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BIBLIOGRAPHY

CAMID, MARCELA L. APRIL 2007. Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Fernando R. Gonzales, PhD

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to determine the effects of holding solutions containing different concentrations of ascorbic acid (to replace citric acid) + 20% sucrose + 1 ml Chlorox with varying pH levels of the holding solution; on the vaselife and other postharvest characteristics of carnation cutflowers.

Carnation cutflowers harvested at the star stage were held in different holding solution with pH levels containing different concentrations of ascorbic acid + 20%

sucrose + 1 ml/li Chlorox.

Results revealed that the holding solutions containing 2.50 g/li ascorbic acid with a pH of 3.87 delayed flower opening resulting to longer vaselife of cutflowers.

However, holding solutions with a pH of 6.90 or tap water only promoted better leaf and stem quality of carnation cutflowers and were comparable with those cutflowers held in solutions containing 2.50 g/li of ascorbic acid solution (pH 3.87).

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ii

Page

Bibliography. . . i

Abstract . . . i

Table of Contents . . . ii

INTRODUCTION . . . 1

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Use of Preservatives . . . 3

Senescence . . . 3

Water pH . . . 4

Harvesting Stage . . . 4

Longevity of the Flower . . . 5

Holding Solution . . . 5

MATERIALS AND METHODS Materials . . . 7

Methods . . . 7

Documentation of the Study . . . 10

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Days from Holding to 50 and 100% Anthesis . . . 11

Percentage Neck Bending . . . 12

Visual Quality . . . 13

Volume Taken-up . . . 17

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iii

Vaselife . . . 18

Final pH . . . 19

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary . . . 21

Conclusion. . . 22

Recommendations . . . 22

LITERATURE CITED . . . 23

APPENDICES . . . 25

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

INTRODUCTION

The cutflower industry is one of the major sources of income of farmers in the province of Benguet. Cutflower production of roses, chrysanthemum, carnation, anthurium and others is already widespread in the locality. The cultivation of new species or varieties of cutflowers is then needed in order to improve the industry further.

Among the many flowering plants cultivated, carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) is one of the favorite cutflower and ornamental plants that are being profitably cultivated.

However, carnation cutflowers rapidly deteriorate once they are harvested. Respiration after harvest and sensitivity to various gasses contribute to the physiological and physical deterioration of carnation cutflowers.

Carnation is also a perpetual flowering type of greenhouse plant, but is usually maintained for only one, or at the most, two years. Carnation is a cool-temperate crop and therefore less expensive to produce than roses. It is considered as one of the costly flowers and have a delightful fragrance and beauty.

The use of floral preservatives like citric acid was found to be very effective in all cutflowers like carnation to lengthen their aesthetic durations; thus, the use of proper postharvest technologies can contribute in prolonging the vaselife of cutflowers from harvesting to senescence. Since consumers look for the aesthetic value of carnation, damaged cutflowers such as those showing wilting; infection with insect pests and diseases usually have lower prices compared to high quality cutflowers.

Furthermore, the high quality of harvest must be preserved from cutting of the flowers to marketing in order to get higher prices and thus, increase in the farmer's income. It is also necessary to prolong the postharvest life of cutflowers to reduce

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

postharvest losses.

This study was conducted at the Department of Horticulture Service Laboratory, College of Agriculture, Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet from January to March 2007 to determine the effect of the various holding solutions containing different concentrations of ascorbic acid (to replace citric acid) + 20% sucrose + 1 ml Chlorox.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Use of Preservatives

Floral preservatives are used to prolong the postharvest life of cutflowers and to maintain their aesthetic value and quality for longer periods. Flower preservatives usually contain carbohydrates in the form of sucrose, plus a bactericide, fungicide and a wetting agent. The latter chemicals prevent organisms from developing in the water to block water uptake in the sterns and improve water uptake (Hornet, 1998).

In carnation, 1 mm silver thiosulfate (STS) and 10% sucrose and a pH adjusted to 3.0-3.5 is recommended (Rimando, 1982).

Organic acids are used to lower the pH of the solutions. A low pH was shown to favor the activity of the enzymes since acidification of the vase water tends to minimize physiological stem blockage. A pH of 3.5 to 4.0 extends vaselife because it inhibits indigenous enzymes essential for stern plugging. Citric acids also improve water balance and reduce stem plugging (Alacyang, 1998).

Senescence

Senescence is a concept of physiological and biochemical process. The initial event if senescence remains obscure, during the development of some cutflowers like rose and carnation, a climacteric rise in ethylene production signifies the promotion of senescence. Thereafter, a change in permeability of the tissues can be detected (Mayak, 1987).

A fresh cutfoliage is still living and actively metabolizing entity whose life span is subsequently terminated by senescence, as distinguished from aging which involves

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

gradual changes that are deteriorative but not lethal in them (Leopold, 1975).

Whether it is still attached to the mother plant or not, the loss of turgidity is a very important factor affecting senescence. Senescence especially involves deteriorative changes which lead to death. According to Mastalerz (1977), the deteriorative process of senescence accelerate at the moment flowers are harvested. Flowers remaining on the plant senescence but at much slower pace. The onset of senescence is related to some decisive factors; however, senescence triggers the cutflower at any stage of as development.

Water pH

Acidity alteration is the most important of the three considerations of components of a floral preservative since alkaline or high pH water, solution is damaging to cutflowers. If it does not move through the stem, and flowers will have difficulty in obtaining sufficient water. A low pH inhibits indigenous enzyme essential for stem plugging (Reid, 2000) and tends to minimize physiological stem blockage.

Various chemicals are used to increase the acidity of a solution. The most available and affordable chemical is vinegar. However, vinegar causes whitening of the stem when included in the holding solution (Alacyang, 1998). Citric acid can also be used to increase the acidity of the solution (Agricarta, 1999).

Harvesting Stage

Respiration rates of carnation flower is quite high and reaches a minimum at the time when the sepal has folded out from the developing buds. At commercial harvest,

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

when the first petals break away from the flower body, respiration declines rapidly (Rimando, 1982).

Generally, flowers are cut at the earliest stage in order to assure full opening and development with good quality and longer vase life (Halevy and Mayak, 1979). Hornet (1998) stressed that postharvest technologies cannot improve the quality of cutflowers at harvest but rather it helps to maintain it. Rogers (1973) said that flowers that are harvested should be placed in opening solution to prevent rapid wilting. It is important to know the stage at which the flower as to be harvested because this will affect the longevity of the postharvest life of the flowers (Nowak and Rudnick, 1990). For the immediate use or for nearby markets, flowers are normally harvested when they reach the paintbrush stage or when the flowers are fully opened (Reid, 2000).

Longevity of the Flower

Coorts (1965) found that respiratory rate for intact rose flowers was quite high and was reduced to a minimum at the time when the sepals had folded out from the developing bud.

At commercial harvest, when the first petals were breaking away from the flower body, respiration declined. Further, he stated that to maintain cutflower quality, cutflower should be harvested at the right stage of maturity; however, maturity stages vary from flower to flower under different cultural and marketing situations.

On the other hand, the bud stage is preferred harvesting stage due to convenience in handling and less susceptibility to adverse environmental conditions like temperature and ethylene. Thus, it influences the respiration rate of the flowers and their response to ethylene, moisture loss and physical change.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

6 Holding Solution

Sucrose had been shown to increase the fresh weight and longevity of cutflowers.

Sucrose also reduces moisture stress in cutflower by decreasing the size of leaf stomata (Marousky, 1969). Flowers held in sucrose were comparable to field opened flowers, hence it is the source of energy of cutflowers.

According to Rimando (1982), the optimum levels of sucrose must be provided to successfully open cutflowers to quality blooms. Furthermore, the preservatives in addition to extending the vaselife of cutflowers had been used as opening solutions for cutflowers harvested at immature stage of flower development.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

The materials used were‘Green Mint’ carnation cutflowers at star stage with a uniform length of 40 cm, catsup bottles and holding solutions, stirring rod, beaker and weighing balance in the preparation of the solution. A pH meter determine the pH level of the preservative solutions.

The preservatives on holding solution used were the following: ascorbic acid (to replace citric acid) at different rates to vary the pH solution; sucrose (20%) by weight and Chlorox (1 ml/li solution).

Methods

Experimental design and treatments. The study was laid out in completely randomized design (CRD). Three flowers represent a treatment replicated four times.

The treatments were as follows:

Code Ascorbic acid (g/li) pH T1 Control (tap water only 6.90

T2 1.0 5.20

T3 1.5 4.57

T4 2.0 4.10

T5 2.5 3.87

T6 3.0 3.73

T7 3.5 3.58

T8 4.0 3.47

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

8 Cutflower preparation. Before holding the cutflowers in the different solutions, the leaves at the lower 1/3 of the stem of carnation cutflowers were removed and recut in a slanting manner. All cutflowers had uniform length of 40 cm. Each catsup bottle contains 200 ml solution where the sample flowers were held.

Data gathering. The data gathered and subjected to variance analysis and mean separation test by Duncan's multiple range tests (DMRT) were as follows:

1. Vaselife. This was obtained by counting the number of days covering the period from holding of the cutflowers in the solution up to the termination of the aesthetic value of the flower.

2. Volume of the solution used/taken-up. This was obtained by measuring the volume of the solution left in the bottle upon the termination of vaselife. A bottle was filled with similar volume of holding solution left without a flower and used as a correction factor of the volume lost through evaporation and absorption.

3. Number of days from holding to 50% anthesis. This was obtained by counting the number of days from holding to 50% anthesis.

4. Neck bending. This was observed at the time when the neck of flower started to show bending.

5. Number of days from holding to full flower opening (100% anthesis). This was done by recording the number of days from holding to full flower opening.

6. Visual quality rating (VQR). This was evaluated daily until the onset of senescence.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

a. Stem quality

Index Description 1 No browning

2 Up to 2.0 cm browning from the base of the stem 3 Up to 4.0 cm browning from the base of the stem 4 Up to 6.0 cm browning from the base of the stem b. Leaf quality

Index Description 0 No yellowing 1 1-10% yellowing 2 11-20% yellowing 3 21-30% yellowing 4 31-40% yellowing 5 75% yellowing c. Flower quality

Index Description

1 Excellent, field fresh, no defects 2 two petals wilted

3 three petals wilted 4 four petals wilted 5 five petals wilted

7. Initial and final pH of the holding solution. These were taken before immersion of the cutflower stem ends and after the termination of the experiment.

8. Documentation by pictures.

9. Temperature. The experiment was conducted with an average temperature of 17.50 and 20.40 in the months of January and February 2007, respectively.

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Figure 1. Overview of the experiment

Just after setting-up the experiment

Ten days after setting-up

Before termination of the experiment

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Days from Holding to 50% and 100% Anthesis

Table 1 shows that there were no significant differences among the various concentrations of ascorbic acid ranging from 1.00-4.00 g/li of the holding solutions with pH levels ranging from 3.47-6.90 from holding to 50% anthesis. However, cutflowers held in a solution with 2.0 g/li with a pH of 4.10 opened faster with a mean of 5.17 days while cutflowers in the holding solution with 1.5 g/li with a pH of 4.57 had the longest duration from the date of holding in vase to full flower opening which has a mean of 6.25 days.

Table 1. Number of days from holding to 50 and 100% anthesis

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID 50% ANTHESIS 100% ANTHESIS

CONCENTRATION (g/li, pH) (days) (days)

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

────

Tap water only (6.90) 5.75a 13.79a

1.00 (5.20) 6.17a 12.59a

1.50 (4.57) 6.25a 12.67a

2.00 (4.10) 5.17a 13.75a

2.50 (3.87) 5.50a 14.59a

3.00 (3.73) 6.17a 13.25a

3.50 (3.58) 5.75a 14.21a

4.00 (3.47) 6.00a 13.88a

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

In a column, means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

12 Likewise, there were no significant effects of the various ascorbic acid concentrations in the holding solutions with regards to duration to full flower opening (Table 1). Results showed, however, that cutflowers held in 1.0g/li ascorbic acid with a pH 5.20 opened faster with a mean of 12.59 days while cutflowers held in the holding solution with 2.5 g/li ascorbic acid with a pH of 3.87 had the longest duration to full flower opening which had a mean of 14.59 days.

Percentage Neck Bending

Table 2 shows that there were significant differences obtained on the percentage of neck bending. Cutflowers held in solution with 3.0 g/li ascorbic acid with a pH of 3.73 had the highest percentage of neck bending with a mean of 25.00 while the lowest percentage was observed on the cutflowers held in tap water with pH of 6.90, 5.20 (1.0g/li), 4.10

Table 2. Percentage of neck bending

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID CONCENTRATION (g/li, pH) MEAN (%)

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

6.90 Tap water only (6.90) 0.00c

1.00 (5.20) 0.00c

1.50 (4.57) 8.33b

2.00 (4.10) 0.00c

2.50 (3.87) 0.00c

3.00 (3.73) 25.00a

3.50 (3.58) 16.67b

4.00 (3.47) 16.67b

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT (2.0g/li), and 3.87 (2.5g/li) with an identical means of 0.00%.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

Visual Quality

The visual quality for all the cutflowers in the experiment was rated from the 9th day of holding and was done every after three days (Tables 3-5).

Stem quality. Statistically, significant effects of the different concentrations of ascorbic acid ranging from 1.00-4.00 g/li in the holding solutions with pH levels ranging from 3.47-6.90 were noted on the stem quality rating (Table 3). Cutflowers held in holding solutions with lower concentrations on the 9th day had significantly higher ratings for stem damage ranging from 1.17-1.50 which was described as up to 2.0 cm browning from the base of the stem compared to those held in tap water only (pH 6.90) which had a mean of 1.00,

Table 3. Stem quality rating

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID DAY

CONCENTRATION

──────────────────────────────────────────

(g/li, pH) 9 12 15 18 21

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tap water only (6.90) 1.00c 1.00c 1.00d 1.00e 1.00e 1.00 (5.20) 1.49a 1.83a 2.04a 2.21a 2.38a 1.50 (4.57) 1.46a 1.71ab 1.92ab 2.04ab 2.38a 2.00 (4.10) 1.33ab 1.58ab 1.96ab 2.21a 2.42a 2.50 (3.87) 1.42ab 1.59ab 1.79ab 1.96abc 2.09ab 3.00 (3.73) 1.33ab 1.58ab 1.75abc 1.84bcd 1.96b 3.50 (3.58) 1.50a 1.46b 1.71abc 1.75cd 2.09ab 4.00 (3.47) 1.17bc 1.38b 1.59c 1.67d 1.83b

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

In a column, means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

14 and described as no stem browning of the stem ends. However, cutflowers held in a solution containing 3.5 g/li with a pH of 3.58 had the highest rating of 1.50 which means 1 cm browning of the stem end was observed.

On the 12th day, cutflowers held in solution in solution containing 1.0 g/li with pH 5.20 had significantly the highest mean of 1.83, likewise on the 15th day having a mean of 2.04 which means up to 2.0 cm browning from the base of the stem observed.

At day 18th, cutflowers held in solution with a 2.0 g/li (pH 4.10) had the highest rating of 2.21. However, it was comparable with those that were held in solutions with 2.5 g/li (pH 3.87-5.20) while those held in tap water only with a pH 6.90 had no stem browning.

On the 21th day of observation, it was observed that cuflowers held in tap water only (pH 6.90) had significantly no stem browning; while cutflowers held in solutions with lower pH values showed different degrees of stem browning.

These results imply that the acidifying agent helped to minimize microbial build- up and served as pH buffer but when applied in excess may damage the stems of cutflowers (Rimando, 1980).

Leaf quality. Table 4 shows that there were significant differences with regards to leaf quality of cutflowers held in different concentrations of ascorbic acid in the holding solution. On day 9, cutflowers held in solution of 3.0 g/li having a pH of 3.73 had the highest leaf quality of 0.84 which means less than 1-10% leaf yellowing was observed while the lowest rating was noted on cutflowers held in tap water only (pH 6.90) with a mean of 0.00 which means that these were no yellowing of leaves observed.

At day 12, cutflowers held in solution with a pH of 3.73 and 5.20 had the highest

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

leaf quality rating of 1.67 which means that 1-10% leaf yellowing was noted. However, on the 15th day, cutflowers held at pH 3.73 had again the highest rating of 2.59 which means 11-Table 4. Leaf quality rating

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID DAY

CONCENTRATION

──────────────────────────────────────────

(g/li, pH) 9 12 15 18 21

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tap water only (6.90) 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 0.00b 1.00 (5.20) 0.75a 1.67a 2.25a 3.42a 4.83a 1.50 (4.57) 0.83a 1.50a 2.25a 3.25a 5.00a 2.00 (4.10) 0.67a 1.50a 2.42a 3.17a 4.50a 2.50 (3.87) 0.59a 1.34a 2.25a 3.17a 4.75a 3.00 (3.73) 0.84a 1.67a 2.59a 3.33a 4.595a 3.50 (3.58) 0.58a 1.50a 2.25a 3.17a 4.50a 4.00 (3.47) 0.75a 1.42a 2.25a 3.17a 4.67a

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

In a column, means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT

20% yellowing in the leaves was attained.

On the 18th day, cutflowers held in solution with 1.0 g/li with a pH 5.20 resulted to a rating of 3.42 for the highest percentage of yellowing of the cutflower leaves.

Lastly, at day 21, cutflowers held in 1.5 g/li of ascorbic acid (pH 4.57) had the highest rating of 5.00 which was described as 75% leaf yellowing while no leaf yellowing was noted on cutflowers held in tap water only (pH 6.90).

Flower quality. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences observed on the flower quality rating at days 9 and 15 (Table 5). On the 9th day of observation, cutflowers held in solution with 1.0 g/li of ascorbic acid with a pH 5.20 had

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

16 the highest rating of 2.08 with two petals wilted; while cutflowers held in solution with 2.5 g/li (pH 3.87) and 4.0 g/li of ascorbic acid (pH 3.47) had the lowest rating of 1.33 which was Table 5. Flower quality rating

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID DAY

CONCENTRATION

──────────────────────────────────────────

(g/li, pH) 9 12 15 18

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tap water only (6.90) 1.67ab 2.58a 4.17ab 6.84a 1.00 (5.20) 2.08a 2.92a 4.58a 5.00a 1.50 (4.57) 1.83ab 2.67a 4.42ab 4.92a 2.00 (4.10) 1.75ab 2.33a 3.92ab 4.84a 2.50 (3.87) 1.33b 2.08a 2.83c 4.33a 3.00 (3.73) 1.67ab 2.59a 4.17ab 4.75a 3.50 (3.58) 1.67ab 2.33a 4.17ab 4.75a 4.00 (3.47) 1.33b 2.25a 3.42bc 4.75a

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

In a column, means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT

described as excellent, field fresh and no defects.

The flower quality rating of cutflowers at days 12 and 18 were comparable.

However, on the 15th day of observations, those that were held in solution with 2.50 g/li with a pH of 3.87 had significantly better quality than cutflowers held in solution with the other ascorbic acid concentrations evaluated.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

Rogers (1973) observed that chemical preservatives were used to maintain flower quality and extend vaselife of cutflowers. They were also used as opening solutions for flowers at immature stage, but excess chemicals added to the vase solutions may lead to early deterioration. The basic components of most preservatives are: a source to enhance the water retaining capacity of the tissues and as a source of substrate; a germicide to help maintain the efficient uptake and water conducting function of the stem; as acidifying agent and a buffer to inhibit the activity of certain enzymes; and heavy metals to help stabilize color and prevent microbial build-up.

Volume Taken-up

Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in the volume of the solution used or taken-up by the cutflowers as affected by the different ascorbic acid levels in the holding solution (Table 6). Results showed that cutflowers held in tap water only (pH 6.90) had the highest volume absorbed with a mean of 49.17 ml. On the other hand, cutflowers held in solution with 3.5 g/li ascorbic acid having a pH of 3.58 had the lowest volume of solution absorbed with a mean of only 28.17 ml.

These findings confirmed the earlier findings of Kebasen (2002) who found that carnation harvested at star and cross stages and held in tap water only, had the highest Table 6. Volume of solution used/taken-up

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID CONCENTRATION (g/li, pH) MEAN (ml)

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tap water only (6.90) 49.17a

1.00 (5.20) 35.75c

1.50 (4.57) 28.25d

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

18

2.00 (4.10) 29.00d

2.50 (3.87) 30.58d

3.00 (3.73) 29.58d

3.50 (3.58) 28.17d

4.00 (3.47) 40.25b

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT volume of solution taken-up.

Vaselife

Table 7 showed the vaselife of the cutflowers as affected by the different ascorbic acid concentrations with various pH levels of the holding solutions. Results showed that cutflowers held in 2.5 g/li (pH 3.87) had the longest vaselife of 18.12 days but were comparable to those held 2.0-4.0 g/li having pH 3.47, 3.58, 3.73, 4.10, and 6.90.

Cutflowers held in 1.0 g/li of ascorbic acid (pH 5.20) had the shortest vaselife of 14.67 days.

Rimando (1980) stated that the lose of turgidity, exposure to ethylene and shortage of respirable substances are the most decisive factors which may trigger the onset of senescence of cutflowers at any stage of their development, whether they are still attached or already detached from the parent plant.

Table 7. Vaselife

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID CONCENTRATION (g/li, pH) MEAN (days)

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Tap water only (6.90) 16.09abc

1.00 (5.20) 14.67c

1.50 (4.57) 15.42bc

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

2.00 (4.10) 16.26abc

2.50 (3.87) 18.12a

3.00 (3.73) 16.08abc

3.50 (3.58) 16.67abc

4.00 (3.47) 17.09ab

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Means with a common letter are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT

Furthermore, vaselife could have been affected by the microoganisms present in sucrose solutions which have caused stem plugging. These microorganisms hindered the entry of water into the stem and to other parts of the cutflowers to maintain turgidity as well as the distribution of food on the different parts of the cutflowers (Whealy, 1992;

Rogers, 1973).

However, adding floral preservatives to the holding solutions have been very effective in extending the vaselife of cutflowers because they provide food. Acidifiers also helps to reduce bacterial action that may lead to early deterioration of cutflowers.

The bactericide or germicides kills bacteria in the solution and preclogging of the stem ends that can resist water uptake.

Final pH

The final pH solutions containing various ascorbic acid concentrations after the termination of the experiment is shown in Table 8. Based from the results, there was a decrease in the pH of the holding solutions and became more acidic that affected the vaselife of the cutflowers. The acidity of the different concentrations significantly affected how the respiratory substrates were utilized and increase of the microbial build-

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

20 up in the holding solutions. Rimando and Maralit (1980) pointed out that lower pH of opening solutions is advantageous to cutflowers as it helps minimize microbial build-up and inhibit the activity of certain enzymes leading to early senescence.

Table 8. Final pH of the holding solution

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ASCORBIC ACID CONCENTRATION (g/li, pH) FINAL pH

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

(Tap water only (6.90) 7.0

1.00 (5.20) 3.2

1.50 (4.57) 3.0

2.00 (4.10) 3.1

2.50 (3.87) 3.0

3.00 (3.73) 3.2

3.50 (3.58) 3.1

4.00 (3.47) 3.1

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary

Carnation (‘Green Mint’) were harvested at star stage. The stem ends were recut in a slanting manner and had a uniform stem length of 40 cm. Leaves at the lower 1/3 of the stem were removed and the stem ends were held in holding solutions containing different concentrations of ascorbic acid (to replace citric acid) + 20% sucrose + 1 ml Chlorox.

Based on the results of the study, there were not significant differences on the number of days from holding to 50 and 100% of anthesis. Cutflowers held in solutions with different concentrations of ascorbic acid with various pH levels. However, cutflowers held in a solution with 2.5 g/li ascorbic acid (pH 3.87) had the longest duration to full flower opening.

With regards to percentage neck bending, cutflowers held in holding solution with 3.0 g/li ascorbic acid (pH 3.73) had the highest percentage of neck bending.

Observations on stem quality rating showed that cutflowers held in tap water only (pH 6.90) had no stem browning up to 21 days of observations; while cutflowers held in the different holding solution with ascorbic acid concentrations showed stem browning from the base of the stem. It was also observed that in leaf quality rating, cutflowers held in tap water did not have leaf yellowing up to the termination of the experiment; while cutflowers held in the different holding solutions with ascorbic acid had yellowing of the leaves; hence, holding solutions with 1.5 g/li ascorbic acid (pH of 4.57) had the highest percentage of yellowing (75%). With regards to flower quality rating, holding solution

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22

Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

with 2.5 g/li ascorbic acid (pH 3.87) had the best flower quality..

On the other hand, cutflowers held in tap water only (pH 6.90) had the highest volume of solution absorbed while cutflowers held in solutions with 2.0 and 1.0 g/li of ascorbic acid (pH 4.10 and 5.20) absorbed comparable amounts of the solutions.

However, in the final pH of the holding solution, there was a decrease in the pH of the holding solutions which means that the solutions became more acidic except for the tap water. Cutflowers held in 1.5 g/li ascorbic acid (pH 3.87) had the longest vaselife of 18.122 days while the shortest was observed in cutflowers held in solution containing 1.0 g/li ascorbic acid (pH 5.20) with a mean of 14.69 days.

Conclusion

Results showed that using holding solution with 2.5 g/li of ascorbic acid 2.5 g/li + 20% sucrose (by weight) + 1 ml/li Chlorox with a pH of 3.87 delayed flower opening resulting to longer vaselife of carnation cutflowers (‘Green Mint’). However, it was comparable to those cutflowers held in tap water only.

Recommendation

It is therefore recommended, that a holding solution with 2.5 g/li of ascorbic acid + 20% sucrose (by weight) + 1 ml/li Chlorox having a pH of 3.87 can be used to delay flower opening, in carnation cutflowers harvested at star stage to prolong vaselife with better cutflower quality.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

LITERATURE CITED

AGRICARTA. 1999. Agricarta: Postharvest care of cutflowers. http:www.aginfonet.

comlagricartalcontent SK dried flower/postharvest care.

ALACYANG, J.K. 1998. Influence of different holding solution on the postharvest life of carnation cvs. Desio and Orange. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Pp.8

COORTS, G.D. 1965. Effects of senescence and preservatives on respiration in cutflower. Rona Hybrid, ‘Velvet Time’. Proc.Amer.Soc.Hort.Sci. Pp.

779-780.

HALEVY, A.H. and S. MAYAK. 1979. Senescence and postharvest physiology of cutflowers. Hort.Rev. 3:59-143.

HORNET. 1998. Hort FACT-Cutflowers and foliage. Cooling requirements and

temperature management.http://HYPERLINK http://www.hornet.co.nz www.co.nz./publications/hortfacts.

LEOPOLD, A.C. 1975. Aging, senescence and turning-over in plants. Bio.Sci.25 :659-662.

MAROUSKY, F.J. 1969. Vascular blockage, water absorption, stomata opening and respiration of ‘Cut Better Time’ rose treated with 8-hydroxyquiendine Carate.

Amer. Hort.Sci. 94 :223-229.

MASTALERZ, J.W. 1977. The Greenhouse Environment. New York: John Wiley and Sons. P. 629.

MAYAK, S. 1987. Senescence of cutflowers. Hort.Sci.22:863-865.

NOWAK, J. and R.M.RUDNICK. 1990. Postharvest Handling and Storage of cutflowers, Florist Green.

REID, M.S. 2000. Postharvest Technology, Research and Information Center. http://

postharvest.vedavis. edu/index. html.

RIMANDO,T.J. 1982. Postharvest physiology and handling of cutflower. A Professional Chair Lecturer on Ornamental Horticulture,UPLB-CA, College, Laguna. 35 pp.

_____ and M.C MARALIT 1980. Postharvest hardling and opening in vitro of shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum L.).Paper presented at the Annual Conference

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

24 of the Crop Science Society of the Phil. VISCA, Baybay, Leyte. 14 Pp.

ROGERS, H.M. 1973. A historical and critical review of postharvest physiology research on cutflower. Hort.Sci.8 (3):189-194.

WHEALY. A.C. 1992. Carnation : Introduction to Floriculture. New York:

Larson.Academic Press. Pp. 43-46.

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

APPENDICES

Appendix Table 1. Number of days from holding to 50% anthesis

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN

I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 5.67 6.00 5.67 5.67 23.01 5.75

T2 6.00 6.33 6.67 5.67 24.67 6.17

T3 5.67 6.33 6.67 6.33 25.00 6.25

T4 5.00 5.67 5.00 5.00 20.67 5.17

T5 6.00 5.00 6.00 5.00 22.00 5.50

T6 6.00 6.67 7.00 5.00 24.67 6.17

T7 5.67 5.33 6.00 6.00 23.00 5.75

T8 6.67 5.67 5.67 6.00 24.01 6.00

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 3.970 0.567 2.34ns 2.43 3.50 Error 24 5.810 0.242

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 9.779

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ns = Not significant Coefficient of variation = 8.42%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

26 Appendix Table 2. Number of days from holding to full flower opening (100%)

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN

I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 13.17 13.83 14.00 14.17 55.17 13.79

T2 12.67 12.17 13.17 12.33 50.34 12.59

T3 12.17 14.67 12.50 11.33 50.67 12.67

T4 14.33 13.50 14.67 12.50 55.00 13.75

T5 14.50 14.17 16.00 13.67 58.34 14.59

T6 14.67 12.33 13.00 13.00 53.00 13.25

T7 14.50 12.83 14.83 14.67 56.83 14.21

T8 15.67 14.17 12.67 13.00 55.51 13.88

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 13.989 1.998 2.00ns 2.43 3.50 Error 24 24.161 1.007

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 38.150

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

ns = Not significant Coefficient of variation = 7.38%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

Appendix Table 3. Percentage neck bending

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN

I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000

T2 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000

T3 0.000 0.000 33.33 0.000 33.33 8.333

T4 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000

T5 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.000

T6 33.33 0.000 33.33 33.33 99.99 24.998

T7 33.33 3.333 0.000 0.000 66.66 16.665

T8 0.000 0.000 66.67 0.000 66.67 16.667

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 2777.389 396.770 5.56** 2.43 3.50 Error 24 6110.889 254.620

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 8888.278

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

** = Highly significant Coefficient of variation =

19.49%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

28 Appendix Table 4. Stem quality at day 9

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 4.00 1.00

T2 1.50 1.33 1.50 1.50 5.83 1.46

T3 1.33 1.67 1.17 1.67 5.84 1.46

T4 1.50 1.33 1.17 1.33 5.33 1.33

T5 1.67 1.33 1.17 1.50 5.67 1.42

T6 1.33 1.33 1.67 1.00 5.33 1.33

T7 1.50 1.67 1.33 1.50 6.00 1.50

T8 1.33 1.00 1.17 1.17 4.67 1.17

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 0.820 0.117 3.79** 2.43 3.50 Error 24 0.742 0.031

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 1.561

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

** = Highly significant Coefficient of variation =

13.18%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

Appendix Table 5. Stem quality at day 12

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 4.00 1.00

T2 1.83 1.50 1.83 2.17 7.33 1.83

T3 1.50 1.67 1.50 2.17 6.84 1.71

T4 1.83 1.33 1.33 1.83 6.32 1.58

T5 1.50 1.67 1.50 1.67 6.34 1.59

T6 1.67 1.50 1.83 1.33 6.33 1.58

T7 1.83 1.17 1.33 1.50 5.83 1.46

T8 1.33 1.17 1.50 1.50 5.50 1.38

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 1.763 0.252 4.8** 2.43 3.50 Error 24 1.259 0.052

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 3.022

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

** = Highly significant Coefficient of variation =

15.12%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

30 Appendix Table 6. Stem quality at day 15

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 4.00 1.00

T2 2.17 1.67 2.00 2.33 8.17 2.04

T3 1.67 2.17 1.67 2.17 7.68 1.92

T4 2.00 1.67 2.00 2.17 7.84 1.96

T5 1.83 1.83 1.83 1.67 7.16 1.79

T6 1.83 1.50 2.00 1.67 7.00 1.75

T7 1.83 1.50 1.67 1.83 6.83 1.71

T8 1.50 1.67 1.50 1.67 6.34 1.59

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 2.977 0.425 11.58** 2.43 3.50 Error 24 0.881 0.037

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 3.858

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

** = Highly significant Coefficient of variation =

11.14%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

Appendix Table 7. Stem quality at day 18

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 4.00 1.00

T2 2.17 1.83 2.33 2.50 8.83 2.21

T3 1.83 2.17 2.00 2.17 8.17 2.04

T4 2.00 2.17 2.17 2.50 8.84 2.21

T5 2.17 1.83 2.00 1.83 7.83 1.96

T6 2.00 1.67 2.00 1.67 7.34 1.84

T7 1.83 1.50 1.83 1.83 6.99 1.75

T8 1.67 1.67 1.67 1.67 6.68 1.67

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 4.278 0.611 20.22** 2.43 3.50 Error 24 0.725 0.030

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 5.004

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

** = Highly significant Coefficient of variation = 9.48%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

32 Appendix Table 8. Stem quality at day 21

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 4.00 1.00

T2 2.33 2.00 2.50 2.67 9.50 2.38

T3 2.17 2.50 2.33 2.50 9.50 2.38

T4 2.00 2.67 2.17 2.83 9.67 2.42

T5 2.17 2.00 2.00 2.17 8.34 2.09

T6 2.00 1.83 2.17 1.83 7.83 1.96

T7 2.00 1.67 2.00 2.67 8.34 2.09

T8 1.83 2.00 1.83 1.67 7.33 1.83

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 5.991 0.856 13.86** 2.43 3.50 Error 24 1.482 0.062

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 7.473

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

** = Highly significant Coefficient of variation =

12.33%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

Appendix Table 9. Leaf quality at day 9

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

T2 0.33 1.00 1.00 0.67 3.00 0.75

T3 0.33 1.00 1.00 1.00 3.33 0.83

T4 0.33 0.33 1.00 1.00 2.66 0.67

T5 0.67 0.00 1.00 0.67 2.34 0.59

T6 1.00 0.67 0.67 1.00 3.34 0.84

T7 0.33 1.00 0.67 0.33 2.33 0.58

T8 0.67 0.33 1.00 1.00 3.00 0.75

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 2.056 0.294 3.00* 2.43 3.50 Error 24 2.348 0.098

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 4.405

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

* = Significant Coefficient of variation = 50.05%

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Postharvest Characteristics of ‘Green Mint’ Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) as Affected by Different Concentrations of Ascorbic Acid in the Holding Solution /Marcela L. Camid. 2007

34 Appendix Table 10. Leaf quality at day 12

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

R E P L I C A T I O N

TREATMENT ─────────────────────────── TOTAL MEAN I II III IV

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

T1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

T2 1.33 1.67 2.00 1.67 6.67 1.67

T3 1.33 1.67 1.33 1.67 6.00 1.50

T4 1.00 1.33 1.67 2.00 6.00 1.50

T5 1.67 1.00 1.00 1.67 5.34 1.34

T6 1.33 1.67 1.67 2.00 6.67 1.67

T7 1.33 1.67 2.00 1.00 6.00 1.50

T8 1.33 1.00 1.67 1.67 5.67 1.42

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Analysis of Variance

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Source of Degrees of Sum of Mean Computed TABULAR F variation freedom squares square F 0.05 0.01

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Treatment 7 8.363 1.195 11.76** 2.43 3.50 Error 24 2.439 0.102

───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

Total 31 10.802

═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

** = Highly significant Coefficient of variation =

24.09%

Pigura

Figure 1.  Overview of the experiment
Table 1 shows that there were no significant differences among the various  concentrations of ascorbic acid ranging from 1.00-4.00 g/li of the holding solutions with  pH levels ranging from 3.47-6.90 from holding to 50% anthesis
Table 3.  Stem quality rating
Table 8.  Final pH of the holding solution

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

SITE PROGRESS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL As of September 25, 2016 Completed: o Formworks at roof deck and stair 4 at the 2nd floor On-going: o Installation of steel reinforcing