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BIBLIOGRAPHY

BALATONG, JENINA P. APRIL 2013. Empowering Children and Youth through Media: A Documentation of the Performing Arts using Media Program of the Children and Family Services Philippines, Inc. (CFSPI) in La Trinidad, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Filmore Y. Awas, MDevCom

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to document the Performing Arts using Media Program of the Children and Family Services Philippines Inc. (CFSPI). Specific objectives were to identify the socio-demographic profile of the respondents, identify the processes involved in the creation of the program, identify the objectives and child problems being addressed by the program, determine the communication processes involved in the program’s implementation, enumerate the communication methods used in the program, find out how CFSPI monitor and evaluate the output of the participants, enumerate the values, lessons and skills the participants gained from the program, enumerate the challenges encountered by the CFSPI, the youth participants and the trainers in the program’s implementation, and identify the recommendations of the youth participants and trainers involved in the program.

The study was conducted in La Trinidad, Benguet from December to February 2013

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mail interview with the 17 respondents, 3 key informants and 2 trainers. The processes involved in the creation of the program were the planning, implementation and evaluation processes.

The program was created to empower the children and youth of La Trinidad through the use of media. The child problems addressed by the program included child labor, computer game addiction, child abuse, absenteeism, bullying, broken family, delinquent students and out-of-school youth.

The communication processes used by the CFSPI in the program followed the basics of communication process. The communication methods used in the program were meetings, personal approach participatory group discussions, non-interpersonal communication, staged performance, workshop-performance, short story making, and interaction with the out-ofschool youths (OSY’s).

CFSPI monitored and evaluated the outputs of the participants through conducting participatory discussions with the youth and through the implemented projects proposed by the child representatives.

The challenges encountered by CFSPI in implementing the program were the schedules of the meetings and rehearsals were in conflict with the free time of the child representatives, the different age groups of the child representatives, farness of the training center, weather conditions, there were un-implemented plans and activities, there was a difficulty in gathering the participants and the program was time consuming.

On the other hand, the child representatives encountered challenges during the implementation which are they did not attended some of the trainings, they were committed to other organizations, they were hard up in managing their time, they have insufficient

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knowledge of the topic, they have many other responsibilities, they have the difficulty in organizing themselves and they were nervous during the presentation of their puppet show.

For the trainers, the challenges they encountered were the different age groups among the child representatives and some of the participants lack knowledge regarding the subject matter.

Moreover, the recommendations of the youth participants and the trainers involved in the program were the improvement of the program, expansion of audiences, additional of child representatives, cooperation and participation among all the child representatives, nearer venue, the institutionalization of the program, the involvement of the different sectors in the society such as the religious sector, the continuous follow-up regarding the impact of the program to the child representatives and CFSPI partnering with other local community radio stations.

The values gained by the child representatives in the program they are involved were unity and cooperation, patience, leadership, responsibility, friendship, confidence, discipline and time management. Also, they were able to hone their skills in writing articles. They also learned how to make radio scripts, write short stories and do acting.

The study then concluded that media can be an effective tool in empowering the youth; that CFSPI and the partner agencies followed the basic processes in conducting a program which includes the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation; that the Performing arts using Media Program met its objectives in empowering the youth and children through the use of media; that the use of several methods in implementing the program helped in the attainment of the goals of the program.; that the application of

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appropriate methods ensures the success of a certain program; and that the degree of participation of the barangay officials is of importance for the success of the program.

With these conclusions, the study recommends that CFSPI may still continue the Performing Arts using media Program; that CFSPI may consider the separation of the age groups of the youth participant in the program; that CFSPI may consider continuous monitoring and evaluation of the program that the venue of the training would be nearer;

that CFSPI may consider institutionalizing the program; that the involvement of the different sectors of the society may also be considered; that CFSPI may also consider partnering with other community or local radio stations; that CFSPI and the partner agencies may consider the expansion of their audience and the additional of child representatives; that the involvement of the barangay officials in the program should be taken into consideration and further study on the impact of the program may be conducted.

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INTRODUCTION Rationale

The Philippines today is tormented with immense problems—poverty, violence, corruption and indifferences. Just as Jose Rizal and other like him exclaimed, the task of cultivating the motherland is burdened upon the youth.

The youth, by legal definition, comprises those who are 15 to 30 years old, almost occupying one third of the country’s population. Given their large share in the Filipino population, they increasingly play a large role in the development of the Philippine society.

Their attitudes, values, mind-set, and priorities will determine the development of their country in the future. With the crucial role the society has placed upon them, it is imperative to instill a positive outlook upon today’s youth that will orient them towards development (Voice master, 2003).

In the Philippines, the state recognizes the vital role of the youth in nationbuilding.

However, for them to be effective agents of change toward national development, the need for them to be empowered is of great importance. For empowerment to be possible, the Global Partnership for Youth Development, a global organization that promotes, and invests in good examples of tri-sector partnerships in youth development around the world, suggests that the youth must be given opportunities to participate in community life and capacity building (Voice master, 2003).

The chance of having the youth be given the opportunity to participate in community life and capacity building is what the Child and Family Service Philippines.

Incorporated (CFSPI) is trying to contribute through their several programs. CFSPI is a non-profit non-stock social service agency dedicated to the rights of children in need of

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protection and the empowerment of women and families. They are geared towards the prevention of child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. They provide disadvantaged youth and women with skills training, technical and financial support for livelihood opportunities, and microfinance ventures.

One of their programs to empower the youth is through their Performing Arts Using Media Program. This program aims to help the youth exercise their verbal communication and enhance their skills in writing and performing arts. The program started to be conceptualized in April and will hopefully be continuous. The program comprises the planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation stages.

According to Walter Ladyong, program coordinator, with the increasing number of youth involved in crimes and children being neglected caused by factors such as broken family, child abuse, and the likes, the CFSPI considered the link between media and the children to voice out their grievances and needs through producing radio spots, radio plugs and radio drama, writing articles, puppet show, writing short stories and other forms of media. He added that the voice of the youth needed to be heard by the community, them being the hope of the nation.

In a survey conducted by Global Filipino Foundation in 2001, media and technology are the other big things in the lives of the youth. With this, the youth could express what they wanted to advocate with the medium they prefer.

Using the media for development, which the CFSPI is advocating, is what Development Communication is all about. With this, the need to document this kind of

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practitioners and students including those institutions with related program strategies.

Looking how media is effectively used in empowering the youth is also a concern that needs to be documented. Other development workers may also apply the communication processes involved in the implementation of the project whose advocacy is related to that of CFSPI.

Statement of the Problem

This study intended to answer the following questions:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents?

2. What are the processes involved in the creation of the program?

3. What are the objectives and child problems being addressed by the program?

4. What is the communication processes involved in the implementation of the program?

5. What are the communication methods used in the program?

6. How does CFSPI monitor and evaluate the output of the participants?

7. What are the values, lessons and skills the participants gained from the program?

8. What are the challenges encountered by the CFSPI, the youth participants and the trainers in implementing the program?

9. What are the recommendations of the youth participants and trainers involved in the program?

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Objectives of the Study

This study was able to do the following:

1. identified the socio-demographic profile of the respondents;

2. identified the processes involved in the creation of the program;

3. identified the objectives and child problems being addressed by the program;

4. determined the communication processes involved in the implementation of the program;

5. enumerated the communication methods used in the program;

6. found out how CFSPI monitor and evaluate the output of the participants;

7. enumerated the values, lessons and skills the participants gained from the program;

8. enumerated the challenges encountered by the CFSPI, the youth participants and the trainers in implementing the program; and,

9. identified the recommendations of the youth participants and trainers involved in the program.

Importance of the Study

Results of the study may serve as a reference for the CFSPI in evaluating and strengthening their project. Insights from this study may also be used by their project managers and other agencies in undertaking projects related to media and youth empowerment.

Development Communication students may also use this study as a reference in looking how media is used for youth empowerment. It may also serve as a reference and a guide for researchers having similar scope in documenting communication practices and processes and evaluating how media is used in empowering the youth.

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Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study focused on documenting the processes involved in the creation of the CFSPI’s Performing Arts Using Media Program, the objectives and child problems being addressed by it, the communication processes involved in the program’s implementation, the communication methods used in the program, how CFSPI evaluate the output of the youth participants, the values, lessons and skills gained by the youth participants, the challenges encountered during the implementation by the trainers, CFSPI and youth participants, and the recommendation of the youth participants and trainers.

The study did not include the behavioral traits of the participants during the learning process and the characters of the implementers.

The study was conducted in La Trinidad, Benguet.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Profile of CFSPI

History. CFSPI was founded in 1987 as a nonprofit, non-stock social service agency. It is a leading organization in the Cordillera region dedicated to the rights of children in need of special protection and the empowerment of women and families. Our most crucial goal is the prevention of child abuse, neglect, and exploitation (CFSPI, 2012).

Strategic Goals. Prevent and ameliorate abuse and exploitation of children and women, with a special interest in those children who must acquiesce to sexual exploitation in order to survive. Provide a sanctuary for children and women in need of special protection, and ensure they have access to caring, healing and teaching services. Assist in reducing juvenile delinquency and stimulate greater interest in good standards for the training and guidance of children. Provide disadvantaged youth and women with skills training, technical, and financial support for livelihood opportunities, and microfinance ventures. Work directly or in cooperation with other persons or agencies, so that children, women and families requiring the community’s interest may obtain services of the most value them.

Performing Arts using Media Program

Rationale. With the increased number of children/youth being involved in crimes and children being neglected which is caused by several factors; we consider the link between the media and the children to voice out their grievances and needs. Through our youth representatives, we wish to train them to express their feelings about different topics concerning child advocacy that will benefit the community (Ladyong, 2012).

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This would also give opportunity to the child representatives for exposure and would benefit our children to have an edge in Journalism, Broadcasting, Arts and Drama.

Actual demonstration will be practiced which will help them express their rights in public (Ladyong, 2012).

Program Description. Seminars on Radio Broadcasting, Journalism and Script Writing would be conducted. This would help them exercise their verbal communication through media and enhance their skills in writing and performing arts. Each of the trained children will deliver a simple message advocating children’s right and other issues on child advocacy. They will have an opportunity to interact with Radio Broadcasting staff and professional performing artists. Methods of teaching during this training will be as follows:

Role play which depicts the life of today’s generation, song that have primarily lessons about children, drama presentation which could be developed and be heard by public and series of topics to be discussed on Radio Programs as per schedule (Ladyong, 2012).

Sustainability. A youth program is to be included in Radio Broadcasting. This would be scheduled on weekends so that child representatives can alternately have their time to utilize their Radio Programs and to advocate children’s rights and participation using several methodologies that they’ve learned. Professional Radio Broadcasting Staff and other trainers will assist the trained children (Ladyong, 2012). Goal. All participants will be able to confidently express their thoughts in written and oral form after the training (Ladyong, 2012).

Media

Media are communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and

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direct mail, telephone fax, and internet. Media is the plural form of medium and can take a plural or singular verb, depending on the sense intended. Data storage material divided into three broad categories according to the recording method magnetic, such as diskettes, disks, tapes, optical such as microfiche and magneto-optical such as

CDs and DVDs (Online Business Dictionary, 2012).

Empowerment

Empowerment is the process of enhancing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes. Central to this process are actions which both build individual and collective assets, and improve the efficiency and fairness of the organizational and institutional context which govern the use of these assets (Povertynet, 2011).

According to Huebner (1998), empowerment also means teaching young people specific "plays" within the game. People have to learn new ways of thinking and working.

It does not come automatically. Let's take the fashion review as an example. In setting up a fashion review, teens need to know all the steps involved, that is the "plays" of the game.

These could include finding a location, how much can be spent on rent, negotiating and signing a contract, charging admission, selling tickets, contracting for lighting, getting stores to donate clothes, getting teens to model, selecting music, insurance/liability issues, snacks, and so forth. Often teens do not follow through because they don't know what to do.

Empowerment is multi-dimensional, social, and a process. It is multi-dimensional in that it occurs within sociological, psychological, economic, and other dimensions.

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Empowerment also occurs at various levels, such as individual, group, and community.

Empowerment, by definition, is a social process, since it occurs in relationship to others.

Empowerment is a process that is similar to a path or journey, one that develops as we work through it. Other aspects of empowerment may vary according to the specific context and people involved, but these remain constant. In addition, one important implication of this definition of empowerment is that the individual and community are fundamentally connected (Czuba, 1999).

Youth Empowerment

Huebner (1998) defined "Empowering teens ―as a process through which adults begin to share responsibility and power with young people. It is the same idea as teaching young people the rules of the game. Youth development professionals are helping young people develop non-academic competencies that will help them to participate in the game of life. Because it is a process, empowerment is something that is achieved over time, not overnight.

Because youth empowerment and personal growth are so important for young people to learn, the process should be encouraged and understood. During this difficult period of transition, young adults often have many questions and issues, and parents and families should try to respond in a sensitive way to the specific needs of the children (Demand Media, 2011).

One of the most common and beneficial ways to encourage personal growth and empowerment is to give young adults increased responsibilities in their own lives. An after- school job, for example, can be a great way to teach a growing child about the important

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of time management, while giving them a chance to earn some personal money. Just as important as letting them take the job is letting them use the money they earn for the things they like. Secondly, school organizations and clubs are also a place for growing teens to become involved in their community and in a variety of tasks and hobbies. Anything from the school newspaper to drama clubs to a music group can teach your child valuable skills while helping them explore their own interests (Demand Media, 2011).

Finally, summer internships can also be a valuable way to give children and students work experience and job skills at a young age. Internships can also get youth thinking about possible career opportunities or directions for their own future, and are a great opportunity for making them feel independent and on their own (Demand Media, 2011).

History of Youth Empowerment

The youth empowerment movement started in the 1960s, when students at universities across the United States began to get involved in politics and protests on campus. Even earlier than that, campuses and students had played a large role in the Civil Rights movement and in other political and social movements, but for the first time youth and students began to be seen as political and social actors. In response to the Vietnam War, student protests and organizations sprung up, and students demanded the right to be heard (Demand Media, 2011).

Since those rebellious days, youth empowerment has calmed down significantly, but it continues to be an important part of childhood development and an essential phase of the transition to adulthood. Typically taking place during High School and college years,

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the transition is accompanied by increased involvement in student activities and a growing independence in making life choices and choosing a personal direction. At the same time, young teens making that transition to adulthood learn to make their own decisions and stick by them, and hopefully to learn from their own mistakes. It is a time when young people being to go out into the world on their own and to learn how to succeed on their own terms (Demand Media, 2011).

Communication Processes within an Organization

Communication can best be summarized as the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver in an understandable manner. The importance of effective communication is immeasurable in the world of business and in personal life. From a business perspective, effective communication is an absolute must, because it commonly accounts for the difference between success and failure or profit and loss. It has become clear that effective business communication is critical to the successful operation of modern enterprise. Every business person needs to understand the fundamentals of effective communication (Sanchez, n.d.).

The communication process is the guide toward realizing effective communication.

It is through the communication process that the sharing of a common meaning between the sender and the receiver takes place. Individuals that follow the communication process will have the opportunity to become more productive in every aspect of their profession.

Effective communication leads to understanding (Sanchez, n.d.).

The communication process is made up of four key components. Those components include encoding, medium of transmission, decoding, and feedback. There are also two other factors in the process, and those two factors are present in the form of the sender and

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the receiver. The communication process begins with the sender and ends with the receiver (Sanchez, n.d.).

The communication process is the perfect guide toward achieving effective communication. When followed properly, the process can usually assure that the sender's message will be understood by the receiver. Although the communication process seems simple, it in essence is not. Certain barriers present themselves throughout the process.

Those barriers are factors that have a negative impact on the communication process. Some common barriers include the use of an inappropriate medium (channel), incorrect grammar, inflammatory words, words that conflict with body language, and technical jargon. Noise is also another common barrier. Noise can occur during any stage of the process. Noise essentially is anything that distorts a message by interfering with the communication process. Noise can take many forms, including a radio playing in the background, another person trying to enter your conversation, and any other distractions that prevent the receiver from paying attention (Sanchez, n.d.).

Successful and effective communication within an organization stems from the implementation of the communication process. All members within an organization will improve their communication skills if they follow the communication process, and stay away from the different barriers. It has been proven that individuals that understand the communication process will blossom into more effective communicators, and effective communicators have a greater opportunity for becoming a success (Sanchez, n.d.).

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Possible Problems with Youth Empowerment

As children grow older and begin to set out on their own path and take charge of their lives, it is common for problems to arise between them and their parents. Often, a rebellious phase accompanies issues of youth empowerment, and a child may feel they need additional space from their family to grown in their own direction and under their own control (Demand Media, 2011).

The best thing to do in these cases is often for a parent or family to show that they care about their child and to encourage them to explore on their own, with the support of the family when they need it. Letting children take on their own challenges and treating them with respect and dignity as they do so is likely to bring out a more responsible and respectful attitude in the child themselves. And while giving advice is a common desire by parents who want to spare their children the pain of making mistakes, often learning through trial and error is an integral part of growing up and becoming self-empowered (Demand Media, 2011).

As children grow up and begin to set out on their own, through youth empowerment and increased self-direction, they should be encouraged and given positive feedback. Being a child is hard enough, especially in the transition to adulthood, and understanding and sensitive parents can be a major help in successfully making that transition (Demand Media, 2011).

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Communication Strategies in Empowering Youth through Media

These are the communication strategies used by the Nokia, Plan International, and local partners in initiating the Youth Empowerment through Arts and Media (YETAM) project in 2008. It seeks to give youth the skills and tools to communicate at local, national, and global level about issues impacting on their lives. Through arts, traditional media, and new media tools, youth engage in the community development process and beyond. They are trained on different forms of communication, which include verbal communication, performance, visual arts, and social media, in order to help them effectively raise their viewpoints and enter into dialogue with families, peers, community members, decision makers, and the general public (Aventh, 2011).

Using mapping, participatory video, visual arts, and performing arts as a means of investigation and expression, youth, aged 12-18, work in small teams to identify resources and challenges in their communities, understand more about causes and effects of key issues impacting on youth, and learn about different viewpoints held by community members and community leaders around those issues. They then produce arts and media about the issues and develop an action plan to raise awareness and community support to begin resolving the issues. By developing youths’ communication and leadership skills, coupled with technology education and practice with information and communication technologies (ICTs), YETAM seeks to open new possibilities for youth so that they are more able to engage using 21st century skills. The importance of ownership and commitment to local development is emphasized, and the methodology is designed to form capable and positive community leadership for the future (Aventh, 2011).

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The arts and media are also used as a starting point to raise issues and youth viewpoints with district and national leaders and the public, and to advocate for change.

At the same time, the youths’ materials are posted on the web so that the public can learn more about issues and get involved. Rather than hearing about youths' viewpoints via foreign and/or adult journalists, the YETAM project allows youth to claim their own place and directly debate and discuss the issues they care about. Curricula based on the youth’s key issues and video/arts materials are developed and used to engage additional groups in the 6 African focus countries, and an on-line curriculum for the "Global North" allows youth not living in Africa to better understand the issues and learn how to get involved.

The web allows cross-country and global interaction among youth; building confidence and motivating them to continue moving forward (Aventh, 2011).

In each country, the YETAM program involves youth, teachers, local media, and arts organizations in 1-week training of trainers, followed by a 2-week training program with secondary school youth. A local follow-up plan is created by the youth, teachers, and local partners for organization and continued advocacy by the youth, refresher training, and additional arts and media work around the identified issues (Aventh, 2011).

Impact of Media use on Children and Youth

Television. Television has the potential to generate both positive and negative effects, and many studies have looked at the impact of television on society, particularly on children and adolescents. An individual child’s developmental level is a critical factor in determining whether the medium will have positive or negative effects. Not all television programs are bad, but data showing the negative effects of exposure to violence, inappropriate sexuality and offensive language are convincing. Still, physicians need to

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advocate continued research into the negative and positive effects of media on children and adolescents (Pediatrics Child and Health, 2003).

Television viewing frequently limits children’s time for vital activities such as playing, reading, learning to talk, spending time with peers and family, storytelling, participating in regular exercise, and developing other necessary physical, mental and social skills. In addition to the amount of time spent in front of the television, other factors that influence the medium’s effect on children include the child’s developmental level, individual susceptibility and whether children watch television alone or with their parents (Pediatrics Child and Health, 2003).

Music videos. Music videos may have a significant behavioural impact by desensitizing viewers to violence and making teenagers more likely to approve of premarital sex. Up to 75% of videos contain sexually explicit material and more than half contain violence that is often committed against women. Women are portrayed frequently in a condescending manner that affects children’s attitudes about sex roles (Pediatrics Child and Health, 2003).

Video games. Some video games may help the development of fine motor skills and coordination, but many of the concerns about the negative effects of television (eg, inactivity, a social behavior and violence) also apply to excessive exposure to video games.

Violent video games should be discouraged because they have harmful effects on children’s mental development. Parents should be advised to familiarize themselves with various rating systems for video games and use this knowledge to make their decisions (Pediatrics Child and Health, 2003).

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Internet. The Internet has a significant potential for providing children and youth with access to educational information, and can be compared with a huge home library.

However, the lack of editorial standards limits the Internet’s credibility as a source of information. There are other concerns as well (Pediatrics Child and Health, 2003).

The Role of Youth and Children in the Philippines

The Constitution provides: ―The State recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation-building.‖ In addition, the Constitution also provides: ―Subject to reasonable conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and implements a policy of full public disclosure of all its transactions involving public interest.‖ Thus, it is no less than a constitutional mandate, to give young people a vital role in nation building (Defensor, 2011).

Children’s right to participation. Article 12 of the Convention on the rights of the child provides that: ―State parties should assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age of the maturity if the child (CHRP, 2008).

Children’s participation has many layers of values for the modern society. On the other hand, when children participate in the formulation and implementation of policies, society is ensured of future civic-oriented citizens keen on participating actively in any democratic exercise. Children whose opinions are honored will indubitably grow up confident and adjusted. When children can participate, they will understand their rights and become more protective of its observance. More importantly, children who may be abused or exploited would be empowered too after those who wronged him.

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An empowered children sector can hold the government accountable for the fulfillment of their rights. In this way, children will contribute to the improvement of governance (CHRP, 2008).

The right to participate ranges from the child being able to speak his or her mind, to participating in decision-making exercises with adults as equal partner (CHRP, 2008).

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METHODOLOGY Locale and Time of the Study

The study was conducted in La Trinidad, Benguet (Figure 1) since their child representatives are the project beneficiary.

The municipality of La Trinidad is the capital town of the province of Benguet. It is located 256 kilometers north of Metro Manila, at geographical coordinates 16 degrees, 21 minute north latitude and 120 degrees and 25 minutes east longitude. It is bounded on the north by the municipality of Tublay, on the south by the City of Baguio, on the west by the municipalities of Sablan and Tuba.

Population is largest among the young age groups 0 to 14. This age bracket aggregately account for 35 percent of the total population, with the males outnumbering the females at 100 to 95. The combined population of persons ages 15 to 30, meanwhile, is equal to 32 percent with a sex ratio of 100 females to 92 males. Those in 31 to 64 age groups account for 31 percent, more males than females at a ratio of 100 to 95. Senior citizens consist 3 percent of the total population, with a sex ratio of 1:1.

The study was conducted from December to February 2013.

Respondents of the Study

Children and Family Services in the Philippines Inc. (CFSPI) was chosen as the organization-respondent because it is an organization advocating for children’s rights and protection. It is the organization who initiated and proposed the Performing Arts using Media Program in partnership with the Local Council for the Protection of Children (LCPC), Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) and Transworld Radio (TWR).

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The respondents of the study were thirteen (17) child representatives from the 16 barangays of La Trinidad and representatives from chosen public and private schools. They were chosen through purposive sampling with the following criteria: (a) must have joined the complete training series on broadcasting; and (b) must have joined in making the script for the radio drama, (c) must have wrote a short story advocating children’s rights (d) must have at least completed three trainings, and (e) must have published an article regarding child problems and advocacies. Two trainers were also interviewed regarding their views and participation in the program.

Three key Informants were interviewed in the study. They were the La Trinidad Council for the Protection of Children staff, the partner agency for the program, the program coordinator and the implementers.

Data Collection

Personal interview with the youth participants was used to gather their recommendations regarding the project. Interview with the key informants was also done to gather the processes involved in the creation of the program, the objectives and child problems addressed by it, the communication processes involved in the implementation of the program, the communication methods used in the program, the ways on how they will monitor and evaluate the program, and the challenges they encountered in the implementation of the program.

Focus group discussion among the participants and the trainers was done to evaluate if the youth participants were empowered. A survey questionnaire was also used to gather the socio-demographic profile of the respondents.

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Mail interview was also done with the key informants. This was done because of the hectic schedule of the key informants.

The researcher was also present during the whole conduct of the program. She did documentations of all the activities conducted.

Data Gathered

The data gathered were the socio-demographic profile of the respondents, the processes involved in the creation of the CFSPI’s Performing Arts Using Media Program, the objectives and child problems being addressed by it, the communication processes involved in its implementation, the communication methods used in the program, how CFSPI evaluate the output of the youth participants, the values, lessons and skills gained by the youth participants, the challenges encountered during the implementation by the trainers, CFSPI and youth participants, and the recommendation of the youth participants and trainers regarding the program.

Data Analysis

Information gathered from the respondents was consolidated, tabulated and was analyzed through descriptive statistics using frequency counts and percentages. The data was processed and was presented in a narrative form.

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Figure 1 . Map of La Trinidad showing the locale of the study

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Socio-demographic Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 presents the socio-demographic profile of the respondents. They were categorized according to name, age, sex and grade/year level.

They were chosen through purposive sampling with the following criteria: (a) must have joined the complete training series on broadcasting, (b) must have joined in making the script for the radio drama and radio plug, (c) must have wrote a short story advocating children’s rights (d) must have at least completed three trainings, and (e) must have published an article regarding child problems and advocacies.

They were the child representatives of the sixteen barangays of La Trinidad representing the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC). Some of them were also the child representatives of the Local Council for the Protection of Children (LCPC). Others were also the representatives of the public and private schools within La Trinidad. Nine of them completed the whole series of the trainings and seminars and eleven of them did not.

The table shows that there were twelve female and six male respondents. They belonged to the age bracket 11-17.

Furthermore, the table shows that the respondents belong to different grade or year level. Four of them were grade six pupils, two were grade seven pupils, two were year high school, one second year high school, two third year high school, one fourth year high school, three first year college and two second year college students.

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Table 1. Socio-demographic profile of the child representatives

NAME AGE SEX GRADE/YEAR LEVEL

Abanse, Jornalon C. 16 Male 4th year high school

Aroco, Kenneth M. 11 Male Grade 6

Balawis, Jenny D. 17 Female 2nd year college Bolayo, Aracelli K. 12 Female Grade 7

Camilo, Berlenda O. 15 Female 3rd year high school Cholinas, Judylyn A. 14 Female 2nd year high school Fanged, Nicholai A. 17 Male 1st year college Licang, Ken Ric 16 Male 1st year college

Malting, Archel C. 12 Female Grade 6

Massagan, Jasmine C. 12 Female Grade 6 Mayos, Abilaine Mae 12 Female Grade 6

Mojica, Jason 16 Male 1st year college

Nebres, Romarie P. 13 Female 1st year high school Pagadian, Alshane L. 15 Female 3rd year high school Sab-it, Camille A. 15 Female 1st year high school

Simon, Fusia R. 13 Female Grade 7

Urbano, Jherlyn A. 16 Female 2nd year college

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Table 2. Socio-demographic profile of the key informant

NAME AGE SEX OCCUPATION

Co, Rose Noemi T.

Ladyong, Walter N.

Santiago, Lorena A.

49 30 41

Female Male Female

Government employee Program specialist Government employee Table 3. Sociodemographic profile of the Trainers

NAME AGE SEX OCCUPATION

Awas, Filmore Y. 28 Male Instructor

Maguiya, Jesse D 33 Male Anchor Reporter

Meanwhile, there were three key informants for the study which was presented in Table 2, namely: Walter N. Ladyong, Lorena A. Santiago and Rose Noemi T. Co. They were the project proponents and implementers of the program which qualified them to be the reliable sources of information for this study.

There were also two trainers interviewed as presented in Table 3. They were interviewed regarding their involvement in the said program. They were Filmore Awas and Jesse Maguiya.

Processes Involved in the Creation of the Performing Arts using Media Program

As shown in Figure 2, the processes involved in the creation of the program include the basic process in program management as follows: planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation processes.

Planning. The processes involved under the planning stage include program conceptualization, program beneficiary identification, program coordination with the

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Program conceptualization. According to Walter Ladyong, the program started to be conceptualized on the month of April 2012. Since CFSPI is a Non-government Agency (NGO) advocating for the protection of the children, CFSPI came up with a program which could help lessen the number of Out-of-School Youths (OSY’s) and delinquent students and which could address the prevailing problems encountered by the youths of today.

Ladyong added that taking into account media as an effective tool in advocating children’s rights, the program used media as an instrument in empowering children and youth. The organizers also added that since media is one of the big things in the life of the youth today, they could use it as a medium in expressing their grievances and concerns. This was supported by the survey conducted by Global Filipino Foundations in 2001 which found out that media and technologies are the other big things in the lives of the youth.

Program beneficiary identification. The municipality of La Trinidad was one of the program beneficiaries of CFSPI. According to Ladyong, the program was coordinated with the Local Council for the Protection of Children (LCPC) and the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) of every barangay. The youth participants who joined the program were the child representatives of BCPC and LCPC. To have the involvement of the school departments, Ladyong also invited public and private schools around the municipality of La Trinidad to send their representatives, preferably their campus journalists.

Rose Noemi T. Co, the chairperson of the Local Council for the Protection of Children (LCPC)- Participation Committee, also added that the creation of the program was based on the results of the monitoring and evaluation done by the council which shows that the BCPC and LCPC lacks child representatives. The different barangays then

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recommended the child representatives who will be representing their barangay for the program.

Program coordination with the partner agencies (LCPC and BCPC). As stated by the key informants, since the municipality of La Trinidad was the chosen program beneficiary, the program was coordinated with the Local Council for the protection of Children (LCPC) and the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC).

Program planning meetings. Based on the responses of the key informants during the interview, program implementation was done through series of meetings conducted by the CFSPI with BCPC and LCPC. It was conducted to create a detailed program plan.

After the acceptance of the CFSPI proposal, the dates and venue of the trainings were set.

The resources needed were discussed and committees were created such as the documentation and steering committee.

The documentation committee was given to the LCPC which was handled by Lorena A. Santiago, one of the program implementers. She was responsible in making the minutes of meeting, consolidating the outputs of the youth participants, taking photos and making the documentation of all the activities conducted.

Meanwhile the steering committee was assigned to the CFSPI. This was handled by Walter Ladyong. He was responsible in inviting the trainers and the speakers and in visiting the child representatives. He was also responsible in conducting direct supervisions as a part of the evaluation process. During the whole training process, he was the one who was responsible in informing the child representatives regarding the schedules of the meetings, its venue and the time of the rehearsals. In general, he was the overseer of the developments of the program.

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Implementation. As stated by the organizers during the interviews, the implementation phase includes the program initiation; invitation of participants and trainees; and conduct of seminars, trainings and workshops, which include the capability building activities and events where the child representatives showcased their outputs.

Program initiation. According to Ladyong, the program was initiated by the CFSPI. Also, Lorena Santiago added that the program was part of the Local Development Plan (LDP) for children of the LCPC.

Invitation of participants. Ladyong personally went to the different barangays of La Trinidad to invite the participants. He also sent letters to the different school heads and barangay captains informing them to send their child representatives who will be joining the program. After which, he oriented the participants regarding their expectations and what they will be doing in the program.

Inviting of trainees. The project coordinator also invited resource speakers who could serve as the trainers. According the organizers, trainers were chosen based on their expertise and their credibility and knowledge of the subject matter. They should possess the necessary skills and capabilities needed in the training. For the other topics, the project coordinators served as the speakers themselves. They also served as the trainees who taught the child representatives the skills they needed like radio script writing, acting, article writing, and public speaking.

Seminars, trainings and workshops. Table 4 presents the list of the trainings and seminar-workshops conducted by CFSPI. These were based on the documentations done by the researcher during the conduct of all the activities.

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The table also shows the outputs of the participants during the capability building activities and events conducted which include a puppet show, short stories advocating children’s rights, scripts for the radio drama and radio plug, and the articles published in the child representatives’ school journal and in the Baguio Midland Courier.

Capability building activities. Table 4 also shows the capability building activities the child representatives had undergone such as lectures and workshops on children’s rights and responsibilities, freedom of expression in media, fundamentals of sound and sound waves, fundamentals of scriptwriting, fundamentals of radio plug, radio drama, and writing for broadcast media. Figure 3 shows Filmore Awas, one of the trainers having a lecture on radio script during the capability building activities. Ladyong in his statement said that these activities were conducted to equip the child representatives with the skills they needed in order for them to effectively advocate their rights and grievances.

Table 4. List of activities conducted by CFSPI

TITLE OF THE ACTIVITY OUTPUTS

Capability Building Activities Lectures and Workshops on:

Children’s rights and Responsibilities Script for a radio drama and radio plug Freedom of Expression in Media Articles published in

Baguio Midland Courier and the child

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representatives’

school journals

Fundamentals of Sound and Sound waves

Short stories advocating for children’s rights

Fundamentals of Scriptwriting

Fundamentals of Radio plug, radio drama, and writing for broadcast media

Children’s Summit: In celebration of the Children’s month Interaction with the out-of-school youths (OSY’s) Lecture on Drugs, drug abuse, drug usage, and drug dependent

Lecture on bullying, child abuse, violence, public humiliation, malicious imputations, corporal punishments, and sexual exploitations

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Children’s Month

Most Child Friendly Barangay Awarding Ceremony

Puppet show

The trainers also did lecture-discussions through PowerPoint presentation. They also engaged the youth participants in the discussions and let them participate through asking their opinions, letting them ask questions and giving them short exercises to do.

Maguiya, one of the trainers, let them make a story by looking and letting them do the

―Reporter’s Instinct Exercise‖. This exercise would test how the child representatives would react as reporters if a certain event occurs. He gave an incident and asked them how they would respond and report the said event. He also let the silent type participants be involved in the discussions.

Awas, one of the trainers, also let the participants do short exercises such as role playing, and short forum- where they could ask clarifications. He let them make a short story advocating children’s rights and addressing a child problem which could either be their personal experiences or their observations.

Events. This includes the activities and events conducted to showcase the presentations of the child representatives. One of which is the children’s month celebration wherein they presented their puppet show (Figure 4) with the help of the Transworld Radio (TWR). The puppet show depicted the following child problems: abusive parents, alcoholic father, maltreatment of children by their parents, bullying of children, human trafficking, child abuse, and child labor. The themes were forgiveness, poverty, and children’s rights

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and responsibilities. Also, a children’s summit for the child representatives and the OSY’s was conducted in celebration of the children’s month.

of the children’s month at the municipal gym, La Trinidad, Benguet

Moreover, Ladyong added that the activity was conducted for the child

representatives to fully understand and know the problems confronting the youth today.

During these events, the child representatives were able to have an interaction with the Out of Schools Youth (OSY’s). They were also lectured on drugs, drug abuse, drug usage, and drug dependent, bullying, child abuse, violence, public humiliation, malicious imputations, corporal punishments, and sexual exploitations.

Monitoring and evaluation. As stated by the organizers, the monitoring was done through personal visits and direct supervision by the project proponent to the child Figure 4 . The child representatives presenting a puppet show during the celebration

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representatives. It was done weekly to check if they are doing their given tasks assignments.

Table 5 presents the activity done during the evaluation period which includes the year –end evaluation and socialization (presented in figure 5) conducted on December 2012. The activity was conducted to list all the accomplishment of the child representatives and for them to propose plans for 2013. The proposed plans and accomplishment report was submitted to their barangays for further action if it could be implemented.

Table 5. Activities done during the monitoring and evaluation

TITLE OF ACTIVITY OUTPUTS

Year-end evaluation and socialization Accomplishment Report and Plan for 2013

Lecture on Enhancing personal strengths Evaluation of the Performing Arts using and Overcoming one’s weaknesses Media Program

Lorena Santiago noted that ―since planning is involved in the program, monitoring and evaluation was also done by the steering committee. One tool is the annual search for the most child friendly barangay in the municipality. The local government unit (LGU) of the municipality of La Trinidad also joined the presidential award for most child friendly cities and municipalities (of which our own municipality is a national finalist).

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Municipal Hall, Km 5, La Trinidad, Benguet on December 22, 2012

Objectives and Child Problems being Addressed by the Program

Child problems. Table 6 presents the child problems addressed by the program. It presented the inhibiting factors for those problems and its initial solutions. These problems were the child problems encountered and observed by the child representatives and the organizers of the program. These were all based on the program proposal made by CFSPI.

Generally, the table presents the problems encountered by the child representatives and the problems they observed the youth of today is facing. These includes jobless parents

Fig ure 5. The c hild r epres e n ta tives during the evaluation period at the Lednicky Hall,

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bad vices of parents, too many siblings, broken family, computer game addiction, neglection of parents, bullying, absenteeism, and other forms of abuses.

A child representative shared during the interview that she is being abused by her uncle. In her statement, she expressed, ―I am abused by my uncle, tampatampakendak, uray basit nga banag, agtampak ya, ibagbagana na nga tabetabedak kanu‖(my uncle hurt me even if it is just for a simple matter, he says that I am dumb). She also shared that she experienced being bullied in their school. Some of the child representatives also agreed on being bullied in their school.

Objectives. To address those child problems discussed earlier, CFSPI conceptualized a program which could lessen these problems. Considering the link between the media and the children in voicing out their grievances and needs, CFSPI used media as a tool in empowering the children and youth of La Trinidad. The main objective of the program is to train the youth in broadcasting and public speaking in order Table 6.

Child problems addressed by the program and its initial solutions (by CFSPI) for them to express their grievances and issues concerning them and the youth in their community.

According to Ladyong, one way of training the child representatives express their thoughts and feeling is through conducting capability building activities as presented in the previous discussions. He added that through this event, the child representatives will use media in expressing their feelings about different topics concerning child advocacy that will benefit their community. This would also give opportunity to the child representatives for exposure and would benefit them to have an edge in broadcasting, arts and drama. He also said that the program will help in lessening the number of OSY’s and delinquent students.

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INHIBITING FACTORS

CHILD PROBLEMS

INITIAL SOLUTIONS

Family

Jobless Parents

Conference with parents

Seek help from LGU, DSWED, DOH

Bad vices of

parents

counseling, seminar, conference

Too many siblings Seek help from LGU, DSWED, DOH Broken Family Conference, seminar, counseling Individual Computer games

Addiction

Conference with parents with the Child

Counseling with the child Dialogue with PNP for strict

implementation of laws and ordinance Conference with parents

Sickness/Illness Home Visits

Seek help from LGU’s or charity foundations if it’s too risky

Neglected by parents Counseling with the parents and the child

Absenteeism Conference with parents and the child Close monitoring, house visits

Abused

Referral to DSWD, PNP and accredited NGO’s catering children

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Community Lack of child/youth Representative Sanitation

Encourage the Barangay to select capable child representative and youth leaders to organize kids club or youth organizations

Seek help from GO’s and NGO’s Seek the help of MSHO Barangay Assembly

School Unruly students Seminar on values formation Conducts home visit

Need for teacher trainings

Invite trainers

Send teachers for training and seminars

The above result implies that CFSPI empowered the youth and children through providing them skills in the course of the capability building activities. This finding was supported by the definition of empowerment given by the Povertynet (2011) which defines empowerment as the process of enhancing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes.

According to Ladyong, part of the program’s goals is to enable the youth practice their right to participation. This objective was considered to have been achieved through the plans made by the child representatives for 2013 during the evaluation period as discussed in the previous discussions. This result implies that the youth participants were able to have a chance to participate in the formulation and implementation of polices governing the community they thrive in.

The above result corroborates the statement of the Commission on Human rights in the Philippines or the CHRP (2008) which says that children whose opinions are honored

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will indubitably grow up confident and adjusted. When children can participate, they will understand their rights and become more protective in its observance.

CHRP (2008) added that children’s right to participation ranges from the child being able to speak his or her mind to participating in decision-making exercises with adults as equal partners.

Since the program was coordinated with the LCPC and BCPC both belonging to the Local Government Units, the program served a purpose in giving the youth a vital role in nation-building. This was supported by the Article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child which state that ―State parties should assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age of the maturity if the child (CHRP, 2008).

The finding implies that the child representatives were able to lessen the problems they are encountering through the program. Malting shared during the puppet show that she was able to express her grievances. ―Nalag-anan ti riknak (I felt relieved) because I was able to express what I wanted to express,‖ she said.

The respondents also expressed through the activities conducted that they were able to inform the society regarding the problems they were encountering like jobless parents, bad vices of parents, too many siblings, broken family, computer game addiction, neglection by parents, bullying, absenteeism, and other forms of abuses.

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Communication Processes Involved in the Implementation of the Program

Information Dissemination. Table 7 presents the communication process that took place during the information dissemination stage of the program according to the key informants during the interviews. The table summarizes that the communication process which started from the sender or the source of the message, the project proponent. The message delivered was ―CFSPI is inviting you to join the performing Arts using Media Program‖ and ―Send your child representatives or your school representatives preferably your campus journalists to join the Performing Arts using Media Program‖. The channels or medium used were cellular phones, letters and oral communication through personal approach by the organizer. The decoder of the message sent is the child representatives, trainers, school heads, and the barangay officials.

According to Ladyong and Santiago, they informed the beneficiaries of the program through sending letters to the private and public high schools. The school representatives were preferably members of their school’s campus publication.

Furthermore, the respondents stated that the project was communicated to them through their school heads. Also, since they were the child representatives of their own barangays, they will automatically represent their barangay.

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This result clearly indicates that the CFSPI followed the basic communication process.

Figure 6. Flow chart of the communication process done during the information dissemination

ategies involved in the Program

Communication St

Furthermore, the respondents stated the project was communicated to them

Program Proponent and Organizer

―CFSPI is inviting you to join the Performing Arts using media program‖

―Send a representative from your preferably

school a me mber of the campus publication to join the performing Arts using media Program‖

and Cell phone telephone Letters

Personal Approach

The receiver responded right away

Child representatives, school heads and Barangay C aptains and the trainers

Sender

Message

Channels Used

Receiver

Effect

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Communication Methods Used In the Program

Planning. As stated by the key informants during the interviews, the communication methods used under the planning stage were meetings and personal approaches.

Meetings. According to the key informants, the Local Council for the Protection of Children (LCPC), the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) and the Children and Family Services in the Philippines (CFSPI) conduct its quarterly meetings.

This was manifested during the planning stage of the program as discussed previously in study.

Personal approach. Aside from letters, organizers informed their participants and the trainees regarding the program through personal approach. As stated by Filmore Awas, one of the trainers, the program was coordinated to him through initial discussion done by the program coordinator. Formal letter of invitation followed next.

According to the trainers, they responded to the request using cellular phones, through text and phone call.

According to the key informants, personal approach was an effective strategy since they (child representatives and trainers) can have the respond right away.

Implementation. The communication methods used during this stage were participatory group discussions, non-interpersonal communication, staged performance, workshop-performance, short story making, and interaction with the out-of-school youths (OSY’s).

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Participatory group discussion. As explained by the key informants, series of participatory group discussion was used for the decision-making. This was also the communication strategy used during the lectures and discussions accompanied by PowerPoint presentations and visual aids. This is to have the participation of the child representatives during the lectures.

Non-interpersonal communication. Non-interpersonal communication is a form of communication without the use of face-to-face interaction. This was observed through the use of electronic communication such as cell phones, telephones and letters. These include the sending of SMS to the youth participants and the trainers. The messages sent to them were the schedules and venue of the seminars, trainings and workshops. Also, changes in the schedules, dates of implementation were informed to the youth participants and trainers through text messages.

Staged performance. Using participatory approach and stage performance in a form of a puppet show as a means of expressing their thoughts, the child representatives were able to identify the problems the youth faces today, its causes and effects and their plans, and steps in lessening and addressing these problems.

The puppet show was presented during the children’s month with the help of the Transworld Radio. With the puppet show, they were able to present common youth problems and concerns as discussed previously in the study.

Ladyong noted, since the child representatives are mostly children, a puppet show was used for them to present the child problems, they have listed. They can express their grievances in ways they could also enjoy. Since Cris Guzman, one of the trainers who was

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also a disk jockey of the Transworld Radio, he coordinated the puppet show with their radio station.

The above strategy used coincides with the strategy used by the Nokia plan International in initiating the Youth Empowerment through Arts and Media (YETAM).

They also used mapping, participatory video, visual arts, and performing arts as a means of investigation and expression, youth, aged 12-18, work in small teams to identify resources and challenges in their communities, understand more about causes and effects of key issues impacting on youth, and learn about different viewpoints held by community members and community leaders around those issues. They then produce arts and media about the issues and develop an action plan to raise awareness and community support to begin resolving the issues.

Workshop-performance. Another communication method used by the CFSPI is the

―workshop-performance‖ (Figure 7) wherein the child representatives were given series of workshops on acting and scriptwriting. The rights of children were discussed to them before practicing and making their scripts. This strategy coincides with the strategy used by the Ebgan, Inc in advocating women’s rights which was proven by Jesica Legawen (2008) in her study titled ―Theater as a tool used by Ebgan, Inc. in Advocating

Women’s Rights.

The child representatives were grouped into several groups. They meet mostly on Saturdays to rehearse and make the script for the radio drama. They do focus group discussions in enumerating the problems and youth concerns in their community. After which, they were required to make a radio drama script. They were trained on the different

Pigura

Figure  1  . Map of La Trinidad showing the locale of the study
Table 1. Socio-demographic profile of the child representatives
Table 2. Socio-demographic profile of the key informant
Table 4. List of activities conducted by CFSPI
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Data Gathered The data gathered includes the following: a crops planted and area devoted to each crop, b dominant cropping patterns in CATTUBO, c perception of farmers about crop