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LAMIREZ, ANICIA M. APRIL 2009. Strategies in Promoting Ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet. Benguet State University. La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Luke E. Cuangey, MSc

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the strategies that the municipality of Kabayan is implementing, the effectiveness of the strategies in promoting ecotourism, and the possible strategies in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan.

The study was conducted in Kabayan, Benguet on December 2008- January 2009.

A total of 60 respondents composed of 10 international tourists and 50 domestic tourists and also the implementers were the respondents of the study. Survey questionnaires were used to gather data. The questionnaires were pre- tested prior to distribution. The data was categorized, tabulated, and analyzed through frequency, percentage, weighted mean, and ranking, and interpreted according to the objectives of the study.

Most respondents were male (63.33%) and were single (80%). Majority of the international tourists were from Europe while domestic tourists were from CAR.

Both international and domestic tourists see all the strategies in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan as totally effective except for the grand cañao and joining trade fairs which they see very much effective. For the implementers they said that word of mouth is the effective strategy.

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implementers they said that Mount Pulag is the most preferred package for the tourists.

Majority of the international tourists traveled alone while domestic tourists traveled with friends.

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Page

Bibliography……… i

Abstract ……….. i

Table of Contents ……… iii

INTRODUCTION ………. 1

REVIEW OF LITERATURE ………. 6

METHODOLOGY Locale and Time of the Study ………. 15

Respondents of the Study ……… 16

Data Collection ……… 16

Data Analysis ………... 17

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Demographic Profile of the Respondents ……….. 18

Place of Origin of the Respondents ……… 19

Ratings on the Effectiveness of the Strategies ………... 20

Ratings of the Packages ………. 22

Companion of the Respondents ………. 25

Other Strategies Suggested by Tourists ………. 25

Implementers Perception on the Strategies and Packages ………. 26

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Summary ………. 29

Conclusions ……… 30

Recommendations ……….. 30

LITERATURE CITED ……….. 32

APPENDIX A. Questionnaire for the Implementers ………. 34

B. Questionnaire for the Tourists ……….. 37

C. Statistical Data ……….. 40

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Background of the Study

At the end of the 20th century, ecotourism was recognized as the largest industry in the world. It was also recognized as an important economic tool and was a great contributory factor in the development of a country (Baniaga, etal., 2006).

Ecotourism refers to environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature that promotes conservation, has low negative visitor impact and provides for beneficially active socio- economic involvement of local population (The International Ecotourism Society, 2004).

Ecotourism as a concept came into the Philippines in 1992 as the country joined the 4th Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA) Adventure Travel and Ecotourism Conference and Mart held in Malaysia. This marked the recognition of ecotourism as a means of redirecting the utility of natural resources to more sustainable ways (Parao, 2003).

In the Philippines, tourism had been receiving a higher level of priority. It is then expected that a rapid growth in the tourism industry has a great impact on the environment and appropriate management is essential (Baniaga, etal., 2006).

According to Libosada (1998), some ecotourism activities have been identified as possible for the Philippines and are currently undergoing development. These are mountaineering/ trekking, bird watching, photo safari, scuba diving, spelunking, and whale and dolphin watching.

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In particular, the Philippines offer diverse tourism activities and destinations for tourists with various attractions. The competitive advantages of the country are its ambience and natural attractions that are excellent for rest and recreation. Its tropical climate is perfect for outdoor recreational activities. Being an archipelago, the coastline of the country is spiced up with thousands of natural caves, beaches and mountains that offer tourists great satisfaction, relaxation, and experience (Alejandrino, 2003).

In the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), there’s a President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (PGMA) banner project for ecotourism that is called Grassroots Entrepreneur for Ecotourism(GREET), this is to help promote and safeguard the country’s ecotourism sites through the provision of essential services for tourists.

Primarily, the GREET program is envisioned to be an effective socio- economic mechanism that can be fully responsive to the forging of a balanced ecotourism environment and for the preservation or our cultural heritage. One objective of GREET is to promote the development of products that will satisfy visitors needs while positioning the Philippines as a globally competitive ecotourism destination. Pursuant to its prime mission of advocating a genuine thrusts in the development and promotion of ecotourism sites in the region, the Department of Tourism-CAR is now aggressively and vigorously implementing an advocacy and information dissemination campaign for the GREET program. Mount Pulag in Kabayan, Benguet is among the major existing ecotourism sites in the region that was named by GREET (Molintas, 2007).

The Benguet Provincial Tourism Office was formally recognized in 2002 (de Guia, 2008). The Benguet province and the DOT with the barangays and 13 municipalities have implemented training programs to teach the participants know more

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of the potentials of their own municipality or barangay from 2002 to 2008. Benefiting from the training programs were the municipalities and barangays with focus on its tourism lures; the municipality of Kabayan – Poblacion tours, Mt. Pulag climb, Ambangeg trails and treks. Based on the output of the training programs, identified major activities to be promoted in Benguet are: trekking, spelunking, mountain climbing, camping, and day trekking- tours. Home stays are also being inventoried for backpackers and budget travelers. Costing/ budget estimates packages are also being validated with site evaluation.

The municipality of Kabayan, following upon a series of successful tourism activities, launched a four- day ecotourism blitz on April 30 to May 03, 2008, which sought to showcase the town’s natural assets and its centuries- old mummies and culminated in a grand cañao. The idea is that after seeing the sights, tourists will have the chance to participate in the activities of the grand cañao and interact with residents. The series of ecotourism activities is meant not only to showcase the town’s natural wonders and rich cultural heritage but also to help attract investors to the land- locked town. “We are looking at tourism as our gateway to development and growth, the mayor said. The tourism package aims to bring participants to the mummy caves of Timbac for a “peek of Kabayan’s past” and the chance to scale Mt. Pulag, the country’s second highest mountain and to witness the setting and rising of the sun at the peak of the mountain (Laking, 2008).

The climate in the municipality is classified as Type I, where there are pronounced dry and wet seasons. The dry season is between the latter parts of October and the month of April, and wet during the rest of the year, and Type III, where there are

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no pronounced wet dry seasons. Warmer months are experienced on March and April, while cooler months are experienced from November to February (LGU, 2002).

The tourist industry recognizes the importance of the environment, so that its maintenance and well-being are always part of tourism planning and development.

Environmental sustainability is the use of resources in utmost consideration for future generation. Thus ecotourism was born (Veranga, 2004).

Because tourism is one of our gate way from poverty, there are many ways that the government is doing in promoting tourism in our community such as having a high level of priority in the budget of the government, offering diverse tourism activities and destinations for tourists with various attractions, doing some projects in promoting ecotourism, etc. Thus, this study will document the strategies in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet.

Statement of the Problem

This study focused on the strategies employed in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet. Specifically, it documents the strategies that the municipality of Kabayan is implementing to promote ecotourism, the effectiveness of the strategies being implemented by the municipality in the tourists and implementer’s opinion, and possible strategies for promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet.

Objectives of the Study

Due to the need to promote ecotourism in Kabayan the study had the following objectives:

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1. To describe the strategies that the municipality of Kabayan is implementing to promote ecotourism.

2. To determine the effectiveness of these strategies as perceived by the implementers and tourists.

3. To identify possible strategies for promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet.

Importance of the Study

Tourism is one of the sources of income in our country today, so our government is promoting it. Likewise, in Kabayan the local officials are really going into promoting the tourist spots in the place because they believe that it will be the gateway of the municipality into development and growth.

The result of the study will provide information about strategies in promoting tourism in Kabayan, Benguet. It will be the basis for identification of the municipal officials in sourcing funds from agencies for the strengthening of tourism in the area.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The researcher focused on the strategies in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet; therefore, it was limited in identifying the possible strategies for promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet, the strategies that the municipality is implementing to promote ecotourism, and knowing how effective the strategies that were used in the perception of the implementers and tourists.

Respondents of the study were 10 international tourists and 50 domestic tourists.

Also the implementers of the ecotourism promotion activities in Kabayan were also respondents of the study.The study was conducted from December 2008 to January 2009.

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Definition of Ecotourism

Ecotourism was described as the new form of tourism that gave emphasis to the sustainable use of natural and cultural resources while providing employment opportunities for the local communities (Veranga, 2004).

Ecotourism refers to environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature that promotes conservation, has low negative visitor impact and provides for beneficially active socio- economic involvement of local population (The International Ecotourism Society, 2004).

Ecotourism as defined by Secretary Joseph Ace H. Durano is the development and use of potential tourist destinations without harming and altering the natural environment. He further declares that in many cases, ecotourism entails minimal site development however careful management by the community to preserve and protect the ecology system for its sustainable productive use is of paramount importance.

The term ecotourism has been used interchangeably to refer to sustainable tourism, alternative tourism, ethical tourism, green tourism, special interest tourist, appropriate tourism and responsible tourism. Ecotourism is more appropriately defined by the Commonwealth Department of Tourism of Australia as “nature- based tourism that involves education and interpretation of the natural environment and is managed to be ecologically sustainable. This definition recognizes that natural environment includes cultural components and that ecologically sustainable involves an appropriate return to the local community and long- term conservation of the resource.

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Information on Ecotourism

Ecotourism is usually centered on activities related to nature. It is an alternative model of tourism, where natural areas, local culture, and biological diversity are clearly understood and wisely integrated as a component for economic growth (Molina, 2002).

Ecotourism is generally seen as a wide and judicious resource planning and management activity. It is an environmentally sound tourism activity sustainable implemented in a given ecosystem yielding socio- economic benefits and enhancing natural and cultural diversity (Bobila, etal., 2006).

The search for potential tourist destinations done by the Benguet Provincial Tourism was guided by a nine- step program to ensure that the community would be fully aware of the program and that it was socially acceptable. Also, that it would ensure that the benefits of the promotional efforts of the province would benefit the local community. The guiding principle was the world concept of ecotourism. Eco tourists would come for the purpose of admiring the destination for its natural environment, culture, flora and fauna, thus advocating environmental protection and conservation. The Benguet nine- step program utilized a different approach! 1) It would empower the barangays by organizing its Barangay Tourism Councils. The councils would manage and protect its tourism resources. An awareness and training campaign would give the members the opportunity to inventory their resources in terms of: places with potentials, events and activities, tour packaging, and itinerary planning. They would also identify their target market sectors, 2) The tourism councils, together with the private sector and travel partners, would validate the sites identified, 3) Appropriate activities would be listed to match the resources of the destinations, 4) There would be a check on

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the infrastructure support facilities and amenities like accommodations and bed and breakfast, eating facilities, telecommunications, etc, 5) The packages and tourism program would have to be accepted by the community, 6) The training program would promote awareness of tourism and prepare frontline guides to meet the visitors, 7) The frontlines or local promoters would be exposed to similar destinations with built up systems and procedures. 8.) Once ready, marketing and promotions of the destinations would commence with the production of collateral materials like maps, flyers, and tri- media promotions and 9) There would be monitoring of benefits accruing to the people through visitor arrival statistics. This would be done thru information centers and log book systems (de Guia, 2008).

Strategies in Promoting Tourism

BSA (NEDA- PMED) said one of the most basic of infrastructure supports that need to be created/ rehabilitated if a place is to progress are roads. Roads include mobility, commerce, interaction, investment. Its year-round cool climate is one of CAR’s major selling point and what better way to bade visitors/investors to come than by creating/ rehabilitating roads bin and out of CAR.

The Cordillera Region has grabbed major shares in President Gloria Macapagal- Arroyo’s directive to invest in the natural advantages and resources of each section of the nation as published by Cordi- Link. Due to sound budgetary policies and programs, there are now available funds to spur economic growth in CAR. As part of the North Luzon Agribusiness Quadrangle Super Region, PGMA announces that the Agricultural and Fisheries potential of the Cordilleras will be prioritized. The competitive advantage of

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these resources will be enhanced to accommodate the rich promise of exports and tourism.

Pursuant to its prime mission of advocating a genuine thrusts in the development and promotion of ecotourism sites in the region, the Department of Tourism- CAR is now aggressively and vigorously implementing an advocacy and information dissemination campaign for the GREET program (Molintas, 2007).

The nine towns of the North Quabbin region are loved by community members for their beautiful natural setting, consisting of lakes, streams, wildlife, and forested landscapes. Recognizing this potential, the New England Forestry Foundation (NEFF) included forest-based tourism as a part of its five-year project to enhance the economic, social, and ecological health of the North Quabbin through sustainable utilization of the region’s forests. NEFF hired environmental marketing specialist Cynthia Barstow to assist in the development of strategies that would bring more tourists to the region and generate more tourism-related local business. The Ecotourism Task Force came up with these strategies: Online Maps, Outdoor Equipment, Facilities, Signage, Guided Tours, Fairs and Festivals, and Ecotourism Promotion (Heyes, 2002).

In Eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique) tourism development was done by analyzing the key macroeconomic factors and forces underpinning regional tourism trends, by including community participation in tourism and donors have also played a major role in Tanzania and Mozambique in the shift from prior socialist economic policies to the current market-oriented consensus favoring private sector investment and enterprise as the requisite drivers of economic growth and poverty

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reduction. They are also engaging strategically with national management agencies, local communities, and the private sector (Nelson, 2007).

According to Gould (2000), in Petén, Guatemala they have market strategies being used to promote ecotourism, this are: Green certification (a means of labeling tourism services that meet certain environmental and socio-economic criteria) Green certification, as a market-based incentive for promoting ecotourism, is based on a simple idea: some tourists are willing to pay a premium for the knowledge that that the tourism they consume is true ecotourism. Furthermore, according to theory, ecotourism businesses fail to earn this “green premium” because tourists lack the information to identify legitimate ecotourism operations. Green certification is meant to provide the information that the consumer lacks and thereby solve this market failure; Private reserves (are private lands that are voluntarily maintained in a condition approximating their natural state, it can safeguard natural areas that are also important ecotourism attractions) In private reserves, land owners make a formal commitment to manage their land as if it were a nature conservation area. Private reserves are an especially attractive conservation tool when no funds are available to purchase lands directly; and Collaborative marketing (a strategy where ecotourism operations share the costs and benefits of marketing in order to capture some of the economies of scale enjoyed by larger businesses).

Rural America is using techniques in developing tourism into a major industry these are: Understanding the potential for tourism development; Informing and educating the community to create support, Securing investments for public and private sources;

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managing natural, human, and financial resources; and building an image for the community (John, 2004).

Stakeholders of the Red Wolf ecotourism in North Carolina had identified some marketing strategies in promoting ecotourism, such as developing a Web site, developing creative incentives to keep tourist revenue in the communities and position the town of Columbia as a red wolf ecotourism destination by building accommodations for large tour groups and creating package tours that encourage visitors to spend more time and money in the area, and there must be communication between the committee and the community for ecotourism development (Stakeholder Meeting on Red Wolf Ecotourism in North Carolina, 2006).

Definition of Tourism

Tourism is the practice of touring for pleasure or the industry of attracting tourists and catering to them (The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedia, 2000).

Tourism is travel as a leisure pursuit, for recreational as opposed to business purposes. The term is also taken to embrace collectively the many components of the vast and relatively youthful industry that has grown up around the modern, mass- oriented product, from government created ministries of tourism downwards.

According to Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), tourism is the sale of direct social experiences to people or consumers at locations that are away from their normal place of living. It involves travel, temporary accommodations, the provision of food, drinks, goods and souvenirs, entertainment, opportunities for physical rest and renewal choice of recreational past times and buying of local goods and services at tourist destinations, likewise, social and cultural

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experiences are also involved, resulting from social contracts with other tourist and memorable experiences it tourist destinations.

Goals of Tourism

The goals of the tourism industry in the Philippines are: to optimize the contribution of tourism to economic growth at the national and regional level; to enhance and contribute to social cohesion and cultural preservation at the local level; to develop tourism on an environmentally sustainable basis and; to develop diversity of destinations, attractions, and markets to minimize exposure of the tourism industry to external threats.

Likewise the tourist industry recognizes the importance of the environment, so that its maintenance and well- being are always part of tourism planning and development.

Environmental sustainability is the use of resources in utmost consideration for future generation. Thus ecotourism was born (Veranga, 2004).

Growing Tourism

Despite the spiraling cost of travel and the prevailing global economic slump, the Department of Tourism (DOT) expects more foreign tourists to visit the country. The number of foreign visitors coming to the country is still growing by seven to nine percent at this time even as many worldwide reels from the oil crisis. The DOT was able to position the country’s tourist destinations in Europe and in other emerging markets, whose economies continue to grow. The increasing cost of transport is partly absorbed by all the components of the tourism supply chain, so that the cost to be passed down to the tourist is very minimal. Meanwhile, the DOT signed with the Ministry of Tourism of India an agreement providing for the implementation of projects mutually benefiting the

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travel industries of both countries. The agreement includes a seven- day exchange program to allow each party to share experiences in tourism product creation, promotion and marketing, cultural and medical tourism as well as manpower and infrastructure development (Jaymalin, 2008).

Wasing (2007) studied about the Tourism Potentials and Requirements in Kabayan, Benguet. She focused on the tourists: their motives in traveling, their needs, assessment of the facilities and services, as well as the problems encountered by the tourists who visited Kabayan.

The researcher concluded from her study that younger, single, those having fewer children, and educated ones have a higher interest to travel, therefore, more programs should be catered to them. European tourists got the highest population of international tourists who are visiting Kabayan, so the researcher recommended that the services and facilities in Kabayan must provide the needs and satisfaction of the different tourist segment. Also the researcher concluded that roads going to the municipality of Kabayan and within Kabayan needs improvement, and the facilities and services like gasoline station, public restrooms, and entertainment must be given proper attention to meet the needs of tourists. Kabayan products like the Kabayan woven garments and the “gippah”

tea must be displayed in the stores to be seen by passers. More information materials for the tourists which include the promotion of the town fiesta and other tourist attractions were also recommended by Wasing.

Segmentation of Tourists

The DOT identified the different market segments of tourists from tourism statistics, site data analysis, site observations, and discussions with travel industry

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operations. These are: 1.) Domestic tourism segment- includes the families traveling together; students; club members like mountain climbing, caving, office groups traveling, etc; and pilgrims. 2.) International tourism segment- includes balikbayans sometimes with foreigner friends; international travelers on packaged tours, who arranged their accommodation, flights, and transfer with a ground operator and pre- booked as a package in the source market; free and independent travelers, who often travel without guides.

Motivations of Tourists to Travel

Dr. Ernest Dichter (1982) said: “What motivates the traveler of today is, in the final analysis, anchored within ourselves. It is ambivalence, the desire to live in a cocoon, to be protected while at the same time to sail out and make the world our territory… in the world to come, which hopefully is not too far off, and we will learn to become world citizens” (Cruz, 1999).

Cruz (1999) identified the four basic travel motivators as follows: 1) Physical motivators- include those related to physical rest, sports, health problems, relaxation, scenery, etc. 2) Cultural motivators- include the desire to know the culture of other countries like their ethnic, festivals, etc. 3) Interpersonal motivators- pertain to the desire to meet other people, visit friend or relatives, escape from routine, from family and neighbors, family togetherness, self- discovery, maintains social contacts, etc. 4) Status and prestige motivators- included in this group are trips related to business, conventions, study, and pursuit of hobbies and education.

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Locale and Time of the Study

The study was conducted in Kabayan, Benguet where the tourist spots that are being promoted is located.

Kabayan is one of the thirteen towns of Benguet province, located in the Cordillera Central Mountain Range. The municipality is about 335 kilometers North of Manila and about 85 kilometers Northeast of Baguio City and La Trinidad, Benguet where the Cordillera Regional government agencies are instituted. The town is bounded on the north by Buguias, on the south by Bokod, on the west by Atok and Kibungan, on the northeast by Tinoc, Ifugao province, and on the southeast along Catnaan River by the municipality of Kayapa, Nueva Vizcaya province. Kabayan has thirteen barangays, namely, Adaoay, Anchokey, Batan, Ballay, Bashoy, Duacan, Eddet, Gusaran, Kabayan Barrio, Luzod, Pacso, Poblacion, and Tawangan (LGU, 2002).

The study was conducted from December 2008 to January 2009.

Figure 1. Location of the study

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Respondents of the Study

Domestic and international tourists were the respondents of the study. Domestic tourists included the tourists coming from other places inside the country while international tourists are the tourists coming from other countries.

The study had 10 international tourists and 50 domestic tourists as its respondents.

Also the implementers of the ecotourism promotion activities in Kabayan served respondents of the study.

Data Collection/Gathering

Primary data that was collected were the strategies that the municipality of Kabayan is implementing to promote ecotourism, just like the recent grand cañao that the municipality held last May 2008. Their purpose was to invite tourist to visit the place in order to promote ecotourism in the municipality, and to determine the effectiveness of the strategies that the municipality is implementing, this was done by getting the perception of tourist and implementers of the different strategies in promoting ecotourism by rating it from 1 to 5, where: 1- Ineffective, 2- Slightly Effective, 3- Moderately Effective, 4- Very Much Effective, and 5- Totally Effective. Collection/ gathering of primary data were done by using survey questionnaires; this was done by letting the respondents answer the questionnaire. Key Informant Interview was also used by the researcher, by personally asking the respondents questions important in the study.

Pre-testing was done on October 2008 to 14 domestic tourists of Kabayan, prior to the floating of the questionnaires.

The secondary data that was collected are the possible strategies for promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet.

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Data Analysis

The collected data was consolidated, categorized, and tabulated. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages, averages and ranking were also used for the interpretation of the data.

The following formulas were used in analyzing the data gathered from the

respondents: Mean (

n

x=

x), Standard Error (

n

SE = SD) and Standard Deviation

1 )

( 2

2

=

∑ ∑

n n x x

SD .

Ranging was used in interpreting the data. For the strategies a range from .8- 5.0 was used where: .8-1.6 (ineffective), 1.7-2.4 (slightly effective), 2.5-3.2 (moderately effective), 3.3-4.0 (very much effective) and 4.1-5.0 (totally effective) the same for the packages a range from .8-5.0 was used where: .8-1.6 (preferred), 1.7-2.4 (slightly preferred), 2.5-3.2 (moderately preferred), 3.3-4.0 (very much preferred) and 4.1-5.0 (totally preferred).

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Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 presents the demographic profile of the respondents.

Gender. The table shows that among the 10 international tourists, 6 (60%) were male while 4 (40%) were female. On the other hand, 32 (64%) domestic tourists were male while 18 (36%) were female. The result shows that more male are becoming adventurous than female compared to the study of Cruz in 1982 that women show greater tendency to go away on holiday than men.

Table 1. Demographic profile of the respondents

PROFILE INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS DOMESTIC TOURISTS TOTAL

F % F % F %

Gender

Male 6 60 32 64 38 63.33

Female 4 40 18 36 22 36.67

Total 10 100 50 100 60 100

Civil Status

Single 5 50 43 86 48 80

Married 3 30 7 14 10 16.67

Separated 1 10 0 0 1 1.67

Widower 1 10 0 0 1 1.67

Total 10 100 50 100 60 100

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Civil status. Among the international tourists, half (50%) of the respondents are single, 30% are married, and both 10% for separated and widower. In comparison to domestic tourists, 86% are single, 14% are married, and no one is separated and widower.

The total frequency of the single is 48, 10 for married, and both 1 for separated and widower.

Based on the finding, being single or having no child does really exert an important influence in travel demand as claimed by Cruz (1982).

Place of Origin of the Respondents

Continent. Most of the international tourists were from Europe (60%). Australia has 20% tourist arrivals in Kabayan, and so do North America and Asia with 10%. The study confirmed the findings of Wasing wherein she found that European tourists got the highest population of international tourists.

Region. Among the domestic tourists, 74% were from CAR. The rest were from NCR (16%); Region 1 (8%); and Region 2 (2%). The result implies that more domestic tourists from CAR know more about Kabayan than other tourists coming from other regions.

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Table 2. Place of origin of the respondents

PROFILE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%)

Continent (International Tourists)

Europe 6 60

Australia 2 20

North America 1 10

Asia 1 10

Total 10 100

Region (Domestic Tourists)

CAR 37 74

NCR 8 16

Region 1 4 8

Region 2 1 2

Total 50 100

Ratings on the Effectiveness of the Strategies

Table 3 presents the different strategies that the municipality of Kabayan is using in promoting ecotourism and the rating of the respondents on the strategies. The ratings were based on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 as ineffective, 2 as slightly effective, 3 as moderately effective, 4 as very much effective and 5 as totally effective. For the international tourists they have rated all the strategies as totally effective except for the organized tour packages which they rated very much effective and for the grand cañao and joining trade fairs as moderately effective while for the domestic tourists they rated all the strategies totally effective. However, looking at the total mean ratings of both the international and domestic tourists, they see all the strategies totally effective except for the grand cañao and joining

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trade fairs which they see very much effective, but looking at the difference we can say that all the strategies are effective for the perception of the tourists.

Table 3. Ratings on the effectiveness of the strategies

STRATEGIES

INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS

DOMESTIC

TOURISTS TOTAL Mean Verbal Mean Verbal Mean Verbal

Description Description Description Grand cañao 2.88 Moderately 4.43 Totally 3.66 Very Much (fiesta) Effective Effective Effective Website 4.4 Totally 4.53 Totally 4.47 Totally

Effective Effective Effective IEC through 4.4 Totally 4.22 Totally 4.31 Totally media Effective Effective Effective Brochures 4.7 Totally 4.1 Totally 4.4 Totally

Effective Effective Effective Campaigning 3.89 Very Much 4.3 Totally 4.1 Totally to other places Effective Effective Effective Joining trade 3 Moderately 4.59 Totally 3.8 Very Much fairs Effective Effective Effective Word of 4.8 Totally 4.58 Totally 4.69 Totally mouth Effective Effective Effective Organized 3.86 Very Much 4.92 Totally 4.39 Totally tour packages Effective Effective Effective Total weighted 3.99 Very Much 4.46 Totally 4.23 Totally mean Effective Effective Effective

Legend: 1- Ineffective; 2- Slightly Effective; 3- Moderately Effective; 4- Very Much Effective; 5- Totally Effective

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Ratings of the Packages

Table 4 presents the different packages that the municipality of Kabayan is using in promoting ecotourism and the rating of the respondents on the packages. The ratings were based on a scale of 1 to 5, with 1 as preferred, 2 as slightly preferred, 3 as moderately preferred, 4 as very much preferred and 5 as totally preferred. For the international tourists they have rated all the packages as totally preferred except for the Bangao cave which they rated very much preferred while for the domestic tourists they rated all the packages totally preferred. Looking at the total mean ratings of both the international and domestic tourists, they all rated the packages totally preferred; it implies that international and domestic tourists prefer all the packages being offered by the municipality and that they want to visit all the packages.

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Table 4. Ratings of the packages

PACKAGES

INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS

DOMESTIC

TOURISTS TOTAL Mean Verbal Mean Verbal Mean Verbal

Description Description Description 1- National 4.6 Totally 4.76 Totally 4.68 Totally Museum, Preferred Preferred Preferred Singasalao, Asapa

Falls, Kabayan Weaving, Opdas Cave, Paltingan- Adiwenben Eco- walk, Besang Footprints

2-Tinongchol- 4.3 Totally 4.56 Totally 4.43 Totally (ride/hike) with Preferred Preferred Preferred free package

1 tour

3- Timbac Cave- 4.2 Totally 4.8 Totally 4.5 Totally (ride/hike) with Preferred Preferred Preferred free package

1 tour

4- Bangao Cave- 3.9 Very 4.49 Totally 4.2 Totally (ride/hike) with Much Preferred Preferred Preferred free package

1 tour

5- Lakes with 4.8 Totally 4.89 Totally 4.85 Totally free package Preferred Preferred Preferred 1 tour

6- Mount Pulag 4.9 Totally 4.98 Totally 4.94 Totally Preferred Preferred Preferred Total weighted 4.45 Totally 4.75 Totally 4.6 Totally mean Preferred Preferred Preferred

Legend: 1- Preferred; 2- Slightly Preferred; 3- Moderately Preferred; 4- Very Much Preferred; 5- Totally Preferred

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Companion of the Respondents

Table 5 shows that for the international tourists 5 (50%) of them visited Kabayan alone while for the domestic tourists 24 (48%) are with friends. It shows that half of the number of international tourists traveled alone while for the domestic tourists almost half of the number traveled with friends.

Table 5. Companion of the respondents

COMPANION

INTERNATIONAL TOURISTS

DOMESTIC

TOURISTS TOTAL F % F % F %

Alone 5 50 2 4 7 11.67 With family 1 10 6 12 7 11.67 Association 0 0 18 36 18 30 With friends 4 40 24 48 28 46.67

Other Strategies Suggested by Tourists

From the interview and questionnaire floated to the tourists some suggested that giving free souvenirs to tourists, putting pictures and videos to most frequented places like restaurants, improving the facilities being used by tourists and improving infrastructures like road going to Kabayan are some strategies that can be used by the implementers in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan. They have given these suggestions according to their experience and observations in visiting Kabayan.

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Implementers Perception on the Strategies and Packages

For the implementers the most effective strategy is the word of mouth because majority of the tourists going to Kabayan had known the place through their friends and for the packages the most preferred by the tourists is Mount Pulag because of the nice view especially for the sunrise and the sunset and also for the “sea of clouds” that could be seen from the summit of Mount Pulag. It also has its distinct characteristics of changing color on different occasions and seasons. During the dry season, Mt. Pulag is brown similar to the chocolate hills of Bohol. During the rainy monsoon season, it will vary from light green to rich dark green rolling plains, almost similar to a well maintained golf course. The mountain's landscape is unique with vast grassland on top, mossy forest in the middle and pine forest all the way down.They said that they are implementing the nine step program of tourism that was provided by the Benguet Provincial Tourism Authority. The Benguet nine- step program utilized a different approach. 1) It would empower the barangays by organizing its Barangay Tourism Councils. The councils would manage and protect its tourism resources. An awareness and training campaign would give the members the opportunity to inventory their resources in terms of: places with potentials, events and activities, tour packaging, and itinerary planning. They would also identify their target market sectors. 2) The tourism councils, together with the private sector and travel partners, would validate the sites identified. 3) Appropriate activities would be listed to match the resources of the destinations. 4) There would be a check on the infrastructure support facilities and amenities like accommodations and bed and breakfast, eating facilities, telecommunications, etc. 5) The packages and tourism program would have to be accepted by the community. 6) The training program would promote awareness of tourism and prepare frontline guides to meet

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the visitors. 7) The frontlines or local promoters would be exposed to similar destinations with built up systems and procedures. 8) Once ready, marketing and promotions of the destinations would commence with the production of collateral materials like maps, flyers, and tri- media promotions. 9) There would be monitoring of benefits accruing to the people through visitor arrival statistics. The implementers also are coordinating with other agencies like the Department of Tourism- CAR and Department of Environment and Natural Resources in the promotion of ecotourism in Kabayan.

Figure 3. The sunrise and sunset view in Mount Pulag summit

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Figure 4. The “sea of clouds” in Mt. Pulag

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Summary

The study was conducted in Kabayan, Benguet to determine the strategies that the municipality is implementing, the effectiveness of the strategies in promoting ecotourism, and possible strategies in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan.

There were 60 respondents composed of 10 international tourists and 50 domestic tourists from December 2008 to January 2009, some implementers also were the respondent of the study. Survey questionnaires were used in gathering data while interview with key informants was conducted to supplement the survey. The data was collated through frequency, percentage, weighted mean, and ranking.

Most respondents were male (63.33%) and were single (80%), this finding soppurts that of Wasing wherein she said that single persons have higher interest to travel. Majority of the international tourists were from Europe while domestic tourists were from CAR.

The respondents rated the strategies being offered by the municipality in promoting ecotourism. Both international and domestic tourists see all the strategies totally effective except for the grand cañao and joining trade fairs which they see very much effective. For the implementers they said that word of mouth is the effective strategy.

Also the respondents rated the packages being offered by the municipality. Both international and domestic tourists rated all the packages totally preferred. For the implementers they said that Mount Pulag is the most preferred package for the tourists.

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Majority of the international tourists traveled alone while domestic tourists traveled with friends.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were derived:

1. Males are more likely to travel to Kabayan than female. Being single also affects the travel demand of tourists by making them more flexible to go out. More tourists from Europe arrived during the months of October to January.

2. All the strategies are totally effective except for the grand cañao and joining trade fairs which is very much effective for the tourists and for the implementer’s word of mouth is the most effective strategy.

2. All the packages are totally preferred for the tourists and for the

implementer’s Mount Pulag is the most preferred strategy.

3. Many of the international tourists arriving in Kabayan traveled alone while domestic tourists were mainly with friends.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations were made:

1. There should be programs related to tourism that will cater to single tourists and to the Europeans because they represent big bulk of the international tourists.

2. Exert more effort to promote Kabayan as a good tourist destination to other places especially outside CAR.

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3. All the strategies in promoting ecotourism should be more promoted to attract more tourists for example by exerting more effort to implement them.

4. Services and facilities like restaurants and souvenir shops should be included in the brochures, website, in joining trade fairs, when promoting through media and to other places and in joining trade fairs for the tourists to be able to know for example if where they will stay when they will visit Kabayan.

5. More efforts should be exerted to restore and preserve all the tourist spots to attract more tourists and they must be more promoted.

6. More services that will cater to groups for domestic tourists should be offered like for example relaxation or bonding place.

7. There should be more services to be offered to cater to large number of tourists like more lodging house and restaurants.

8. The municipality can use some strategies in promoting ecotourism like hiring an environmental marketing specialist, to give free souvenirs to tourists, to put pictures and videos to most frequented places like in restaurants, to improve the facilities being used by tourists and also the infrastructures like roads, including community participation in tourism, engaging strategically with national management agencies, local communities, and the private sector.

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNIT. 2002. Draft Report Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance year 2003- 2012. Kabayan, Benguet.

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Cordi-link.

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QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE IMPLEMENTERS Dear Respondents,

This study “Strategies in Promoting Ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet” is being done to help the municipality and as a requirement for graduation, so as the author I am asking for your answers/feedbacks in this questionnaire. Your answers will be confidential. Thank You!

ANICIA M. LAMIREZ

I. Personal Background Name: (optional)

II. Survey Proper

1. How effective are these strategies in promoting ecotourism in your perception?

(Please check)

1 - Ineffective 3 - Moderately Effective 5 - Totally Effective 2 - Slightly Effective 4 - Very Much Effective

STRATEGIES 1 2 3 4 5 REMARKS

1.Grand cañao (fiesta)

2. Website

3. Publishing through media 4. Brochures 5. Campaigning to other places 6. Joining trade fairs

STRATEGIES 1 2 3 4 5 REMARKS

7. Word of mouth

8. Organized

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tour packages 9. Others pls.

specify

2. Among the following packages being offered by the municipality what do the tourists prefer?

1 - Preferred 3 - Moderately Preferred 5 - Totally Preferred 2 - Slightly Preferred 4 - Very Much Preferred

PACKAGES 1 2 3 4 5 REMARKS

1- National Museum,

Singasalao,

Asapa Falls, Kabayan

weaving, Opdas cave, Paltingan- Adiwenben Eco- walk, Besang Footprints

2- Tinongchol- (ride/hike) with free package 1 tour

3- Timbac Cave- (ride/hike) with free package 1 tour

4- Bangao Cave- (ride/hike) with free package 1 tour

5- Lakes with free package 1 tour

6- Mount Pulag

3. Are you implementing the nine step program of tourism as provided by the Benguet Provincial Tourism Authority?

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___Yes ___No ___Not all 4. Are you coordinating with other agencies in promoting ecotourism in the

municipality?

___Yes ___No

APPENDIX B

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE TOURISTS

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Dear Respondents,

This study “Strategies in Promoting Ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet” is being done to help the municipality and as a requirement for graduation, so as the author I am asking for your answers/feedbacks in this questionnaire. Your answers will be confidential. Thank You!

ANICIA M. LAMIREZ

I. Personal Background Name (optional):

Gender: F ( ) M ( )

Civil Status: Single ( ) Separated ( ) Married ( ) Widower ( )

Place of Origin:

II. Survey Proper

1. How effective are these strategies in promoting ecotourism in your perception?

(Please check)

1 - Ineffective 3 - Moderately Effective 5- Totally Effective 2 - Slightly Effective 4 - Very Much Effective

STRATEGIES 1 2 3 4 5 REMARKS

1. Grand cañao (fiesta) 2. Website

3. Publishing through media 4. Brochures

5. Campaigning to other places 6. Joining trade fairs

STRATEGIES 1 2 3 4 5 REMARKS

7. Word of mouth

8. Organized tour packages

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2. Among the following packages being offered by the municipality what do you prefer?

1 - Preferred 3 - Moderately Preferred 5 - Totally Preferred 2 - Slightly Preferred 4 - Very Much Preferred

PACKAGES 1 2 3 4 5 REMARKS (WHAT SHOULD BE

DONE TO IMPROVE) 1- National

Museum, Singasalao,

Asapa Falls, Kabayan

weaving, Opdas cave, Paltingan- Adiwenben Eco- walk, Besang Footprints

2- Tinongchol- (ride/hike) with free package 1 tour

3- Timbac Cave- (ride/hike) with free package 1 tour

4- Bangao Cave- (ride/hike) with free package 1 tour

5- Lakes with free package 1 tour

6- Mount Pulag

3. Who are you with?

___Alone ___With family ___Association ___With friends ___Others pls. specify

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4. What other strategies should the municipality adopt to promote ecotourism?

APPENDIX C STATISTICAL DATA

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Statistical data was used to interpret the data that was gathered about the effectiveness of the strategies in promoting ecotourism in Kabayan, Benguet that the municipality is implementing in the perception of the tourists and for the preference of the tourists for the packages being offered.

(Var3) Grand cañao

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 8 2.875 0.5153748 1.4577 1.656332 4.093668

y 44 4.43 0.139449 0.925 4.148774 4.711226

combined 52 4.190769 0.1601685 1.154991 3.869218 4.512321

diff -1.555 0.3907043 -2.339753 -0.77025

(Var4) Website

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 10 4.4 .2666749 .8433 3.79674 5.00326

y 49 4.531 .1014429 .7101 4.327035 4.734965

combined 59

4.508797 .094789 .7280884 4.319056 4.698537

diff -.131 .254261 -.6401488 .3781488

(Var5) IEC through media

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 10 4.4 .2211065 .6992 3.899822 4.900178

y 50 4.22 .1041568 .7365 4.010689 4.429311

combined 60

4.25 .0939544 .7277677 4.061998 4.438002

diff .18 .2531693 -.3267734 .6867734

(Var6) Brochures

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

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x 10 4.7 .152738 .483 4.354483 5.045517

y 49 4.1 .1706429 1.1945 3.7569 4.4431

combined 59 4.201695 .1466331 1.12631 3.908177 4.495213

diff .6 .3861484 -.1732489 1.373249

(Var7) Campaigning to other places Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 9 3.89 .3513667 1.0541 3.079747 4.700253

y 47 4.3 .1423788 .9761 4.013406 4.586594

combined 56 4. 234107 .1323934 .9907412 3.968785 4.499429

diff -.41 .3595011 -1.130756 .3107563

(Var8) Joining trade fairs

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 9 3 .4409667 1.3229 1.983129 4.016871

y 46 4.59 .1057601 .7173 4.376988 4.803012

combined 55 4.329818 .1375392 1.020018 4.054069 4.605568

diff -1.59 .3051725 -2.202098 -.9779016

(Var9) Word of mouth

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 10 4.8 .1333216 .4216 4.498406 5.101594

y 43 4.58 .1115222 .7313 4.354939 4.805061

combined 53 4.621509 .0941966 .6857616 4.43249 4.810529

diff .22 .241145 -.2641187 .7041187

(Var10) Organized tour packages Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 7 3.86 .5532644 1.4638 2.506211 5.213789

y 49 4.92 .0395143 .2766 4.840551 4.999449

combined 56 4.7875 .087183 .6524175 4.612781 4.962219

diff -1.06 .2235468 -1.508184 -.6118157

(Var11) National museum

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

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x 10 4.6 .1633 .5164 4.23059 4.96941

y 50 4.76 .0610092 .4314 4.637397 4.882603

combined 60 4.733333 .0575698 .4459335 4.618136 4.84853

diff -.16 .1543789 -.469023 .149023

(Var12) Tinongchol cave

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 10 4.3 .2134221 .6749 3.817206 4.782794

y 43 4.56 .0899284 .5897 4.378517 4.741483

combined 53 4.510943 .0835818 .6084849 4.343224 4.678663

diff -.26 .2126153 -.686843 .166843

(Var13) Timbac cave

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 10 4.2 .2494405 .7888 3.635726 4.764274

y 50 4.8 .0571342 .404 4.685184 4.914816

combined 60 4.7 .0684729 .5303889 4.562986 4.937014

diff -.6 .1677278 -.9357437 -.2642563

(Var14) Bangao cave

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 10 3.9 .3144569 .9944 3.188649 4.611351

y 45 4.49 .1173041 .7869 4.253589 4.726411

combined 55 4.382727 .1145815 .8497591 4.153005 4.612449

diff -.59 .2887088 -1.169077 -.0109235

(Var15) Lakes

Two- sample t test with equal variances

Obs Mean Std. Err. Std. Dev. (95% Conf. Interval)

x 10 4.8 .1333216 .4216 4.498406 5.101594

y 46 4.89 .0464 .3147 4.796546 4.983454

combined 56 4.873929 .0445864 .3336541 4.784575 4.963282

diff -.09 .1168486 -.3242673 .1442673

(Var16) Mount Pulag

Two- sample t test with equal variances

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x 10 4.9 .0999912 .3162 4.673804 5.126196

y 48 4.98 .0208279 .1443 4.9381 5.0219

combined 58 4.966207 .0241709 .1840797 4.917806 5.014608

diff -.08 .0636656 -.2075375 .0475375

Pigura

Table 1 presents the demographic profile of the respondents.
Table 1. Demographic profile of the respondents
Table 2. Place of origin of the respondents
Table 3. Ratings on the effectiveness of the strategies
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