thesis entitled, “Development and Evaluation of Information Education Campaign Materials for Ecotourism Program of Kabayan, Benguet.”

In this connection, I would like to ask your permission to administer the questionnaire that I will be providing to 25 local respondents and 25 local and foreign tourists. This will facilitate the gathering of the data needed on my study.

I look forward to your positive response on this request.

Thank you very much and God bless!

Respectfully yours,

ALEMAR P. AMDENGAN Researcher

NOTED BY:

CHRISTINE GRACE SIDCHOGAN Adviser

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APPENDIX B Benguet State University

College of Agriculture

Department of Development Communication La Trinidad, Benguet

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE I. Personal Profile

A. Name (optional) _____________________________________________

B. Age __________________ C. Sex _______________________

D. Status ________________

II. A. What IEC materials do you prefer in presenting and promoting the ecotourism program of Kabayan, Benguet? Please rank it according to your preference (5 as the most preferred and 1 as the least preferred).

Print Media

_____ a. brochure _____ b. poster _____ c. leaflet

_____ d. others (please specify) _________________________

Audio-Visual Media _____ a. video documentary _____ b. music video

_____ c. others (please specify) _________________________

B. What language do you prefer for the IEC materials? Please rank it according to your preference (5 as the most preferred and 1 as the least preferred).

Print Media _____ a. English

_____ b. Tagalog _____ c. Ilocano _____ d. Ibaloi

_____ e. others (please specify) _________________________

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Audio-Visual Media _____ a. English _____ b. Tagalog _____ c. Ilocano _____ d. Ibaloi

_____ e. others (please specify) _________________________

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

Objectives of the Study This paper aimed to determine the faculty requirements on Communication schools applying for the CHED Centers for Excellence and Development Specifically, it