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BIBLIOGRAPHY

SUGANDO, JHOVELYN B. APRIL 2012. Content Analysis of the Developmental Plugs Aired in Selected FM Stations in Baguio City from January to December 2011.

Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Anna Liza B. Wakat, MDC

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted in Baguio City from February to March 2012. There were 50 respondents of the study for the preliminary survey conducted and four key informants from the selected FM stations.

The study determined the number of developmental plus aired; determined how the stations choose the topics of the development plugs that they produce; characterized the developmental plugs; and identified the type of presentation used in each plug.

As a result of the study, the number of developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations in a day ranges from four to eight. The FM stations choose the topics of the developmental plugs they produce by considering the timeliness of the topic, basing on city ordinances, and by standing to their commitment to advocate socially relevant campaigns.

The topics of the developmental plugs aired were about health and nutrition, peace and order, natural resources, economics, and nationalism. The length of the developmental

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Ilocano, Filipino-Ilocano, and Ilocano-English. Most of the developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations were locally produced.

The following are recommended based on the result of the study: the FM stations should continue to air and produce developmental plugs that would advocate socially relevant messages to the public; and there should be further studies on the developmental plugs aired by the other FM stations within Baguio City to compare and identify what are the topics or issues covered by the developmental plugs aired.

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INTRODUCTION

Rationale

The Philippines belongs to the so-called “Third World” or to be more specific, a developing country. It is given that Philippines is not spared from the social problems associated with underdevelopment. Flor and Ongkiko (1998) claimed that development communication grew in response to these societal problems. One of its underlying assumptions is that these may be traced to root causes and these root causes may in turn be remedied by information and communication.

Developmental plugs somehow play significant role in helping the target audience in decision-making. Developmental plugs provide the target audience with information and remedies to improve the quality of their lives.

Developmental plugs are made up of attention-catcher messages that are usually 15 to 60 seconds long. They tell listeners about important events or programs that will take place, and where they can find information they need. Developmental plugs also talk about programs that will be heard at another time on the radio station, and convince people of the truth of a certain viewpoint or policy (UPLB Community Broadcasting Staff, 1979).

Developmental plugs are usually well-prepared through terse, these materials are interspersed like commercial advertisements in a program and between programs, and as intermission for long-winded segments or in program breaks such as around the time the station ID is given (Tabing and Osalla, 2001).

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Developmental plugs are usually associated to AM stations because it is where they are usually heard but nowadays, FM stations also take part on social responsibility advocacies by highlighting and involving their names through airing developmental plugs.

Among the several FM stations operating in Baguio City that aired developmental plugs and which were also KBP members were DWMB 95.1- Love Radio, DWSK 96.7- K-Lite, and DZWR- 99.9 Country.

The study will try to address the omitted or forgotten important factors to be considered in producing developmental plugs. Hence, the need to analyze the content of the developmental plugs aired on FM stations in Baguio City.

Thus, studying the content analysis of the developmental plugs aired on the selected FM station in Baguio City is important because this may serve as a basis and/or reminders for aspiring development communication practitioners on some of the important points to be considered in producing developmental plugs.

Statement of the Problem

The study analyzed the content of developmental plugs aired in selected FM stations in Baguio City. Specifically, it answered the following:

1. How many developmental plugs were aired from January to December 2011?

2. How do the stations choose topics for the development plugs that they produce?

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3. What are the characteristics of the developmental plugs?

 Topic

 Length

 Language

 Source and/or Producer

4. What is the type of presentation used in each developmental plug?

Objectives of the Study

Generally, the study analyzed the content of developmental plugs aired in selected FM stations in Baguio City. Specifically, this study aimed to:

1. determine the number of developmental plugs aired from January to December 2011 per station;

2. determine how the stations choose the topics of the development plugs that they produce.

3. characterize the developmental plugs; and

4. identify the type of presentation used in each developmental plug;

Importance of the Study

The result of the study may serve as a basis and/or reminders for aspiring development communication practitioners on some of the important points to be considered in producing developmental plugs.

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It may also highlight some parameters needed to be considered and improved in writing scripts for developmental plugs on the part of the script writers working for such concerned radio stations or agencies.

Furthermore, the result may also be used by researchers as reference in conducting further studies relative to this.

Scope and Limitations

The study dealt on the number of developmental plugs aired from January to December 2011 per station; how the selected FM stations choose the topics of the development plugs that they produce; characteristics of the developmental plugs; and type of presentation used in each developmental plug,.

The study did not include the process of production of the developmental plugs, the audience’s preferences, listenership and perceptions towards the developmental plugs and the selected FM radio stations as a whole as media in relaying developmental plugs.

The study was conducted from February to March 2012.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Content Analysis

Nardi (2004) defined content analysis as the study of artifacts, usually written (such as diaries, newspapers, biographies, and official documents), but also visual and other forms of communication. It is based on developing a way of coding and classifying the information (the content) in the documents or media being studied.

Content analysis as a method is perhaps the most distant from field research. Rather than going out into a social field to find data, the researcher defines a body of communication as the “social field” and looks within that set of material for descriptive qualities that can be quantified (Baker, 1999). Baker added that, because content analysis uses available forms of communication, it does not intrude on a social environment as is characteristic of field research. It is unobtrusive.

Historians examined records of communication in order to reconstruct the period in which they were produced. Literary critics studied the productions of writers to discover the message they wanted to convey, their peculiarities of style, the values they propagated, and many other aspects of creative work (Selltiz et al., 1971).

Developmental Plugs

According to Mozammel (2008), he noted that development communication helps overcome obstacles to change and reform. This implies that outputs of development communication can do the same thing.

Developmental plugs are one of the many forms of development communication messages

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According to the Radio Code of KBP (1999), a radio station shall broadcast development communication messages and/or public service announcements under existing valid agreements as a support for social development and nationalism.

Flor (2005) stated that they air programs like developmental plugs produced by cooperating agencies, DZLB staff members and broadcasting students of UPLB on Radio DZLB to educate and motivate people.

Number of Developmental Plugs Aired

Shorter materials, such as developmental songs and plugs, need to be broadcast several times each day for three to four months to have an impact (World Health Organization, 1994).

United States Agency for International Development (2005) stressed that you should broadcast your developmental plugs enough times for your target audience to hear them, understand them, remember them and to try what you are suggesting. Repetition is the key to the effective use of radio. People need to hear one message many times before they can understand it, accept it and do what you are asking. Often, developmental plugs are broadcast just a few times—this is especially true of developmental plugs on health topics because of budget constraints. These developmental plugs will have no effect on what people know or do. And because developmental plugs are so short, they must be repeated more often for people to be able to learn from them.

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Choosing the Topics of the

Development Plugs to be Produced

United States Agency for International Development (2005) pointed out that among the many factors to be considered in producing for developmental plugs, the quality and appropriateness of developmental plugs to be produced for a specific geographic area and audience you are planning to reach is at utmost to be considered.

Coldevin (2000) emphasized that “Masagana 99” project campaigns in 1973 that included the production of developmental jingles and plugs took place because of poor harvests of rice in the two prior years that resulted to substantial importation.

Topic of the Developmental Plugs

Topic is a subject of conversation or discussion; the subject or theme of a discourse or one of its parts (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary, 1994).

According to Antero (2003), the topics of the developmental plugs aired on DZEQ were on poverty, agriculture, health, environment, and electricity while a plug on taxes was aired on DZWX. Likewise with that of Tuazon (2011), he mentioned that topics on health and nutrition, environment, science and technology, education, women and children's rights, among others were either featured in regular radio programs or in developmental plugs over the past decades.

Furthermore, in the study of Calalanoy (2010), the topics of the developmental plugs aired on DWFR Radyo ng Bayan-Bontoc were on health and nutrition, poverty, natural resources, peace and order, agriculture, and economics.

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Length of the Developmental Plugs

Length is the linear extent of anything as measured from end to end; extent in time duration (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary, 1994).

In the study of Panolong (2010), a Solid Waste Management Program jingle was produced which ran one minute and 40 seconds. Likewise with the study of Tabangcura (2007), the jingles that were produced about Foot and Mouth disease ran between two minutes and two minutes and 54 seconds.

The length of the developmental plugs aforementioned contradicts the Community Broadcasting Staff’s (1979) description of developmental plugs which states that developmental radio plugs usually run from 15 to 60 seconds.

However, in the study of Antero (2003), the developmental plugs that were aired by DZEQ and DZWX all conform to the Community Broadcasting Staff’s (1979) ideal length of developmental radio plugs because all of the aired developmental plugs ran between 15 and 60 seconds.

United States Agency for International Development (2005) agreed that the length of your developmental plug should be similar to what people in your area are already hearing on the radio. Usually, 60 seconds is a good length for a new message—long enough to have some kind of story and to repeat the key message, but short enough for the radio to find lots of slots to air it. If people in your area are used to listening to shorter developmental plugs, you can make developmental plugs of different lengths by adapting the script to keep only the key points. For example, 15 to 30 second developmental plugs can use much of the same script, but eliminate the middle section of the developmental

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plug. These shorter developmental plugs often start airing several months after the original developmental plugs started, to act as a reminder.

Language Used in the Developmental Plugs

Language is a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition (Dictionary Reference, 2012).

Philippine-German Crop Protection Programme and Bureau of Plant Industry (1988) said that to raise awareness of farmers on IPM-related information through plugs and dramas, the radio campaign will be aired in the two most widely spoken dialects, the Tagalog and Cebuano. Translation into other dialects is envisaged, but not yet, for it takes time and great deal of money to translate and rewrite scripts to reflect the farming systems, social patterns and cultural backgrounds of each dialect area.

However, in 2006, Isis International-Manila, a women’s group, produced a compilation of developmental plugs for the campaign to end violence against women.

These developmental plugs for the 18-day Campaign to End Violence against Women are translated into Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, and English, and would be given out to radio stations (Makilan, 2006).

The fact that radio uses local language or dialect makes it the most accessible channel to the Filipino masa (Tuazon, 2011).

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Source and/or Producer of the Developmental Plugs

Source is defined as a book, statement, person, etc., supplying information while producer is a person responsible for the financial and administrative aspects of a stage, film, television, or radio production (Dictionary Reference, 2012).

In this study, producer also includes agencies or institutions that are responsible for the financial and administrative aspects of developmental plugs.

Calalanoy’s study (2010), found out that the source of the developmental plugs came from the different government agencies like the Provincial Health Unit (PHU), Arroyo Administration, Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Department of Agriculture (DA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Bachelor of Science in Development Communication students of Benguet State University (BSDC- BSU), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), PBS Research Division, and PAG-IBIG Agency. These developmental plugs were produced by the DWFR Radyo ng Bayan- Bontoc, BSU-DevCom, PAG-IBIG Fund and PBS-Research Division.

But these do not necessarily mean that every developmental plug to be aired should have a separate source and producer because the source can also be the producer at the same time.

Broadcasters around the world are seeking an audience. Radio stations often compete with each other to reach the largest audience; thus they need high-quality broadcasts that are interesting and creative. Using this guide, National Diarrheal Disease Control (CDD) Programmes can help their broadcast partners by providing the necessary information, production support and innovative opportunities for collaboration (World Health Organization, 1994).

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Types of Developmental Radio Plug Presentations

Developmental plugs may be presented in various forms. According to Tabing and Osalla (2001), these are as follows:

Mini-drama. The message is conveyed through the dialogue of two characters.

Usually, one character is presented as having a problem. The other character offers him/her a solution. Later, the problematic character will be convinced and become satisfied with the solution offered to him.

Straight announcement. This format is the simplest, easiest, and least costly to

prepare. The message is narrated by the announcer in a straight forward manner.

Endorsement by authorities and personalities. If the message and information is to

have credibility and preclude any controversy, it should come from the most recognized experts—from the horse’s mouth, so to speak. Health tips must be issued by a doctor or a top specialist. Agricultural information should come from a farmer or an agriculturist.

Other personalities, such as celebrities, sports figures, political leaders, or respectable persons in the community may have some credibility. However, their respective particular lines of work do not indicate professional or vocational expertise. A movie celebrity or basketball star may not have any business endorsing an agricultural chemical or a technological practice if he is not directly involved in it.

Testimonial. This is also an endorsement, usually from somebody who has actually

tried an idea or practiced a method, or a regular person who might have seen how something that is being promoted worked. A testimonial brings down the program material to the level of regular people.

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Collage, montage and vox pops. These are quick snatches of people’s voices that are arranged to demonstrate the range of views and feelings of the citizenry.

Vox pop (vox populi) is the voice of a regular member of society expressing an opinion from his/her personal point of view.

Collage is an assembly of unrelated voices focusing on an issue.

Montage is a series of assorted voices of people played one after the other

to portray one theme or story.

Dialogue. Here the message is presented through a conversation between two characters.

Uses two voice qualities that are distinctly identifiable and not interchangeable—for example, man and woman, old and young, gruff and pleasant, big and small, high pitch and low pitch, etc. Common everyday language that flows in a conversational manner should characterize the dialogue so it will sound natural. The dialogue must excite and stimulate the audience.

Jingle. The message is presented in a song or through musical form. It does not always take

a professional musician to make a good jingle. Anyone who has some fascination for music may come up with a big hit with little expense.

Question and answer. This form should excite the listeners by way of thought provoking

questions and interesting answers.

Balagtasan. This derives its appeal from the fact that it is a debate in a highly artistic verse

form. It is delivered in an intensely emotional pitch. The element of conflict instinctively draws the listeners to the dispute. The limited time, however, does not allow a protracted exchange of barbs and rhetoric by protagonists. The script must pick out the highlights of the issues, put them in short interactive lines, and the immediately come to a resolution.

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Puzzles and quizzes. When listeners are placed in a situation where they grope for answers

to questions and puzzles, they are captivated. But as in other formats, the questions must be stimulating and relevant. Trifling queries and hackneyed and corny questions will only sound cheap and petty. They will drive the listeners away. Only new ideas and interesting questions will arouse the listeners.

Operational Definition of Terms

Local Plugs. Developmental plugs produced by FM stations, agencies or

institutions in the locality.

National Plugs. Developmental plugs produced by agencies or institutions mostly

intended for target audience nationwide.

Foreign Plugs. Developmental plugs produced from abroad.

Health and Nutrition Plugs. Developmental plugs which discuss about healthy

lifestyle.

Peace and Order Plugs. Developmental plugs which discuss about human rights or

humanitarian efforts and advocacies.

Natural Resources Plugs. The developmental plugs which discuss about

environmental conservation, animal welfare and protection, and cleanliness.

Economics Plugs. Developmental plugs that discuss on saving money.

Nationalism Plugs. Developmental plugs that discuss on one’s loyalty and devotion to his/her country.

Traffic officer. The who is obliged on the scheduling of radio programs or public

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METHODOLOGY Locale and Time of the Study

Baguio is also known as the Summer Capital of the Philippines, City of Pines, City of Mines, City of Flowers, Garden City of the Philippines, Ukay-Ukay Capital of the Philippines. This city is at an altitude of approximately 1500 meters (5100 feet) in a moist tropical pine forest conducive to the growth of mossy plants and orchids (Figure 1).

In Baguio City alone, there are 15 frequency modulation (FM) stations that are operating.

These includes DWIM-89.5 Star FM, DWDJ-RJ 100 Baguio, DZYS-91.9 Yes FM (Easy Rock), DWRA-92.7 Campus Radio, DWMB-95.1 Love Radio, DWBG-95.9 Big FM, DWSK-96.7 K-Lite, DWLY-Power 97.5 FM, DWUB-98.7 Z Radio, DZWR-99.9 Country, DZYB-102.3 Jesse, DZRR-MOR 103.1 For Life!, DWHB-103.9 iFM, DZBM-105.1 Crossover, and DZLL-107.1 Smooth FM.

Love Radio, K-Lite, and Country FM’s studios are all located at Baguio City. The stations were chosen to be respondents of the study because they topped the most popular FM stations as a result of the preliminary survey conducted by the researcher.

The study was conducted from February to March 2012.

Samples of the Study

Recorded outputs of the developmental plugs from the FM stations that were aired from January to December 2011 were used in gathering the needed data.

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Figure 1. Map of Cordillera showing the locale of the study

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Respondents of the Study

In-charge or concerned personnel from the selected FM stations were tapped as the key informants of the study for some additional information that were gathered.

KEY INFORMANTS STATION POSITION

Renee Sales 95.1 Love Radio Assistant Station Manager

&

Appointed Chairman of KBP Baguio-Benguet

Chapter (2012)

Veronica Balagot 96.7 K-Lite Traffic Officer

Erik Donn Ignacio Merlinda Egnisaban

99.9 Country FM Supervisor Traffic Officer

Fifty (50) respondents were chosen at random during the preliminary survey for the FM station that they listened to from which the three stations were chosen.

Data Collection

A preliminary survey was conducted on February 21, 2012 to get the top three FM radio stations. There were 50 respondents which were composed of students, farmers, housewives, and men on the street.

The researcher requested copies of some of the developmental plugs that were aired from January to December 2011 from the FM station managers and traffic officers, and personally studied them.

The researcher identified the classification of the topics of the developmental plugs by identifying the dominant message content of the developmental plugs.

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Key informant interview was used in gathering other necessary information.

Data Gathered

The data gathered were the following: number of developmental plugs aired from January to December 2011 per station; how the selected FM stations choose the topics of the developmental plugs that they produced; the characteristics of the developmental plugs in terms of topic, length, language, source and/or producer; and type of presentation used in each developmental plug.

Data Analysis

The data gathered were classified, tabulated and analyzed through descriptive statistics, frequency counts, ranking and percentages.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Number of Developmental Plugs Aired

Table 1 shows the number of developmental plugs gathered from the three FM stations in Baguio City. There were 40 developmental plugs that were gathered by the researcher from the three FM stations that were aired from January to December 2011.

Renee Sales, the assistant station manager of Love Radio Baguio and the appointed chairman of KBP Baguio-Benguet Chapter for this year emphasized that the number of developmental plugs to be aired in a day was the station’s own decision or SOP (standard operating procedure). Love Radio Baguio airs eight developmental plugs in a day.

Veronica Balagot, the traffic officer of K-Lite Baguio mentioned that they aired four developmental plugs in a day. She said that it was the run of station (ROS) to

set specific number of developmental plugs to be aired in a day.

Meanwhile, Merlinda Egnisaban, the traffic officer of the Mountain Province Broadcasting Corporation where the 99.9 Country belongs, stated that the station aired four developmental plugs in a day. She also added that it was the station’s standard operating procedure to decide on how many developmental plugs to be aired in a day.

This shows that the three FM stations conform to the KBP’s (n.d.) mandate as cited by Antero (2003) that each station should be required to broadcast at least one minute and 30 seconds of development messages and or public service announcements.

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Table 1. Number of gathered developmental plugs

FM STATION NO. OF PLUGS GATHERED

95.1 Love Radio 10

96.7 K-Lite 4

99.9 Country 26

TOTAL 40

Choosing the Topics of the Developmental Plugs to be Produced

According to Renee Sales, the station manager of Love Radio Baguio, they choose the topics of developmental plugs by considering its timeliness. He added the he was given the authority by the station manager in Manila where Love Radio’s head office is located to decide what developmental plugs to be aired. He also added that the reason why they chose Filipino as a language of most of the developmental plugs they had produced was that they considered that not all the people in Baguio and nearby places can understand other languages like the Ilocano; and that Baguio is a tourist destination.

This statements conform to what Coldevin (2000) said that project campaigns should be timely and appropriate.

Further, Sales mentioned that they produced developmental plugs from the Alay sa Kalinisan-City Government of Baguio because they were just doing their commitment to the city for the reason that the city government is the one who are giving them business permits.

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particularly from the Alay sa Kalinisan. They produced developmental plugs especially those that tackled environmental protection and maintenance of cleanliness in the city of Baguio. She further related that it was the program manager or station manager’s task to decide what specific developmental plugs to be aired in a day.

Meanwhile, Atty. Erik Donn Ignacio, the FM supervisor of the 99.9 Country underscored that they produce developmental plugs as their way of contributing for their social responsibility and through airing developmental plugs and other socially relevant advocacies from KBP and other agencies like the Diocesan Guidance Center, and the Pro- life Baguio. This is in accordance to their thrust or commitment as part of the Catholic community. According to the Mountain Province Broadcasting Corporation’s (MPBC) vision statement, it said that they recognize the immense power of radio in the promotion of renewed integral evangelization and awareness of social responsibilities placed upon all Catholic broadcasters.

In addition, Merlinda Egnisaban, the traffic officer of the MPBC mentioned that the foreign developmental plugs being aired by 99.9 Country were downloaded from the internet.

Characteristics of the Developmental Plugs Aired

Topic. Table 2 shows the topic of the developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations in Baguio City. The topics of the developmental plugs were health and nutrition, peace and order, natural resources, economics, and nationalism.

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Table 2. Topic of the developmental plugs aired

TOPIC NO. OF PLUGS PERCENTAGE

%

Health and Nutrition 14 35

Peace and Order 12 30

Natural Resources 11 27.5

Economics 2 5

Nationalism 1 2.5

TOTAL 40 100

These developmental plugs on health and nutrition garnered 35% or a total of 14 developmental plugs. Most of the health and nutrition development plugs were aired by 99.9 Country. These developmental plugs included the foreign developmental plugs on

“Alcoholics Anonymous” and the locally produced developmental plugs on

“Breastfeeding” which were likewise from 99.9 Country. An example of this kind of developmental plug is found below.

Developmental Plug on Health and Nutrition # 1 (Montage) ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS

VOICE 1: There I was in my business suite, all dressed up, chest uptight as I could possibly be, and I don’t remember much of what was said at that first meeting. It was more the feeling of the meeting itself.

VOICE 2: That’s what has kept me going, is I know it works and I see the people ahead of me with more sobriety. I see how happy they are and I want that, I want that too.

VOICE 3: And when I noticed about…uhm…it’s all of help you to relax in learn to really be happy with your sobriety. And to me, it’s a rich a life to live.

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VOICE 4: That’s what exactly what Alcoholics Anonymous does. It teaches us how to live without drinking. It teaches us how to have fun and really enjoy life without drinking.

VOICE 5: This program has given me the good life. The only good life I’ll ever know. Today, my life just works.

VOICE 6: Alcoholics Anonymous. For more, check your newspaper.

The developmental plugs which discussed on peace and order garnered 30% or a total of 12 developmental plugs. These included the likes of “Pro-life” developmental plugs aired by 99.9 Country, “Day to End Impunity” and “Maguindanao Massacre”. Content of the script for the Maguindanao Massacre is found below.

Developmental Plug on Peace and Order # 5 (Straight Announcement) MAGUINDANAO MASSACRE

VOICE 1: Unti-unting lumalantad ang mga tunay na pangyayari sa likod ng Maguindanao Massacre kung saan limampu’t pito ang napatay kasama na ang tatlumpong mga jourmalist. Ngunit merong panganib na hindi mailabas ang buong katotohanan dahil sa pananakot sa mga witness, patuloy na paglaya ng marami sa mga sangkot, at pananakot sa mga taga-media na ilahad ang buong katotohanan. Kami sa Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas ay kasama ng buong bayan ay magbabantay. Kami ay maghihintay.

Kami ay patuloy sa sisigaw para sa katotohanan, para sa katarungan, para sa ating minamahal na bayan.

The developmental plugs which discussed natural resources garnered 27.5% or a total of 11 developmental plugs. These developmental plugs included “KBP Oplan Broadcast Tree”, “Agmula Tayo ‘ti Saleng”, “Anti-spitting”, “Environminute” and the like.

Developmental Plug on Natural Resources # 4 (Straight Announcement) ANTI-SPITTING

VOICE 1: Oops, teka. ‘Di pwede yan. Alam mo bang bawal dumura kung saan-saan?

Aba, tumulong ka naming panatilihing maganda at malinis and kapaligiran. Isang paalala mula sa Alay sa Kalinisan, KBP Baguio-Benguet Chapter, at ng himpilang ito.

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The developmental plugs which discussed economics garnered five percent or a total of two developmental plugs which were both collaboration between KBP and Metrobank.

Developmental Plug on Economics # 2 (Straight Announcement) METROBANK (Savings)

VOICE 1: When you find yourself in need of money, it’s nice to know that you have something to draw from during an emergency. Try to save at least 20% of your salary every month. Put the money away in a savings account. If you get a bonus or a withhold, increase the amount you save to at least 40%. Good money management with the habit of saving. This reminder is brought to you by KBP and Metrobank. Look up to a better future.

Metrobank promotes the value of saving through its savings account products. For your financial needs, bank only with the expert you can trust. You’re in good hands with Metrobank. Visit www.metrobank.com.ph for more details.

On the other hand, developmental plugs which discussed on nationalism garnered 2.5% or a total of just one developmental plug. This is the “Panatang Makabayan” aired by 99.9 Country.

Developmental Plug on Nationalism # 1 (Jingle) PANATANG MAKABAYAN

(Recited) Iniibig ko ang Pilipinas Aking lupang sinilangan Tahanan ng aking lahi

Kinukupkop ako at tinutulungang maging malakas, masipag at marangal

Dahil mahal ko ang Pilipinas

Diringgin ko ang payo ng aking magulang Susundin ko ang tuntunin ng paaralan

Tutuparin ko ang tungkulin ng mamayang makabayan Naglilingkod, nag-aaral at nagdarasal ng buong katapatan Iaalay ko ang aking buhay, pangarap,

pagsisikap sa bansang Pilipinas.

(Song) Iniibig ko ang Pilipinas Aking lupang sinilangan Tahanan ng aking lahi

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Dahil mahal ko ang Pilipinas

Diringgin ko ang payo ng aking magulang Susundin ko ang tuntunin ng paaralan

Tutuparin ko ang tungkulin ng mamayang makabayan Naglilingkod, nag-aaral at nagdarasal ng buong katapatan Iaalay ko ang aking buhay, pangarap,

pagsisikap sa bansang Pilipinas.

Length. Table 3 shows the length of the developmental plugs aired by the top three

FM station in Baguio City.

There were 33 developmental plugs that were 18 seconds to one minute long, six developmental plugs that were one minute and one second to two minutes long, and there was one developmental plug which was two minutes and one second to three minutes long.

The shortest plug was the “No Jaywalking” produced by 95.1 Love Radio which was 18 seconds long while the longest plug was the “Panatang Makabayan” aired by 99.9 Country which has a length of two minutes and 20 seconds.

Most of the developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations conform to the UPLB Community Broadcasting Staff’s (1979) description of the length of developmental plugs which says15 to 60 seconds long.

Table 3. Length of the developmental plugs aired

LENGTH NO. OF PLUGS AIRED

0:18 secs. - 1 min.

1:01 mins. - 2 mins.

2:01 mins. - 3 mins.

33 6 1

TOTAL 40

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Language. Table 4 shows the language used in the contents of the developmental

plugs aired by the three FM stations in Baguio City.

There were 20 developmental plugs aired that used English, eleven developmental plugs used Filipino, five developmental plugs used Filipino-English, two developmental plugs used Ilocano, and Filipino-Ilocano and Ilocano-English has one developmental plug each.

Most of the developmental plugs that used English were foreign developmental plugs like the “Alcoholics Anonymous”, Microbe World”, Nature Watch”, “Animal Instincts” “Ocean World” “Pulse Planet” and the “Environminute”.

Table 4. Language used in the contents of the developmental plug aired

TOPIC NO. OF PLUGS PERCENTAGE

%

English 20 50

Filipino 11 27.5

Filipino-English 5 12.5

Ilocano 2 5

Filipino-Ilocano Ilocano-English

1 1

2.5 2.5

TOTAL 40 100

On the other hand, most of the Filipino developmental plugs were national developmental plugs like the “Bawat Piso’y Mahalaga”, “Day to End Impunity”, ”KBP Oplan Broadcast Tree”, “Love Foundation” ”Maguindanao Massacre”, and the “Panatang

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Developmental Plug on Peace and Order # 1 (Vox pop) DAY TO END IMPUNITY (BUHAY MAMAMAHAYAG)

VOICE 1: Sila na nag-ulat ng katotohanan. Sila na walang takot na isiwalat ang lahat.

Silang nagbibigay pag-asa, pero bakit ganito ang kapalit? Walang awang sinupil ang karapatan, walang awang kinitil ang kalayaan. Kailan sila magbabago inang bayan? Kailan sila magbabago? Kailan sila magbabago? Kailan sila magbabago? Bakit nagkaganito?

VOICE 2: Huwag supilin. Biglang laya ang mamamahayag.

Moreover, all of the Filipino-English, Ilocano, Filipino-Ilocano, and Ilocano- English were local developmental plugs. Examples of developmental plugs which used the aforementioned languages are found below following the stated order.

Developmental Plug on Peace and Order # 12 (Straight Announcement) PRO-LIFE (VIOLENCE)

VOICE 1: Biktima ka ba ng pang-aabuso? Ikaw ba ay inaabuso? Huwag nang matakot.

May mga taong handang tumulong sa ‘yo. Tumawag sa 422-8877 o 911-2911 o sa 0919- 2337783.

VOICE 2: Pro-life Baguio is located at Room 203, Antipolo Building with telephone number 444-2523.

Developmental Plug on Health and Nutrition # 8 (Straight Announcement) ANTI-SMOKING (2)

VOICE 1: Agyosi ka? Haan kan nga mangiraman iti sabali. Agsigarilyo laeng iti usto ken nairana a lugar. Ngem nasaysayaat pay no isardeng mon dayta a bisyo. Manong, manang, no smoking ah. Nangnangruna iti pampubliko a luglugar. Daytoy a pakdaar ket aggapu iti Alaysa Kalinisan-City Government of Baguio, KBP Baguio-Benguet Chapter, ken iti daytoy nga istasyon.

Developmental Plug on Natural Resources # 1 (Vox pop) AGMULA TAYO ‘TI SALENG

VOICE 1: Agmula tayo ‘ti saleng.

VOICE 2: The native folks know the value of nature so they wanted the city green. Pine trees abound, providing the city a picturesque look, but little did we know that

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be reminded that trees clean the air? We actually need more pine trees in the city to keep it a better place to live in. Stop trimming pine trees if we want the city live.

VOICE 1: Agmula tayo ‘ti saleng.

VOICE 2: A reminder from the station that cares for you and the world around us, 96.7 K-Lite, Baguio’s number one radio station at work.

Source. Table 5 shows that the messages of the developmental plugs aired by the

three FM stations in Baguio City came from different government and non-government agencies or institutions. Local developmental plugs came from the Alay sa Kalinisan-City Government of Baguio, National Nutrition Council-CAR, National Statistics Office (NSO), Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas (KBP), Pro-life, Diocesan Guidance Center, Love Radio and 96.7 K-Lite.

Also, the national developmental plugs came from the Dangerous Drugs Board (DDB), Toy Kingdom, Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Manila Broadcasting Company where Love Radio and DZRH belong, and the National Nutrition Council-Cordillera Administrative Region.

Table 5. Sources of the developmental plugs aired

TYPE SOURCES NO. OF PLUGS

Local

Foreign

ASK-CGB, NSO, KBP, Pro-life, NNC-CAR, DGC,

Love Radio, 96.7 K-Lite AAO, VP-USA, OC, NGS,

NSF, ASM, HFP, HD

17

13

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National DDB, Toy Kingdom, KBP, NCCA, Love Radio

10

TOTAL 40

In addition, the foreign developmental plugs came from the Alcoholics Anonymous, Veterinary Professionals-United States of America, Ocean Commission, National Geographic Society, National Science Foundation, American Society from Microbiology, Heinz Family Philanthropies, and the Heinz and Dolmans.

Most of the foreign developmental plugs were American context and were aired by 99.9 Country. They aired foreign developmental plugs so that it would complement to their country format which originated from the United States. An example of these foreign plugs is found below.

Developmental Plug on Natural Resources # 6 (Straight Announcement) ENVIRONMINUTE

VOICE 1: When folks in Wayne, Virginia County decided to make their long- term strategic planning environmentally-friendly, their efforts literally went through the roof. Hear more of today’s Environminute. Residents of Albemarle County, Virginia advocated for environmentally conscious buildings and their government listened. The county held two green forums, purchased four hybrid vehicles, and installed the green roof on the county office building. Not only did they set a good example but they made big gains in energy efficiency too. The green roof is proving beneficial rain or shine. During storms, it can absorb up to one inch of rain, thereby reducing pollution running off in the nearby streams. It also provides big energy savings, shading the buildings in summer and providing installation in winter. A county managing program analyzed the roof’s effects helping to the side whether they give incentive to future green builders. The Environminute is made possible by the Heinz Family Philanthropies and the Heinz and Dolmans. Learn more by visiting environminute.com.

Results show that almost half of the aired developmental in the three FM stations were local developmental plugs with a total number of 17, thirteen on the foreign developmental plugs, and 10 on the national developmental plugs.

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Producer. The developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations were produced

by 103.1 M.O.R. Baguio, Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster ng Pilipinas, KBP Baguio- Benguet Chapter, Department of Environment and Natural Resorces, Department of Interior and Local Government, 95.1 Love Radio, 96.7 K-Lite, 99.9 Country, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Manila Broadcasting Company-Love Radio and DZRH, SM Foundation, Department of Social Welfare and Development, Ronald McDonald’s Charity House, National Statistics Office, Metrobank, Plan Philippines, Philippine Information Agency, Office of the President, Veterinary Professionals- United States of America, Heinz Family Philanthropies, Heinz and Dolmans, American Society from Microbiology, National Geographic Society, Ocean Commission, and the National Science Foundation.

This reflects that the three FM stations use and conform to the KBP Radio Code (1999) which states that there are three types of development communication messages and public service announcements that may take in the form of Government information messages, KBP initiated campaigns, and station produced public service announcements.

All of the three FM stations produced developmental plugs.

Type of Presentations Used in each Developmental Plugs Aired

Table 6 shows the type of presentation applied on the developmental plugs aired on the three FM stations in Baguio City. The types of presentation applied on the developmental plugs were straight announcement, testimonial, endorsement by authorities, vox pop, montage, and jingle.

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Out of 40 developmental plugs aired, there were 24 straight narrations, six testimonials, five endorsement by authorities, three vox pops, and one each on montage and jingle.

Examples of the developmental plugs where the six types of presentation aforementioned were used are found below following the stated order.

Developmental Plug on Natural Resources # 11 (Straight Announcement) WATER CONSERVATION

VOICE 1: Tubig, pinagmumulan ng buhay, mapa-halaman, hayop, at tao. Sa tubig nakasalalay ang buhay. Kaya kaibigan, hinay-hinay lang sa paggamit ng tubig. ‘Di lang para ngayon, kundi para sa kinabukasan. Isang paalala mula sa Alay sa Kalinisan, KBP Baguio-Benguet Chapter, at ng himpilang ito.

Developmental Plug on Health and Nutrition # 7 (Testimonial) ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (7)

VOICE 1: Now here’s a message from Alcoholics Anonymous.

VOICE 2: I grew up in a normal home in a normal town. All of a sudden, everything got crazy. I didn’t talk anybody about the way I was feeling. I was scared and all so alone.

I started drinking and taking pills. I just didn’t wanna tell what’s happening in my life. I knew about AA but I thought I was too young, I found out I was wrong. If you’re having a problem with your drinking, one of you could give us a call.

VOICE 1: Alcoholics Anonymous. It works. Look us up on the phonebook or check your local newspaper.

Developmental Plug on Peace and Order # 8 (Endorsement by Authorities) NSO: 95.1 Love Radio

VOICE 1: Ammo yo kadi nga maysa aginggana tallo kadagiti sangapulo nga maipasngay nga ubbing nga Pilipino ket awanan ‘ti birth certificate? Gapu iti daytoy, isu da ket colorum. Awanan da iti legal nga nagan, awan ‘ti nasyonalidad da, awan ‘ti karbengan da nga umawat kadagiti benepisyo nga nainlanad ‘ti linteg kas iti edukasyon, serbisyo para iti salun-at, ken dadduma pay.

VOICE 2: Ito po ang inyong Civil Registrar, Carmelita Ericta. Huwag po nating ipagkait ang karapatan ng bawat batang mabigyan ng pangalan at nasyonalidad. Iparehistro ang kanilang kapanganakan sa munisipyo sa inyong lugar.

VOICE 1: No adda kayat yo nga saludsuden, mapan kayo iti opisina iti Civil Registrar

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palagip ‘ti NSO, Plan Philippines, Office of the President, PIA, KBP, ken daytoy nga istasyon.

Developmental Plug on Health and Nutrition # 10 (Vox pop) BAWAT PISO’Y MAHALAGA

VOICE 1: Construction worker ako. Alam ko kung gaano kahirap kumita ng pera. Sa bawat isang-daang pisong kinikita ko, siguro isang tabo ng pawis ang katapat. Sa ganito kahirap na kalagayan, hindi ko na iniisip magbisyo. Pero alam niyo ba, may mga kasamahan akong nagdodroga. Sabi nila, nagbibisyo sila para makalimot ng problema.

Maling-mali. Mas nadadagdagan pa kamo ang problema nila dahil sa droga. Sana magbago na sila. Hindi pa naman huli ang lahat. Isa lamang pong paalala, bawat piso’y mahalaga.

Huwag aksayahin sa droga.

VOICE 2: Isang mensahe mula sa Dangerous Drug Board, PIA, KBP, at ng himpilang ito

Developmental Plug on Health and Nutrition # 1 (Montage) ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS

VOICE 1: There I was in my business suite, all dressed up, chest uptight as I could possibly be, and I don’t remember much of what was said at that first meeting. It was more the feeling of the meeting itself.

VOICE 2: That’s what has kept me going, is I know it works and I see the people ahead of me with more sobriety. I see how happy they are and I want that, I want that too.

VOICE 3: And when I noticed about…uhm…it’s all of help you to relax in learn to really be happy with your sobriety. And to me, it’s a rich a life to live.

VOICE 4: That’s what exactly what Alcoholics Anonymous does. It teaches us how to live without drinking. It teaches us how to have fun and really enjoy life without drinking.

VOICE 5: This program has given me the good life. The only good life I’ll ever know.

Today, my life just works.

VOICE 6: Alcoholics Anonymous. For more, check your newspaper.

“Panatang Makabayan” which was aired by 99.9 Country was the only developmental plug which was presented through jingle.

Most of the developmental plugs where straight narration were applied were local plugs like the “Anti-spitting”, “Anti-smoking”, “No Jaywalking”, “Diocesan Guidance”, “Anti-

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Table 6. Type of presentation used on the developmental plugs aired

TYPE OF PRESENTATION NO. OF PLUGS PERCENTAGE

% Straight Announcement

Testimonial Endorsement Vox pop Montage Jingle

24 6 5 3 1 1

62 19 12.5

7.5 2.5 2.5

TOTAL 40 100

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary

The study was conducted to answer the following objectives: to determine the number of developmental plus aired; to determine how the stations choose the topics of the development plugs that they produce; to characterize the developmental plugs; and to identify the type of presentation used in each plug.

The number of developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations in a day ranges from four to eight.

The FM stations choose the topics of the developmental plugs they produce by considering the timeliness of the topic, basing on city ordinances, and by standing to their commitment to advocate socially relevant campaigns.

The developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations in Baguio City which were 99.9 Country, 96.7 K-Lite and 95.1 Love Radio were characterized according to the following: topic, length, language, source, and producer. The topics of the developmental plugs aired were about health and nutrition, peace and order, natural resources, economics, and nationalism. The length of the developmental plugs ranged from 18 seconds to two minutes and twenty seconds. The languages used on the message contents of the developmental plugs were English, Filipino, Filipino-English, Ilocano, Filipino-Ilocano, and Ilocano-English. Most of the developmental plugs aired by the three FM stations were locally produced.

Findings of the study shows that there six types of presentation applied on the development plugs aired, and these are straight announcement, testimonial, endorsement by authorities,

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Conclusions

From the result of the study, the following conclusions were derived:

1. The three FM stations aired various developmental plugs which ranged from local to national and even foreign.

2. The three FM stations’ decision in choosing the developmental plugs depends on several factors.

3. The three FM stations aired four to eight developmental plugs which is more than the required number of developmental plugs to be aired in a day.

4. Different types of presentation were used in conveying messages through developmental plugs.

Recommendations

The following are recommended based on the result of the study:

1. The FM stations should continue to air and produce developmental plugs that would advocate socially relevant messages to the public.

2. There should be further studies on the developmental plugs aired by the other FM stations within Baguio City to compare and identify what are the topics or issues covered by the developmental plugs aired.

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LITERATURE CITED

ANTERO, I. W. 2003. Development Plugs Aired over the Three AM stations in Baguio City. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 22 & 25.

BAKER, T. L. 1999. Doing Social Research (3rd ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co- Singapore. P. 277.

BALAYOK, V. 2012. Developmental Plugs (Personal Interview). 96.7 K-Lite Station, Camp Henry Allen, Baguio City.

CALALANOY, B. S. 2010. Assessment of Developmental Radio Spots Aired in DWFR Radyo ng Bayan Bontoc. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp.

15-16, 28.

COLDEVIN, G. 2000. Communication strategies for rural development: a case study on the use of campaigns in Lesotho. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from http://www.fao.org/docrep/U1320E/u1320e01.htm

DICTIONARY REFERENCE. 2012. Language. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/language

DICTIONARY REFERENCE. 2012. Source. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/source

DICTIONARY REFERENCE. 2012. Producer. Retrieved January 18, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/producer

EGNISABAN, M. 2012. Developmental Plugs. (Personal Interview). MPBC Station, Upper Bonifacio St., Baguio City.

FLOR, A. G. 2005. ODL for Agricultural Development and Rural Poverty Reduction:

Philippines Country Paper. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from www.upou.edu.ph/books/2005FAOCOL.pdf

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KAPISANAN NG MGA BRODKASTER SA PILIPINAS. 1999. Radio Code (Revised ed.). Retrieved March 12, 2012 from http://www.aijc.com.ph/

/observatory/pfd//files/policies/massmedia//20radio/code.pdf

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MOZAMMEL, M. 2008. Development Communication: Challenges in an Empowered Information Environment. Retrieved March 13, 2012 from http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/Mozammel_DevComm_edit.ppt

NARDI, P. M. 2004. Doing Survey Research: A Guide to Quantitative Methods.Boston, United States of America: Allyn and Bacon. P. 15.

ONGKIKO, I. and A. G. FLOR.1998.Introduction to Development Communication.

University of the Philippines Open University, Los Baños, Laguna. SEAMEO Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research Agriculture. Pp. 8 & 9.

PANOLONG, A. G. 2010. Production and Evaluation of Solid Waste Management Program Jingle. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.P. 22.

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SALES, R. 2012. Developmental Plugs. (Personal Interview). 95.1 Love Radio, Skyrise Hotel, Lourdes Grotto, Baguio City.

SELLTIZ, CLAIRE, M. JAHODA, M. DEUTSCH & S. W. COOK. 1971. Research Methods in Social Relations (Revised). Manila, Philippines: National Book Store, Inc. P.

335.

TABANGCURA, G. M. 2007. Production and Evaluation of Developmental Radio Plugs for the Foot and Mouth Disease Information Campaign. BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 16.

TABING, L. and M. T. OSALLA. 2001. Development of Print and RadioCommunication Materials. Volume II. University of the Philippines Los Baños,Laguna. Pp. 92-101.

THE COMMUNITY BROADCASTING STAFF. 1979. A Manual on RadioBroadcasting.

College of Agriculture. Department of Development Communication. University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna. P. 256.

WEBSTER’S ENCYCLOPEDIC UNABRIDGED DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUANGE. 1994. Length; Topic. New York: Dilithium Press, Ltd. Pp. 830; 1495.

TUAZON, R. R. 2011. Radio as a Way of Life. Retrieved January 27, 2012 from http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-

a/article.php?igm=3&i=222

UNITES STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT. 2005. AGuide to Adapting, Developing and Producing Effective Radio Spots. Retrieved January 27, 2012 from http://wikisarvn.pbworks.com/f/spot_guide_adapting_developing_producing.pdf

Pigura

Figure 1. Map of Cordillera showing the locale of the study
Table 1. Number of gathered developmental plugs
Table 2. Topic of the developmental plugs aired
Table 3. Length of the developmental plugs aired
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