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BIBLIOGRAPHY

ANANEY, NOEL L., APRIL 2013. Motivational Factors of Members in Joining Multipurpose Cooperatives in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Jovita M. Sim, MSc.

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to determine the perception and understanding of residents on Multi-purpose cooperatives, the greatest motivational factor that influence individuals to join the cooperative, identify the activities conducted by Multi-purpose cooperatives to motivate or invites members, the main reason for non-members for not joining cooperatives and the most important benefit and privilege of members.

A total of 120 respondents composed of 60 cooperative members, 40 no-members and 20 cooperative officers were considered in this study. Survey questionnaires and personal interview were used to gather data.

The perception and understanding of the respondents regarding Multi-purpose cooperatives determined their correct knowledge and perceived identification of what a Multi-purpose cooperative is. Most of the respondents understood that cooperative helped members who were in need.

Provision of training, seminar and loans, patronage refund, credit facilities, proper treatment to members, strict adherence to policies, respect and support ideas of the

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members were the activities maintained by the cooperative to sustain their continuous good services to its members.

Lack of funds to pay membership fee, lack of interest and membership to organizations were some of the reasons of the respondents for not joining cooperative.

The most common problem observed by the cooperative officers was the inactive participation during meeting or general assembly.

Thus, it is recommended that the cooperative should uphold their quality services to the members. Officers make sure that all members must be well-informed of all the cooperative activities.

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INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Success is the product of struggles and trials, those who perserve succeed. In the Philippines, cooperative is considered an institution for the economic growth and development of the community.

Cooperative as defined in the 21st century Webster’s International Encyclopedia is the association of producers and consumers for the purpose of sharing among the members profit that would otherwise go to intermediate business and individuals. It is the duly registered association of persons with common bond of interest, who have voluntarily joined together to achieve lawful common social or economic end, making equitable contribution to capital required and accepting a fair share of the risk and benefits of undertaking and accordance with the universally accepted principles (RA 6938).

In a community, people are motivated in joining some various activities because of their basic needs, such as food, clothings, achievement, or monetary gain that translate into an internal tensions that motivates specific behavior with which to fulfill their needs.

Cooperative has different types. One of the most common is the consumer cooperative, another is the Multi-purpose cooperative. Multi-purpose cooperative is one which combines two (2) or more of the business activities of different types of cooperative.

Cervantes is one of the thirty four municipalities of IlocosSur. It is located on the easternmost part of Ilocos Sur in the inner sanctum of Region I in between the boundaries of Benguet, MountainProvince, Municipality of Alilem, Municipality of Suyo, Municipality of Sigay and Municipality of Del Pilar.

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There are four existing cooperatives in Cervantes namely Cervantes Municipal Employees Multi-Purpose Cooperative (CMEMPC), Kalayaan Multi-Purpose Cooperative (KMPC), Nueva Segovia Consortium of Cooperative (NSCC) and Pamabis (Payas, Maipit, Bisayot) Multi-Purpose Cooperative (PMPC). The first three is located at Barangay Rosario while the other one at Barangay Comillas North.

Cervantes Municipal Employees Multi-Purpose Cooperative (CMEMPC) focuses its operation in Barangay Rosario with employees of local government unit as members.

Cash loan and consumer are the programs offered by CMEMPC. Kalayaan Multi-Purpose Cooperative (KMPC) composed of farmers which promotes livelihood loan for Barangay Malaya, Barangay San Luis, Barangay Liteng, Barangay San Juan and Barangay Rosario, Pamabis Multi-purpose Cooperative (PMPC) is manipulated by farmers also but it only serves Barangay Comillas North and Barangay Comillas South providing livelihood loan, palay production and hog raising program. A unique one is the Nueva Segovia Consortium of Cooperatives (NSCC) which is run by Roman Catholic’s to provide credit assistance, building assistance, savings and deposit programs to all residence of Cervantes,IlocosSur.

The existence of these four (4) cooperatives implies that the residences are motivated to join these cooperatives. Therefore, the motivating factor to the people in the area is worth documenting as basis for other areas in motivating residence to group them into a cooperative.

Statement of the Problem

This study was conducted to answer the following questions:

1. What is the perception and understanding of residents on cooperative?

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2. What are the greatest motivational factors that influence individuals in cooperative?

3. What are the activities conducted by Multi-purpose cooperative to motivate or invite members?

4. What is the main reason for non-members for not joining cooperatives?

5. What are the most important benefit and privilege for members?

Objectives of the Study The study aimed to:

1. Determine the perception and understanding of residents on Multi-purpose cooperatives;

2. Determine the greatest motivational factor that influence individuals to join cooperative;

3. Identify the activities conducted by Multi-purpose cooperatives to motivate or invites members;

4. Determine main reason for non-members for not joining cooperatives; and, 5. Determine the most important benefit and privilege of members.

Importance of the Study

Since cooperative is considered as one of the vehicles for socio-economic development, it is imperative that cooperatives must succeed. The research findings could give insights to the cooperative movers especially in motivating people to join Cooperatives. The study would serve as a reference in conducting research on cooperatives in the future especially to the students in Cooperative Management.

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Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study focused on the motivation factors of members and the residence in joining Multi – Purpose Cooperative in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur and the activities conducted by Multi-Purpose Cooperative in the area to motivate or invite residence to join Multi- Purpose Cooperative.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Cooperative Definition

The Cooperative Code of the Philippines (RA 6938) define Cooperative as a duly registered association of persons with a common bond of interest, who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a lawful common social or economic end, making equitable contribution to required capital and accepting affair share of the risk and benefits of the undertaking and accordance with universally accepted principles.

Nolledo (1986), stated that a Cooperative may be said to be a group of person who pool their resources under the principles of equity and common good understanding for their mutual benefits. A Cooperative exists to make profit as an entity but if there should be a profit, the same shall be divided among the members. Cooperative is based on the saving will known in human cycled “in union, there is strength”.

Onagan

et al.

(1973), also added that Cooperative through Cooperation of its principles and doctrine is actively dynamic. One of its inherit characteristics is growth. It develops and expands to all directions until the whole world is merged to the system. As a unit a Cooperative increase in size to a point where all people in its trading area are absorbed. The Cooperative system has its own remedies to accomplish its goal. Its service grows both in quality commensurate the needs of the members. By the operation of patronage refund and by their watchful guidance and encouragement given by their economic status, members find themselves actually and actively accumulating wealth as the years go by. This dynamic accumulation of wealth is the characteristics of the Cooperative system, therefore, growth is characteristics of and inherent to cooperatives.

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The first Rochdale Principles states that Cooperative societies must have an open and voluntary membership. According to ICA’s statement on the Cooperative identity,

“Cooperatives are voluntarily organization, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political, or religious discrimination” (Rochdale Principles).

Primary Objectives

The primary objective of all cooperative lays emphasis on service. Members recognize the needs for mutual cooperation because they want to enjoy certain services that they cannot from the profit operators in their community (Nolledo, 1986).

Secondary Objectives: Savings

The profit motives express its self in a Cooperative by the instinctive interest of member in the savings they automatically get out their consumption. Every time a member buy from the Cooperative store, the margin created by the purchase, which accumulates as profits in the case of profit store, is now save in accumulated for the credit of buying members. In organization, there are factors to be considered to make them successful, Nolledo (1986) identify the following factors that make up a successful Cooperative; a) members are treated equally and are willing to sacrifice common good, b) members give away part of their resources to form a common fund, c) members fully cooperate in the undertaking expected of them in terms of honesty and prompt attendance in case of performance of duties assign and, d) members patronize the Cooperative by giving what is due from them and availing the resources of the Cooperation.

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Expectancy Theory of Motivation

In organization term, this concept of motivation pictures an individual, occupying a role, faced with a set of alternative voluntary behaviors, all of which have some associated outcomes attached to them. However, he makes the point that task goals (productivity, quality standards or similar goals attached to jobs) are often means to an end, rather than the end itself. There is a second level outcome which reflects the real goals of individual and these may be attained, in varying degrees, through task behavior. An individual is motivated to behave in certain manner because (a) he or she has a strong desire for a certain task outcome and reasonable expectation of achieving that outcome and (b) because he or she also expects that the achievement of the task outcome will result in reward in terms of pay, promotion, job security, or satisfaction of individual needs-physiology, safety, esteem and so on (Kotze, 2008).

Interpersonal Motivation Factor

Individual factors in motivation, there are other factor that arise from interactions with other people.

Competition interpersonal factors and competition motivates behavior because people can enhance their own performance to that of others. While all learners than for others (Rich and Devitis, 1992).

Cooperation interpersonal factors derive satisfaction from working toward group goals. As was the case with competition, the motivating force of cooperation is stronger for some persons from others, and these differences are often related to the person’s

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previous experience or to the importance that cultures or place in cooperation (Santonil, 2009).

Recognition interpersonal factor, most people enjoy having their efforts and accomplishments recognize and appreciated by others. In order to obtain recognition, the activity of a learner must be visible to others. There are three ways to achieve visibility; 1) the process of performing an activity may visible, 2) the product of the activity may be visible and, 3) some other result of the activity may be visible (Santonil, 2009).

Need Hierarchy Theory

The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs consistent of five hierarchic classes. It shows the complexity of human requirements. According to him, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The lower level needs such as physiological and safety needs will have to be satisfied before higher level needs are to be addressed. We can relate Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory with employee motivation. For example, if a manager is trying to motivate his employees by satisfying their needs: according to Maslow, he should try to satisfy the lower level needs before he tries to satisfy the upper level needs or the employees will not be motivated. Also he has to remember that not everyone will be the same needs. A good manager will try to figure out which levels of needs are active for a certain individual or employee. The basic requirements build the first step in his pyramid. If there is any deficit on this level, the whole behavior of a human will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Subsequently we do have the second level, which awake a need for security. Basically it is oriented on a future need for security, after securing those two levels. The motives shift in the social sphere, which

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form the third stage. Psychological requirements consist in the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy compose the self-realization so the theory can summarize as follows; 1) human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not, 2) since needs are many, they are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to the complex, 3) the person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level needs is at least minimally satisfied and, 4) the further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.

The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows; 1) physiology (hunger, thirst, sleep, etc.), 2) safety/security/shelter/health, 3) belongingness/love/friendship, 4) self-esteem/recognition/achievement, 5) self- actualization (Tom, 2004).

Intrinsic Motivation and the 16 Basic Desires Theory

Starting from studies involving more than 6,000 people, Professor Steven Reiss has proposed a theory that found 16basic desires that guide nearly all human behavior.

The 16 basic desires that motivate our actions and define our personalities as; 1) acceptance, the need for approval, 2) curiosity, the need to learn, 3) eating, the need for food, 4) family, the need to raise children, 5) honor, the need to be loyal to the traditional values of one’s clan/ethnic group, 6) idealism, the need for social justice, 7) independence/the need for individuality, 8) order/the need for organize, stable, predictable environments, 9) physical activity, the need for exercise, 10) power, the need for influence of will, 11) romance, the need for sex, 12) saving, the need to collect, 13) social contact,

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the need for friends, 14) social status, the need for social standing/importance, 15) tranquility, the need to be safe and, 16) vengeance, the need to strike back/win.

In this model, people differ in these basic desires. These basic desires represent an intrinsic desire that directly motivates a person’s behavior, and not aimed at indirectly satisfying other desires. People may also be motivated by non-basic desires, but in this case this does not relate to deep motivation, or only as a means to achieve other basic desires (Cordova and Lepper, 1995).

Self-determination Theory

Self-determination theory, developed by Edward Deci and Richard Ryan, focuses on the importance of intrinsic motivation in driving human behavior. Like Maslow’s hierarchical theory and others that built on it, SDT posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Unlike these other theories, however, SDT does not include any sort of

“autopilot” for achievement, but instead requires active encouragement from the environment. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy, competence feedback, and relatedness (Ryan and Deci, 2000).

Definition of Motivation

The definition of motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function.

Simple acts such as eating are motivated by hunger. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be anything from reward to coercion.

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There are two main kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance, or desire. Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something. However, there are many theories and labels that serve as sub tittles to the definition of motivation. For example: "I will give you a candy bar if you clean your room." This is an example of reward motivation (Pan, undated).

The Context for Motivation

As a hypothetical Construct, motivation usually stands for that which “energizes, directs, and sustains behaviors”. In shorthand terms, it is the degree and type of effort that an individual exhibits in a behavior situation. However, care needs to be taken not to equate motivation simply with sheer amount of effort. It also has to do with the direction and quality of that effort.

Any comprehensive look at the motivational bases of behavior in organizational setting most of necessity focus on the several sets of variables that influence motivation. A classification system, found useful identifies four major categories of variables; 1) individual characteristics, 2) job characteristics, 3) work characteristics and, 4) external environment characteristics. If motivation is to be affected. One or more of these variables must be change or affected. Let us look briefly at each category of variables and the special facets of motivational tasks in public organizations. (Porter and Miles, 1974).

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METHODOLOGY

Locale and Time of the Study

This study was conducted in the municipal town of Cervantes, Ilocos Sur from December to January 2013. Cervantes is approximately 209 kilometers or about 5-6 hours ride to Baguio City.

Respondents of the Study

A total of 120respondents were selected through random sampling. Respondents were residents of Cervantes, Ilocos Sur composing of 20 officers, 60 members and 40 non- members of multi-purpose cooperative in the area.

Data Collection

Information and data were collected through survey questionnaires. The questionnaire were distributed and collected after a week. Follow up interview was done to clarify some information during the collection of questionnaires.

Data Gathered

The data gathered were the perceptions of residence on Multipurpose cooperative, the number of residence who were members of Multipurpose Cooperative, the factors that motivated them to join a Multipurpose cooperative and the activities conducted by the Multipurpose cooperatives to encourage the residence to join the cooperative.

Data Analysis

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Data gathered were analyzed and presented according to the objectives of the study.

Data were presented using frequency counts and percentages. Appropriate statistical tools was used in the analysis of data.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Profile of Respondents

Table1 describes the profile of the respondents as to their age, gender, civil status, and educational attainment, source of income and position of officers of the cooperative.

Age.Majority (56.7%) of the respondents belongedto the 36-45 years age group, followed by 46 years and above (25%) and 20-35 years old (18.33%).

The same trend is shown from non-member respondents. Most of the non-members were 36-45 years old (40%), 46 years and above age group (32.25%) and the least percentage (27.5%) were 20-25 years old.

Likewise, most officer respondents in this study belonged to 26-45 years old (55%), followed by 45 years and above age group (30%) and lesser percentage(15%) belonged to 20-35 years old.

Gender.With regards to gender, majority (55%) of the member respondents of the study were female as compared to male member respondents (45%).

There were more female non-member respondents in the study (52.5%) than male non-member respondents (47.5%).

Out of 20 respondents who were officers of cooperatives in Cervantes Ilocos Sur, 14(70%) were females while males were 6 (30%).

Civil status. Out of 60 member respondents, 86.7% were married, while 8 of the member respondents were single (13.3%).

Out of 40 non-member respondents, 77.5% were married while22.5% were single.

There were 16 officer who were married (80%), while there were 4(20%)single officer.

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Educational attainment. As to the educational attainment of the respondents, most 24(40%) of the respondents were elementary graduate, 17(28.3%) graduated from high school, 15 (25%) finished college level while 4 of the member respondents were able to finish vocational course.

As to the non-member respondents, some (47.5%) of them were elementary graduate followed by high school graduates (27.5%), college graduates (7.5%) and vocational course graduate (17.5%).

On the other hand, half of the officer respondents were high school graduate (50%), followed by college graduates (40%) and elementary (10%).

Source of income. As shown in the table source of income includes farming, government employees, private employees, business and farming.

As to the member respondents, there were 24 farmers (40%), followed by government employees with (33.33%), private employees with (13.33%), engaged in business with8.33% and driving with 5%.

Farming is the major source of income of non-members (50%), followed by private employment (20%), business (12.5%), driving (10%) and government employment (7.5%).

There were more government employees who were also officers of the cooperative (35%). Farming is the second source of income of officer included in the respondents (30%), followed by business (20%) and private employment (15%).

Profileof respondents as to position (officers).Majority (75%) of the respondents included in the study and who are officers of cooperatives were board of directors, followed by bookkeepers (10 %), Manager (5%), Chairman of the baord (5%) and Treasurer (5%) as shown in table 2.

Table 2. Position of cooperative officers respondent

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OFFICERS POSITION

F %

Manager 1 5.00

Chairman 1 5.00

Board of director 15 75.00

Treasurer 1 5.00

Book keeper 2 10.00

TOTAL 20 100

Perception and Understanding on Multi-Purpose Cooperatives

The perception and understanding of the respondents regarding Multi-purpose Cooperatives (MPC) determines their correct knowledge and perceived identification of what is a Multipurpose Cooperative.

As shown in Table 3, most of the respondents (88.33%) members and (85%) non- members perceived MPC as organizations/cooperative that helps members who are in need.

The respondents also perceived MPC as cooperatives that have two or more services offered, as answered by 41 (68.33%) of the member respondents and non-member respondents with 28 (70%).

Some of members (36.70%) and of non-member (22.5%) respondents perceived MPCs as cooperatives that give rewards to members with good standing.

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Table 3. Perception and understanding on Multi-purpose Cooperatives

MEMBERS NON-MEMBERS

PERCEPTION/

UNDERSTANDING F % F %

Cooperative that have two or 41 68.33 28 70.00

more services

Cooperative that help members 53 88.33 34 85.00 in need

Cooperative that allow members 21 35.00 12 30.00

to have credit without interest

Cooperative gives rewards 22 36.70 9 22.50 and incentives to members with

good records

The result implies that most of the respondents understand that cooperative helps members who are in need.

Factors that Motivate and Encourage Respondents to Join Multi-purpose Cooperative

As defined previously in this paper, motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior to occur. As to this study, there are five factors identified that motivates individual to join a cooperative.

The five factors identified that motivated members in joining the Multi-Purpose are as follows:

1. Good Quality of Service 2. Patronage Refund Received 3. Credit allowed by the Cooperative 4. Friends were Member of Cooperative 5. Nearness to residence

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Table 4. Factor that motivated and encouraged respondents to join cooperative MEMBERS

PARTICULARS

FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE Factors

Quality of service 47 78.33

Patronage refund received 39 65.00

Friends were member of cooperative 17 28.33

Nearness to residence 14 23.33

Credit is allowed by the cooperative 35 58.33

Encouragement

Needs of basic commodities 42 70.00

Need of capital 35 58.33

Encourage by friends/relatives 25 41.67

Encourage by neighbor members 10 16.67

As shown in Table 4, good quality of service is the greatest motivational factor for the respondents in joining Multi-purpose cooperatives (78.33%). On the other hand, proximity or nearness to place of residence is the least motivational factor of the respondents in joining the MPC (23.33%). Other factor that motivate an individual are patronage refund received (65%), credit allowed by the cooperative (58%), friends were member of the cooperative (28.33%).

Also shown in the table below are the factors that encouraged members in joining the MPC.

Result revealed that the respondents needs for a basic commodity is the greatest factor that

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in joining is the encouragement from neighbor members (16.67%). Other factor includes need of capital (58.33%) and encourage by friends/relatives (41.67%).

The result implies that the most factors that motivated and encouraged members to join cooperative is the quality of the service and their need of basic commodities.

Activities Conducted by Multi-Purpose Cooperative that Motivate Members

As stated on recognition interpersonal factor, most people enjoy having their efforts and accomplishments recognize and appreciated by others. In order to obtain recognition, the activity of a learner must be visible to others. There are three ways to achieve visibility;

1) the process of performing an activity may be visible, 2) the product of the activity may be visible and, 3) some other result of the activity may be visible.

As to activities conducted by Multipurpose cooperatives that motivate members in joining the cooperative, result revealed that most of the members are highly motivated with provision of loans (93.33%), followed by training and/or seminars provided by MPC (75%) and giving of certificates of recognition (21.67%).

Member respondents were least motivated by provision of Christmas bonus (10%) and surprise gift given during annual general assembly (6.67%).

Result also revealed that most officer respondents were motivated by conduct of activities associated with the effective operation of the cooperative (95%). Provision of training/seminars and presentation of cooperative development during assembly also motivated officers of cooperative (90%). This is followed by promotion of cooperative services/projects (80%) and giving of certificate of recognition (50%). On the other hand, the giving of surprise gift certificate least motivated the officers of cooperatives (25%).

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The result implies that providing training and seminar and providing of loans are one of the reason why members join a cooperative and also as their financial assistance.

Table 5. Activities conducted by multipurpose cooperatives that motivate members

MEMBERS OFFICERS

ACTIVITIES

F % F %

Training and seminar 45 75.00 18 90.00

conducted

Giving surprise gift 4 6.67 2 25.00

during annual general assembly

Giving certificate to 13 21.67 10 50.00

recognition

Giving Christmas bonus 6 10.00 - -

Providing loans 56 93.33 - -

Presentation of cooperative

development during general - - 18 90.00

assembly

Promotion of cooperative - - 16 80.00

services/projects

Conducting activities - - 19 95.00

associated with the effective operation of the cooperative

Benefits/Privileges Provided by the Cooperative to the Members

Benefits and privileges provided by the cooperative were identified as motivating to the members and officers like in joining multipurpose cooperatives. This could be further

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explained by Maslow’s hierarchy of need particularly on the second level of need which awakes the need for security, it is basically oriented on a future need for security.

Results showed that most members receive patronage refunds (83.33%), while some also benefits were receipt of quality service (63.33%) and sees that proper care and treatment of the officers to members are also benefits and privileges provided to members as consumers of the MPC. The lowest perceived benefits and privileges provided for by the MPC to members were efficient services.

Table 6. Benefits/ privileges provided by the cooperative to members

MEMBERS OFFICERS

PARTICULAR

F % F %

Receives/giving patronage 50 83.33 20 100.00

Refund

Efficient services 30 50.00 11 55.00

Receives/provides quality 38 63.33 18 90.00

Services

Proper care and treatment of 36 60.00 19 95.00

the officers to members

Credit facility and loan - - 20 100.00

Services

Welfare benefits for death of - - 20 100.00

Members

As to the officers of the MPCs, all (100%) of the respondents who mentioned the following as benefit provided by cooperative; patronage refunds given to members were the major benefits, welfare benefits for death of members (100%), and credit facility and loan

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services (100%). This is followed by proper care and treatment to members (95 %), quality services (90%) and efficient services (55%).

Result implies that cooperative sustain its operation by providing benefits to members for giving patronage refund, credit facility and proper treatment to its members

Excellent Performance Maintained by the Cooperative Officers and Members

As stated on the context for motivation as a hypothetical Construct, motivation usually stands for that which “energizes, directs, and sustains behaviors”. In shorthand terms, it is the degree and type of effort that an individual exhibits in a behavior situation.

However, care needs to be taken not to equate motivation simply with sheer amount of effort. It also has to do with the direction and quality of that effort.

The excellent performance maintained by the cooperatives officer and members were identified as follows: strict adherence to policies, continuous capital build-up from members, good standing of members, efficiency and honesty of officers and active in collecting credits to those who have past dues.

As to members, most (88.33%) viewed strict adherence to policies as excellent performance maintained by the cooperative officers and members. Members also viewed continuous capital build-up from members (56.67%), good standing of members (53.33%) and efficiency and honesty of officers (38.33%) as excellent performance that is maintained by the cooperative officers and members.

All the officers also viewed strict adherence to policies as the most important excellent performance maintained by cooperative members and officers. This is followed by efficiency and honesty of officers (85%), good standing of members (75%) and

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continuous capital build up from members (70%). One respondents identified “active in collection of credits to those who have past dues” is also an excellent performance to be maintained by cooperative members and officers (5%).

Result implies that cooperative maintains implementation of strict adherence of policies as an equal treatment to every member.

Table 7. Excellent performance maintained by the cooperative officers and members

MEMBERS OFFICERS

PARTICULAR

F % F %

Strict adherence to policies 53 88.33 20 100.00

Continuous capital build-up 34 56.67 14 70.00

from members

Good standing of members 32 53.33 15 75.00

Efficiency and honesty of 23 38.33 17 85.00

Officers

Others: Active in collecting 0 0.00 1 5.00

Credits to those who have past dues

Practices and Traits Commonly Shown by the Officers to the Members

As stated on Maslow’s hierarchical theory, self determination theory posits a natural tendency toward growth and development. Self determination theory includes any sort of “autopilot” for achievement, but instead it requires active encouragement from the environment. The primary factors that encourage motivation and development are autonomy competence feedback and relatedness.

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Practices and traits commonly shown by officers to members as perceived by the members are as follows: respects and support ideas of the members, insuring peace and cooperation among members and officers, supervise members in case of problems, ignores some suggestions of members and honesty to members. As mentioned on the levels of need according to Maslow, he should try to satisfy the lower needs before he tries to satisfy the upper level needs or the employee will not be motivated.

As perceived by members, most (80%) of them respect and support of the ideas of the members and it is the most important practices and traits of officers to the members. This is followed by supervision of officers to members (65%), Honesty to members (53.33%) and Ensuring peace and cooperation among members and officers (f=29, 48.33%). Least of the practices and traits commonly shown by officers to members is ignoring some suggestions of members (28.33%). Shown as well on the table 7 are the Practices and traits commonly shown by officers to members as perceived by the officers themselves.

Respect and support of the ideas of the members was found to be the most important practices and traits as mentioned by all the member respondents. This is followed by supervision to members in case of problems (90%), honesty to members (90%) and ensuring peace and cooperation among members and officers (80%). Ignorance of the suggestions of some members was also identified by officers as practices and traits that are shown to members by the officers (20%).

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Table 8. Practices and traits commonly shown by the officers to the members

MEMBERS OFICCERS

PARTICULAR

F % F %

Respects and support ideas 48 80.00 20 100.00

of the members

Ensuring peace and cooperation 29 48.33 16 80.00

among members and officers

Supervise members in case 39 65.00 18 90.00

of problems

Ignores some suggestions of 11 18.33 4 20.00

Members

Honesty to members 32 53.33 18 90.00

In general, both members and officers have identified both respect and support of ideas of the members is the most common practices and traits shown by the cooperative officers to its members.

Result implies that the officers’ best policy respects and supports ideas of the members.

Problems Observed by the Members and Officers

Problems encountered by Multi-purpose Cooperative on the members were identified as follows : a) inactive participation during meeting or general assembly, b) some of suggestions and recommendation of the members have no consideration ,c) disloyalty of the officers, d) Lose of moral values among employees, e) poor patronage of members and f) delinquency of purchase accounts of some members.

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Result showed that the most common problem observed by the officers and members relative to the cooperative was the inactive participation of some members during meeting or general assembly as mentioned by (85%) of the respondents. This is followed by delinquency of purchase accounts of some members (51.67%), poor patronage of members (f=29, 48.33%), no consideration to the suggestion of some members (36.67%) and disloyalty of some members (20%).

Least common problems identified by members is the lack of moral values of some employees (13.33%).

Likewise for officers, most common problems were the in active participation of some members during meeting or general assembly (85%). This is followed by the poor patronage of members (70%), delinquency of purchase amount of some members (65%),

Table 9. Problems observed by the members and officers

MEMBERS OFFICERS

PROBLEM

F % F %

Inactive participation during 51 85.00 17 85.00

meeting or general assembly

Some of suggestions and 22 36.67 7 35.00

recommendation of the

members have no consideration

Disloyalty of the officers 12 20.00 3 15.00

Lack of moral values among 8 13.33 2 10.00

Employees

Poor patronage of members 29 48.33 14 70.00

Delinquency of purchase 31 51.67 13 65.00

accounts of some members

(29)

lack of consideration to suggestions (35%). The least problems encountered by officers were the disloyalty of some officers (15%) and lack of moral values among employees (10%).

Result implies that most of the common problems observed by the officers are the inactive participation of members during meeting or general assembly followed by poor patronage of members and delinquency of purchase of accounts of some members.

Non-members Reason for not Joining the Multi-Purpose Cooperative

The reasons of non-members for not joining the Multi-purpose Cooperatives were identified as follows: a) fear for their security, b) can’t afford the membership and share capital, c) not interested, d) already member in other organization and e) distance from residence.

Table 10. Reasons for not joining the Multi-Purpose Cooperative

NON-MEMBERS

REASON

F %

Fear for their security 12 30.00

Can’t afford the membership and share capital 27 67.50

Not interested 22 55.00

Member in other organization 14 35.00

Distance from residence 8 20.00

(30)

The most common reason for non-members to join the MPC is due to lack of funds to pay the membership and share capital (67.50%). Some non-members are plainly not interested to join MPC’s (55%), while some are already members of other organizations (35%). Least common reason of non-members to join the MPC’s were their fear of their security (20 %) and distance of their residence to the cooperative.

Result implies that the main reason of the respondents in not joining the cooperative is the lack of funds to pay membership fee and some are not really interested on cooperative services, some also are already member of other organization.

Non-member Expectations to Become a Member of Multipurpose Cooperative

The expectations of non-members to become a member of a cooperative were as follows: a) receives quality services, b) efficient services, c) fast release of loans, d) high saving percentage and e) strict adherence to policy.

Result showed that the highest expectation of the non-members to become a member is to receive quality services (80%). This is followed by their expectations of strict adherence to policy of cooperative (72.50%), fast release of loans (60%), and efficient services (55%).

This could further relates and explained by expectancy motivation of theory where they expects that the achievement of the task outcome will result in reward in terms of pay, promotion, job security, or satisfaction of individual needs-physiology, safety, esteem and so on.

The least of the expectation on the non-members in becoming a member of the MPC’s is the expectation on a high saving percentage (35%).

(31)

The result implies that the non-member respondents expect quality services and also strict adherence to policies if become a member of the cooperative.

Table11. Non-members expectations to become a member of multipurpose cooperative NON-MEMBERS

EXPECTECTATIONS

F %

Receives quality services 32 80.00

Efficient services 22 55.00

Fast release of loans 24 60.00

High saving percentage 14 35.00

Strict adherence to policy 29 72.50

(32)

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

This study entitled “Motivational Factors of Members in joining Multipurpose Cooperatives in Cervantes, Ilocos Sur” was conducted to determine the perception and understanding of residents on Multi-purpose cooperatives; determine the greatest motivational factor that motivated members in joining cooperatives, determine activities conducted by Multi-purpose cooperative to motivate or invite members determine what is the main reason for non-members in not joining cooperatives, and to determine the most important benefit and privilege for members

This study was conducted in the municipal town of Cervantes, Ilocos Sur from December to January 2013. There were 120 respondents in the study, composing of 20 officers, 60 members and 40 non-members of multi-purpose cooperative in the area.

Most of the members and officers of Multi-purpose cooperatives ages from 36 to 45 years old. Most of which were female and married. Most of the members and officers of MPC’s were elementary graduate, followed by high school and college graduate respectively.

The most common source of income for the members was farming while most officers included in the study were government employees.

Most of the members and non-members of cooperative perceived MPC as something that helps members who are in need.

Good quality of service is the greatest motivational factor for the members in joining Multi-purpose cooperatives.

(33)

As to activities conducted by Multipurpose cooperatives that motivate members in joining the cooperative, result revealed that members are highly motivated with provision of loans while member respondents were least motivated by provision of Christmas bonus and surprise gift given during annual general assembly.

Results showed that most members receives patronage refunds , while some also benefits from receipt of quality service and sees that proper care and treatment of the officers to members are also benefits and privileges provided to members as consumers of the MPC. The lowest benefits and privileges provided for by the MPC to members were efficient services.

As perceived by members, respect and support of the ideas of the members is the most important practices and traits of officers to the members.

Result also showed that the most common problem encountered by the members relative to the cooperative was the Inactive participation of some members during meeting or general assembly.

The most common reason for non-members to join the MPC is due to lack of funds or lack of capacity to pay the membership and share capital while the highest expectation of the non-members in becoming a member is to receive quality services.

Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher arrived at the following conclusions:

1. The perception and understanding of residents on cooperative is that cooperative provides and helps members in need like allowing them to have credits/loan services and

(34)

financial assistance while harvest is not yet on time especially for those who are engage in farming;

2. The quality of service of cooperative is the greatest motivational factor that motivated members in joining the cooperative;

3. The benefits and privileges of members were giving of patronage refunds, credit facility/loan services and welfare benefits in case of death of members is the most important priorities provided by the cooperative to its members;

4. The main reason of non-members in not joining multi-purpose cooperative was lack of fund for membership fee and share capital. Some of them really not interested and some are already member of other organizations; and,

5.The most common problem of the of the officers on the members was the inactive participation of members during meeting or general assembly.

Recommendations

Cooperatives are considered as one of the vehicles for socio-economic development; as such it is an imperative that cooperatives must succeed.

From the findings obtained in this study, it is recommended for Multi-purpose Cooperatives to uphold their quality of service as this is the one of the greatest motivational factor for people in joining cooperatives.

It is also recommended that provision of loans and giving of patronage refund should be maintained and /or done more specially to the good standing members of the cooperative, since study showed that it is the most motivational activities given by the cooperative to the members. Financial assistance for non-members to join the cooperative

(35)

can also be ensured to increase membership to the cooperative and motivate non-members in joining the cooperative, since the major hindrance as resulted from the study was lack of fund of non-members.

The cooperative officers should kept/maintain their honesty and respects to the members.

The supply of basic commodities should always be made available to the mebers an also to non-members.

Since the most common problems observed by the officers and members were the inactive participation of some members during meetings or general assembly, they should stricly implement their policies to control and disipline their members for such problems.

Officers should make sure that all of the members should be informed of all the cooperative activities.

Cooprative services and activities should also open for non-members for them to know more about their services and to incourage them to join the cooperative.

(36)

LITERATURE CITED

CORDOVA D. and LEPPER M. 1995. Intrinsic Motivation and the Process of Learning:

Beneficial Effects of Contextualization, Personalization and choice. Retrieved January 21, 2010 from www.everything.org.uk/motivation.

KOTZE, R. 2008. Motivation. Retrieved March 15, 2009 from http://www.goal- settingguide.com/motivation-thery.html.

NOLLEDO, N. 1986. Principles of Agrarian Reform, Cooperative and Taxation 12 the Ed.

National book store, 1989. P. 163.

ONAGAN, D.L., J.T. SIMANGAN and ESQUERA M.S. 1973. Cooperative Principles and Practices. ONAGAN and SON’S Publishers Co. Quezon City. P. 314.

PORTER E. AND MILES D. 1974. Factors Affecting the Context for Motivation in Public Organization (Vol.7, No.1) Retrieve Jan. 2000 from http:/jstor.org/pss/257252.

SANTONIL P.E. 2009 Motivation factors in joining consumers Cooperative in Mankayan Benguet (Thesis). P. 9-10.

REPUBLIC ACT 6938.1991. Cooperative Code of the Philippines. Cooperative Definition. P.10.

RICH, J.M. and DEVITIS, J.L. 1992. Intrapersonal Motivation. Retrieved April 1, 2009 from

http:/education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/EdPsy5/edPsy5_interpersonal.ht m.

ROCHDALE SOCIETY 1995. Cooperative Principle. Retrieved March 21, 2009 from http://rds.yahoo.com/_ylt=AOoGkkW6L1jgqQARfxXNyoA.

RYAN, M.R. and DECI, E. 2000. Self-determination Theory and Facilitation of Intrinsic Motivation, Social Development, and Well- Being. American Psychologist, 2000.

University of Rochester Press. 668 Mt. Hope Avenue. P.6.

TOM P. 2004. Managing IT According to a Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved January 2, 2007 from http://archieve.webpronews.com/it/management/wpn_18_20040302 Managing IT according to a Hierarchy of needs.html.

WENDY P. Undated. Motivation. Reference.com. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia.

Columbia University Press. Retrieved November 8, 2007 from http://www.reference.

com/browse/columbia/motivation.

Pigura

Table 3. Perception and understanding on Multi-purpose Cooperatives
Table 4. Factor that motivated and encouraged respondents to join cooperative              MEMBERS
Table 5. Activities conducted by multipurpose cooperatives that motivate members
Table 6. Benefits/ privileges provided by the cooperative to members
+5

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