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BIBLIOGRAPHY

KIMBUNGAN, LIM E. APRIL. 2012. Market Potential of Organic Fertilizers in Tublay, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Andrew K. Del-ong

ABSTRACT

This study is about the market potential of organic fertilizers in Tublay, Benguet.

Survey questionnaire were administered to 100 farmer- respondents and an interview guide were also administered to the producer-respondents who are the beneficiaries of the shredder machines distributed by Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) through the Municipal Agricultural Office and also includes the other individual and organizational producers.

The organic fertilizers commonly produced are compost, vermicompost and vermicast in monthly production cycle. Most of the produced are for their own consumption and some are for sale. Majority of the producers based their selling price on their cost of production and some based on the consensus decision of Project Management, Japan Agricultural Exchange Council (JAEC), and they sell it at their production site and directly to the farmers.

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There is no standard rate of application among users, though farmers intend to increase utilization because it conditions the soil better and it has good effect on plant.

The respondents are willing to pay P100- P150 per sack of compost, P350-P400 per sack of vermicompost, P100 per liter of vermitea, P10 per kilo of vermicast and P150 per sack of mokusaku compost.

The non-users are not using organic fertilizers because they don’t know about it and they prefer to buy commercial fertilizers hence, now that they heard about it, majority of them are willing to use organic fertilizers. Most of them intend to use compost, vermicompost and vermicast only if they would be educated and trained more on organic production. Additionally, most of the respondents intend to source organic fertilizers at the Municipal Agricultural Office and produce it on their own.

It is hence recommended that local officials together with the staff of Municipal Agriculture Office must coordinate with government or non-government agencies that advocate organic farming. To educate and train more the farmers about the use and effect of organic fertilizers in farming in order to encourage the farmers more to use organic fertilizers and for the producers to increase their sales as well as their production and to have a common market place for the farmers to know where to buy organic fertilizers and to look upon its commercialization. Further, a follow up study on each organic fertilizer is recommended to have a more clear understanding on each of their market potential.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 presents the profile of the respondents. For the producer- respondents, they are almost equally distributed from age ranges of 35-44 (27.3%), 45-54 (36.4%), and 55-64 (27.3%) respectively. Majority (36.4%) of the respondents are in Barangay Caponga while the remaining Barangays have 1 (0.9%) producer of organic fertilizers. The producer in each barangay was the beneficiaries of shredders and composting materials from the DOLE through the Municipal Agricultural Office. In terms of gender, all except one were males.

For the farmer-respondents, non-users of organic fertilizers comprise most of the 100 respondents with 71 (71.0%) of them belonging to the category while 29 (29.0%) respondents are users. In terms of their ages, they are almost equally distributed from ages 35-44 (29.0%), 45-54 (26%) and 25-34 (24%) respectively.

It is common notion that farming is a male dominated activity, it is surprising to see that 20 (20.0%) of the farmer-respondents are females with 14 of them belonging to non-users.

While 80 (80.0%) of the farmer-respondents were males with most (57) of them are non- users.

Most of the respondents however are from barangay Baayan with 22 (22.0%) farmer- respondents which dominates the users 6 (5.4%) and non- users 16 (14.4%) of organic fertilizers, followed by barangay Caponga with 15 (15.0%) respondents respectively.

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Table 1. Demographic profile of respondents

PARTICULARS

PRODUCER

FARMERS

TOTAL

USER NON-USER

F % F % F % F %

Age <25 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+

- 1 3 4 3 -

- 9.1 27.3 36.4 27.3 -

- 7 8 7 6 1

- 7.0 8.0 7.0 6.0 1.0

03 17 21 19 09 02

03.0 17.0 21.0 19.0 09.0 02.0

03 24 29 26 15 03

03.0 24.0 29.0 26.0 15.0 03.0

TOTAL 11 100.0 29 29.0 71 71.0 100 100.0

Gender Male Female

10 01

90.0 10.0

23 06

23.0 06.0

57 14

57.0 14.0

80 20

80.0 20.0

TOTAL 11 100.0 29 29.0 71 71.0 100 100

Location

Ambassador Ambongdolan Baayan Basil Caponga Daclan Tublay Central Tuel

1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1

9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 36.4 9.1 9.1 9.1

5 3 6 1 5 1 5 3

5.0 3.0 6.0 1.0 5.0 1.0 5.0 3.0

05 11 16 07 10 06 09 07

05.0 11.0 16.0 07.0 10.0 06.0 09.0 07.0

10 14 22 08 15 07 14 10

10.0 14.0 22.0 08.0 15.0 07.0 14.0 10.0

TOTAL 11 100.0 29 29.0 71 71.0 100 100.0

Farm Profile

Table 2 presents the profile of the farms. Majority (71.0%) of the farmer-respondents’

farms were conventional farm or those who use purely inorganic or commercial fertilizers.

Some 24 (24%) were transitional organic farms and only 5 (5%) were purely organic farms.

Most of the farmer-respondents have farms that ranges between the 1000-2799 m2 with 55 (55%) of them belonging to the category. Only one farmer surveyed had a farm of more than 8200 m2. Among the users of organic fertilizers, 12 out of 24 of the transitional farmers were practicing organic farming. Most of them, 10 (58.8%), said they had an organic farm

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with less than 500 m2 and 2 (11.8%) of them had a farm of 500-899 m2 allotted for organic farming. Among the organic practitioner, 3 of them had a farm of 500-899 m2 allotted for organic farming and only 1 had a farm size of less than 500 and 900-1299 m2 allotted for organic farming respectively.

While most of the users of organic fertilizers were only practicing organic farming in less than 2 years, 9 (52.9%) out of 17, while 6 (35.3%) of them had been organic farmers with experiences of 2-4 years and only 1 each had experience in organic farming of 5-7 years and more than 11 years respectively.

Table 2. Farm profile

PARTICULARS

USER NON-USER

TOTAL ORGANIC TRANSITIONAL CONVENTIONAL

F % F % F % F %

Type of Farm 5 5.0 24 24.0 71 71.0 100 100

Farm Size (m2) <1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 4600-6399 8200+

2 2 1 - -

2.0 2.0 1.0 - -

05 15 01 03 -

05.0 15.0 01.0 03.0 -

25 38 7 - 1

25.0 38.0 07.0

- 01.0

32 55 9 3 1

32.0 55.0 09.0 03.0 01.0

TOTAL 5 5.0 24 24 71 71.0 100 100

Organic Area (m2) <500

500-899 900-1299

1 3 1

05.9 17.6 05.9

10 2

-

58.8 11.8

-

- - -

- - -

11 5 1

64.7 29.4 05.9

TOTAL 5 29.4 12 70.6 - - 17 100

Length of Time as Organic Practitioner <2

2-4

2 2

11.8 11.8

7 4

41.2 23.5

- -

- -

9 6

52.9 35.3

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Type, Quantity and Production Cycle of Organic Fertilizer Producers

Table 3 presents the type, quantity and production cycle of organic fertilizer producers.

Most producers manufacture vermicompost and vermicast organic fertilizers with volume ranges between 1-10 sacks in monthly production cycles with 11 and 9 of the producers manufacturing them respectively. One producer is also manufacturing vermicast with volume ranges between 11-20 sacks monthly. Only one producer manufactures compost and mokusaku compost in monthly production cycle while vermitea is being produced with 1-10L volume in weekly basis.

Table 3. Type, quantity and production cycle of organic fertilizers by producers

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

QUANTITY PRODUCED

PRODUCTION CYCLE

WEEKLY MONTHLY

F % F %

Compost Vermicompost Vermitea Vermicast

Mokusaku compost

1-10 sacks 1-10 sacks 1-10 L 1-10 sacks 11-20 sacks 11-20 sacks

- - 1 - - -

- - 9.1

- - -

1 11

- 9 1 1

09.1

100.0 - 81.8 09.1 09.1

*Multiple Response

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Cost of Production per Type of Organic Fertilizer Produced in the Production Cycle of Organic Producers

Table 4 presents the cost of production per type of organic fertilizer produced in the production cycle of organic producers. It can be seen that most of the respondents rate their cost of production for organic fertilizers in the less than five hundred pesos (<500) range.

One producer which produces compost had a production cost for raw materials at about P500 and labor of around P500 to P1500. Most of the producers of vermicompost rate their production cost for raw materials and fuel at about less than five hundred pesos (<500) range and labor of around P500 to P1500 while majority of the producers of vermicast had a production cost for raw materials and labor at about P500. One producer of vermitea and mokusaku compost also rate their raw materials and labor in the P500 to P1500 range.

Table 4. Cost of production per type of organic fertilizer produced in production cycle

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

PRODUCTION ASPECT

COST OF

PRODUCTION (Php)

<500 500-1500

Compost Raw Materials

Labor

1 -

- 1

Vermicompost Raw Materials

Labor Fuel

7 5 8

4 6 3

Vermitea Raw Material

Labor Fuel

- - 1

1 1 -

Vermicast Raw Materials

Labor

6 8

5 2

Mokusaku compost Materials - 1

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Utilization of Organic Fertilizers Produced by Organic Producers

Table 5 presents the utilization of organic fertilizers produced by organic producers. It can be seen that most of the respondents or producers rate use their produced organic fertilizers for their own consumption. For compost, 1-10 sacks of compost are consumed by a producer with the same number also sold. For vermicompost, most of the fertilizers produced at 1-10 sacks are being consumed by organic producers themselves while 5 of them said that their produce 1-10 sacks are being sold to users of organic fertilizer. Most of the vermicast produce at 1-10 sacks and 1 at 11-20 sacks of vermicast are consumed by organic producers for farming while 5 producers at 1-10 sacks and 1 producer at 11-20 sack sold their product. Vermitea producing farmers consume about 1-10L of vermitea while the same amount is also sold in the market. For the mokusaku compost produced, farmers consume about 1-10 sacks in their farm while they sell the same amount to the market.

Table 5. Ways of utilization of organic fertilizers produced by organic producers

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

QUANTITY PRODUCED

UTILIZATION OWN

CONSUMPTION

FOR SALE

F % F %

Compost 1-10 sacks 1 09.1 1 09.1

Vermicompost 1-10 sacks 9 81.8 5 45.5

Vermitea 1-10 L 1 09.1 1 09.1

Vermicast 1-10 sacks

11-20 sacks

6 1

54.5 09.1

5 1

45.5 09.1

Mokusaku compost 1-10 sacks 1 09.1 1 09.1

*Multiple Response

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Price and Basis for Cost of Organic Fertilizers Produced by Organic Producers

Table 6 presents the price and basis of producers for the cost of organic fertilizers produced.

Compost is sold by a producer at P100/bag and solely based from the cost of production as determined by the producer. Vermicompost on the other hand is sold at P350/bag by 3 producers and 4 producers at P400/bag on the basis of production cost while only 1 producer sells it at P400/bag as a consensus decision of the project management (JAEC).

Vermitea is sold by the producer at P100/L and this selling price is determined solely by the cost of production. Vermicast, on the other hand, is sold by 4 producers at P500/bag and 1 producer at P450/bag based on cost of production and 2 producers sold at P500/bag based on the decision of project management by JAEC. Mokusaku compost is sold at P150/bag by one producer based on cost of production and one producer based from JAEC at the same price. This suggest that prevailing cost of production and market forces are the most common basis for pricing of sold organic fertilizers by producers.

Table 6. Price and basis for cost of sold organic fertilizers by producers

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

BASIS FOR PRICE

PRICE (Php)

F % F % F %

100/bag 150/bag 200/bag

Compost Cost of Production 1 9.1 - - - -

300/bag 350/bag 400/bag

Vermicompost Cost of Production - - 3 27.3 4 36.4

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Table 6. continued…

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

BASIS FOR PRICE PRICE (Php)

F % F % F %

50/L 100/L 150/L

Vermitea Cost of Production - - 1 9.1 - -

400/bag 450/bag 500/bag Vermicast Cost of Production

Consensus decision of Project

Management (JAEC) - -

- -

1 -

9.1 -

4 2

36.4 18.2

100/bag 150/bag 200/bag Mokusaku

compost

Cost of Production Consensus decision of Project

Management (JAEC) - -

- -

1 1

9.1 9.1

- -

- -

*Multiple Response

Market Outlet of Producers of Organic Fertilizers

Table 7 presents the market outlet of producers of organic fertilizer, most of the organic fertilizers produced by the respondents were being sold in their production site while some producer of vermicompost, vermicast and mokusaku compost directly sell their product to the farmers, maybe by made-to-order scheme, and the same organic fertilizers were being sold at the Municipal Agricultural Office. Based from the results, it is an evident that there is no proper or exact place for the producers to market their produced organic fertilizers.

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Table 7. Market outlet of producers of organic fertilizer

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

SELLING LOCATION PRODUCTION

SITE

DIRECT TO FARMERS

MUNICIPAL OFFICE

F % F % F %

Compost Vermicompost Vermitea Vermicast

Mokusaku compost

1 5 1 5 1

09.1

45.5 09.1

45.5 09.1

- 4 - 2 1

- 36.4

- 18.2 09.1

- 1 - 1 1

- 9.1

- 9.1 9.1

*Multiple Response

Type and Source of Users for Organic Fertilizers

Table 8 presents the utilization of organic fertilizers used by organic farmers in relation to their source. It is surprising to see that most of the organic fertilizers were produced by the farmers themselves and of these farmers, 26 produce mostly compost. Only 3 farmers buy organic fertilizers at the Palew Multipurpose Cooperative. Vermisompost is the next most used organic fertilizer used with 7 of them sourcing it from the Municipal Agricultural Office and also 7 producing their own.

Table 9 presents the type of organic fertilizer used by organic farmers in relation to years of farming. Compost was mostly used by farmers that had 25 to 30 years of experience of

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Table 8. Type of organic fertilizers used by user in relation to their source

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

SOURCES OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS MUNICIPAL

AGRICULTURAL OFFICE

PALEW MULTIPURPOSE COOPERATIVE

PRODUCE MY OWN

OTHERS

F % F % F % F %

Compost Vermicompost Vermitea Vermicast

Mokusaku compost

- 7 - 5 3

- 24.1

- 17.2 10.3

-

1 1 1 -

- 3.4 3.4 3.4 -

26 7 2 3 1

89.7 24.1 0.9

10.3 03.4

3 2 - 1 -

10.3 06.9

- 03.4

-

*Multiple Response

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Table 9. Type of organic fertilizer used by user in relation to years of farming

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER USED

YEARS OF FARMING

+30 25-30 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

F % F % F % F % F % F % F %

Compost Vermicompost Vermitea Vermicast

Mokusaku compost

5 4 1 2 1

17.2 13.8 03.4 06.9 03.4

7 3 1 1 1

24.1 10.3 03.4 03.4 03.4

5 4 1 4 -

17.2 13.8 03.4

13.8 -

4 3 - 2 2

13.8 10.3

- 06.9 06.9

3 1 - - -

10.3 03.4

- - -

3

1 - 1 -

10.3 03.4

- 03.4

-

2 1 - - -

6.9 3.4 - - -

*Multiple Response

(14)

Table 10 presents the type of organic fertilizer used by organic farmer relating farm size.

Most of the respondents use compost followed by vermicompost. Of those with farm sizes less than 1000m2, compost (7) and vermicompost (6) were mostly used by them. Farmers with 1000-2799 m2 of farm size used mostly compost and vermicompost but a number of them (5) also used vermicast, mokusakocompost (3) and vermitea (1). Those farmers with the largest farms (4600-6399m2) mostly used compost and vermicompost.

Those with organic farms found in Table 11, most of the farmers with less than 500 m2 and 500- 899 m2 use more compost, followed by vermicompost and vermicast. Those with the largest organic farms, 900-1299m2, exclusively used compost and vermicompost.

Table 12 present type of organic fertilizer used by organic farmers in relation to length of time as organic practitioner. The more experience farmers (11+ years) in organic farming exclusively used compost while those who practice organic farming in less than 2 years mostly used compost and vermicompost while there’s only one user of vermitea. The most used organic fertilizer considering their years of experience in organic farming is compost followed by vermicompost. This suggests that compost is a viable organic fertilizer which can be produced cheaply by farmers or manufactured commercially by producers. In the long run, as the experience of the organic practitioner widens, preference to compost becomes evident.

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Table 10. Type of organic fertilizer used by user in relation to farm size

*Multiple Response

Table 11. Type of organic fertilizer used by user in relation to organic farm area

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER USED

ORGANIC FARM AREA (m2)

<500 500-899 900-1299

F % F % F %

Compost Vermicompost Vermitea Vermicast

Mokusaku compost

10 8 2 6 2

58.8 47.1 11.8 35.3 11.8

5 3 1 2 1

29.4 17.6 05.9 11.8 05.9

1 1

- - -

5.9 5.9 - - -

*Multiple Response TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER USED

FARM SIZE (m2)

<1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 4600-6399

F % F % F % F %

Compost Vermicompost Vermitea Vermicast

Mokusakucompost

7 6 2 3 1

24.1 20.7 06.9 10.3 03.4

17

7 1 5 3

58.6 24.1 03.4 17.2 10.3

2 2 - 2 -

6.9 6.9 - 6.9

-

3 2 - - -

10.3 06.9

- - -

(16)

Table 12. Type of organic fertilizer used by user in relation to length of time as organic practitioner

TYPE OF ORGANIC

FERTILIZER USED

LENGTH OF TIME AS ORGANIC PRACTITIONER (YEARS)

<2 2-4 5-7 11+

F % F % F % F %

Compost Vermicompost Vermitea Vermicast

Mokusaku compost 9 5 1 3 2

52.9 29.4 05.9

17.6 11.8

6 2 - 2 1

35.3 11.8

- 11.8 05.9

1 1 - - -

5.9 5.9 - - -

1 - - - -

5.9 - - - -

*Multiple Response

Type and Quantity of Organic Fertilizer(s) Used by User

In Table 13, most users make use compost while some uses vermicompost. The respondents use less of vermitea with only 3 of the respondents and only 4 for mokusaku compost. As for the quantity, majority of the organic farmers uses organic fertilizers depending on their needs followed by less than a sack used for farming with 16 respondents.

Table 14 indicates the quantity of organic fertilizer used by user in relation to the years of farming. It is apparent that while the experience in farming of the farmers increases, their preference for organic fertilizers also increases. This is evident from the number of farmers using the different organic fertilizers in their more than 30 years of farming. Also, it is apparent that many of the farmers opined that the quantity of organic fertilizers they use depends on farming conditions.

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Table 13. Type and quantity of organic fertilizer(s) used by user

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS USED

QUANTITY OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS USED IT DEPENDS <1 SACK 1-3SACKS 4-7 SACKS

F % F % F % F %

Compost 13 44.8 7 24.1 5 17.2 4 13.8

Vermicompost 9 31.0 3 10.3 4 13.8 1 03.4

Vermicast 5 17.2 4 13.8 1 03.4 - -

Mokusakucompost 3 10.3 1 63.4 - - - -

IT DEPENDS <1 L 1-2 L 3-5 L

F % F % F % F %

Vermitea 2 6.9 1 3.4 - - - -

*Multiple Response

(18)

Table 14. Quantity of organic fertilizer(s) used by user in relation to years of farming

*Multiple Response

QUANTITY OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

YEARS OF FARMING

30+ 25-30 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

F % F % F % F % F % F % F %

Compost

It depends

<1 sack

1-3 sacks

4-7 sacks

>7 sacks

3 1 3 - 1

10.3 03.4 10.3 - 03.4

1 - - - 1

3.4 - - - 3.4

2 1 - 2 -

6.9 3.4 - 6.9

- - 1 - - 1

- 3.4

- - 3.4

1 1 - 1 -

3.4 3.4 - 3.4

- - - 1 2 -

- - 3.4 6.9 -

- - - - 1

- - - - 3.4 Vermicompost

It depends

<1 sack

1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks

>7 sacks

2 1 1 - -

6.9 3.4 3.4 - -

- - - - 1

- - - - 3.4

1 1 1 - -

3.4 3.4 3.4 - -

1 1 - - -

3.4 3.4 - - -

- - - 1 -

- - - 3.4

- - - - 1 -

- - - 3.4

- - - - - -

- - - - - Vermitea

It depends

>5 L

2 1

6.9 3.4

1 -

3.4 -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- - Vermicast

It depends

<1 sack 1-3 sacks

4-7 sacks

1 1 1 -

3.4 3.4 3.4 -

1 - - -

3.4 - - -

1 1 - 1

3.4 3.4 - 3.4

1 1 1 -

3.4 3.4 3.4 -

- - - -

- - - -

- - - -

- - - -

- - - -

- - - - Mokusaku

compost

It depends 1-3 sacks

2 -

6.9 -

- -

- -

1 1

3.4 3.4

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

- -

(19)

Many farmers have farms with 1000-2799m2 as seen in Table 15 and majority of them speak out that the quantity of organic fertilizers they use depends on farming conditions.

However, a great many of them indicated that they use less than one sack and between 1 to 3 sacks of compost and vermicompost and mokusakocompost. One farmer indicated that he uses 4-7 sacks of vermicast for a 1000-2799m2 farm area.

While most organic farmers have organic farms of less than 500m2 as seen in Table 16, majority of them speak out that the organic fertilizer they use were less than a sack and also depends on farming conditions. However, some farmers admitted that they use 4-7 sacks of compost and greater than 7 sacks of compost and vermicompost for their organic farms. These higher quantities maybe due to the larger area used for organic farming. This suggests that when organic farm sizes increases, then consumption of organic fertilizers may also increase.

From Table 17, most of the organic farmers belong to the less than two years, 2-4 years and 5-7 years of experiences in organic farming. Only one farmer with more than 11 years’

experience of farming using organic fertilizers posted that his consumption of compost depends upon farming conditions. A great many of the <2 and 2-4 years of organic famers uses mostly compost in farming followed by vermicompost. A lesser number of farmers utilize vermitea.

(20)

Table 15. Quantity of organic fertilizer(s) used by user in relation to farm size

QUANTITY OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

FARM SIZE (m2)

<1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 4600-6399

F % F % F % F %

Compost It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks >7 sacks

1 1 1 2 -

3.4 3.4 3.4 6.9 -

6 2 2 3 1

20.7 06.9 06.9

10.3 03.4

- - 1 - 2

- - 3.4

- 6.9

- 1 - - 1

- 3.4

- - 3.4 Vermicompost

It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks >7 sacks

- 1 - 2 -

- 3.4

- 6.9

-

4 2 1 - -

13.8 06.9 03.4

- -

- - 1 - -

- - 3.4

- -

- - - - 1

- - - - 3.4 Vermitea

It depends 3-5L

- -

- -

3 -

10.3 -

- 1

- 3.4

- -

- - Vermicast

It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks

- 1 - -

- 3.4

- -

4 2 1 1

13.8 06.9 03.4 03.4

1 - - -

3.4 - - -

- - - -

- - - - Mokusaku compost

It depends 1-3 sacks

- -

- -

3 1

10.3 03.4

- -

- -

- -

- -

*Multiple Response

(21)

Table 16. Quantity of organic fertilizer(s) used by user in relation to organic farm area QUANTITY OF

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

ORGANIC FARM AREA (m2)

<500 500-899 900-1299

F % F % F %

Compost It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks >7 sacks

2 4 3 1 1

11.8 23.5 17.6 05.9 05.9

1 - - 1 1

5.9 - - 5.9 5.9

- - 1 1 1

- - 5.9 5.9 5.9 Vermicompost

It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks >7 sacks

1 3 - 1

05.9 17.6

- 05.9

- - - -

- - - -

- - 2 -

- - 11.8

- Vermitea

It depends 3-5L

1 -

5.9 -

- -

- -

- 1

- 5.9 Vermicast

It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks

1 2 - -

05.9 11.8

- -

- - 1 -

- - 5.9

-

- - - 1

- - - 5.9 Mokusakucompost

It depends 1-3 sacks

1 -

5.9 -

- -

- -

- 1

- 5.9

(22)

Table 17. Quantity of organic fertilizer(s) used by user in relation to the length of time as organic practitioner

QUANTITY OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

LENGTH OF TIME AS ORGANIC PRACTITIONER (YEARS)

<2 2-4 5-7 11+

F % F % F % F %

Compost It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks >7 sacks

1 3 3 1 1

05.9

17.6 17.6 05.9 0 5.9

1 1 - 2 2

05.9 05.9 - 11.8 11.8

- - 1 - -

- - 5.9

- -

1 - - - -

5.9 - - - - Vermicompost

It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks >7 sacks

1 3 - -

05.9

17.6 - -

- - 1 1

- - 5.9 5.9

- - 1 -

- - 5.9

-

- - - -

- - - - Vermitea

It depends 3-5L

1 -

5.9 -

- 1

- 5.9

- -

- -

- -

- - Vermicast

It depends <1 sack 1-3 sacks 4-7 sacks

1 2 1 -

05.9

11.8 05.9 -

- - - 1

- - - 5.9

- - - -

- - - -

- - - -

- - - - Mokusakucompost

It depends 1-3 sacks

1 -

5.9 -

- 1

- 5.9

- -

- -

- -

- -

*Multiple Response

(23)

Price Ranges Acceptable to the User

Table 18 presents the acceptable price among the users of organic fertilizers. Fair price ranges for organic fertilizers indicates that most farmers accepts a price range of P100- P150/sack of compost, P350- P400/sack of vermicompost, P100/liter of vermitea, P10/kilo of vermicast and P150/sack of mokusaku compost. These prices, obviously less than the prevailing market prices, indicate the proverty and predicament of farmers in Benguet which might be a reason for their adherence to conventional farming, using commercial fertilizers.

Table 18. Price ranges of organic fertilizers acceptable to user

TYPE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

UNIT QUANTITY

PRICE RANGES (Php) TOTAL

F % F % F % F % F %

P100 P150 P200 P>200

Compost Per sack 13 44.8 15 51.7 1 03.4 - - 29 100

Vermicompost Per sack

P300 P350 P400 None

7 24.1 9 31.0 8 27.6 5 17.2 29 100

Vermitea Per litre (L)

P100 P150 P200 P>200

20 69.0 7 24.1 1 03.4 1 3.4 29 100

Vermicast Per kilo (kg)

P8 P9 P10 P>10

6 20.7 8 27.6 14 48.3 1 3.4 29 100

(24)

Table 19 presents the reasons for utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to the type of farmers. Most farmers indicated that their main reason in using organic fertilizers is that it makes the soil fertile by increasing the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties with 15 are transitional farmers and 3 are organic practitioners. Respondents also indicated that organic fertilizers conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure and it increases the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients are the second most frequent answer among transitional and organic practitioners.

Table 19. Reasons of user for use of organic fertilizers

REASONS FOR USE

TYPE OF ORGANIC FARMER

TRANSITIONAL ORGANIC

F % F %

Makes the soil fertile by increasing the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties

Conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure

Increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients

Provides better aeration

Increase the number of leaves per plant Increase the leaf area

Controls pest All of the above Other reason

15

14

14

11 4 4 7 9 3

51.7

48.3

48.3

37.9 13.8 13.8 24.1 31.0 10.3

3

2

2

1 - 1 2 2 1

10.3

06.9

06.9

03.4

- 03.4 06.9 06.9 03.4

*Multiple Response

(25)

Some users said that their other reason for utilizing organic is that it is safe for human consumption and it lessens the cost for farm inputs. This implies that transitional and organic farmers are aware of the benefits that organic fertilizers give to the soil and subsequently the plants and their produce. This may suggest that a continuous educational campaign among farmers coupled with technical support may increase the use of organic fertilizers by farmers.

Table 20 presents the reasons for utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to the years of farming. Surprisingly, farmers with 20 to more than 30 years of experience in farming rate that their reason for using organic fertilizers conform to the first three reasons in the table, that is, “it increases the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties”, “conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure” and “increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients”. This suggests that as farmers become more experienced, their knowledge of farming using organic fertilizers also increases.

Table 21 presents the reasons for utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to the farm size. Farmers mostly have farms with 1000 m2 to 2799m2 farm sizes as found in Table 20 and their main reasons for using organic fertilizers still conform to previous findings from other tables, that is, their reasons include “it increases the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties”, “conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure” and

“increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients” with 1000-2799m2 checking these reasons. Of those with larger farms, 4600-6399m2, farmers also indicated the same reasons of using organic fertilizers. These suggest that regardless of farm size, farmers have

(26)

Table 20. Reasons of user for use of organic fertilizers in relation to years of farming

REASONS FOR USE

YEARS OF FARMING

+30 25-30 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

F % F % F % F % F % F % F %

Makes the soil fertile by

increasing the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties

Conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure

Increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients

Provides better aeration

Increase the number of leaves per plant

Increase the leaf area Controls pest

All of the above Other reason

5

5

6

4 2

- 4 3 1

17.2

17.2

20.7

13.8 06.9

- 13.8 10.3 03.4

3

1

1

- -

- - - -

10.3

03.4

03.4

- -

- - - -

5

5

4

4 1

2 2 - 2

17.2

17.2

13.8

13.8 03.4

06.9 06.9

- 06.9

3

3

3

2 1

2 3 1 -

10.3

10.3

10.3

06.9 03.4

06.9

10.3 03.4

- 1

1

1

1 -

1 - 3 1

03.4

03.4

03.4

03.4 -

03.4

- 10.3 03.4

-

-

-

- -

- - 3 -

-

-

-

- -

- - 10.3

- 1

1

1

1 -

- - 1 -

3.4

3.4

3.4

3.4 -

- - 3.4

-

*Multiple Response

(27)

Table 21. Reasons of user for use of organic fertilizers in relation to farm size

REASONS FOR USE

FARM SIZE (m2)

<1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 4600-6399

F % F % F % F %

Makes the soil fertile by increasing the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties

Conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure

Increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients

Provides better aeration

Increase the number of leaves per plant Increase the leaf area

Controls pest

1

1

1

- 2 1 1

03.4

03.4

03.4

- 06.9 03.4 03.4

14

12

12

11 2 3 7

48.3

41.4

41.4

37.9 06.9

10.3 24.1

1

1

1

- - 1 1

3.4

3.4

3.4

- - 3.4 3.4

2

2

2

1 - - -

6.9

6.9

6.9

3.4 - - -

(28)

Table 22 presents the reasons for utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to the organic farm area of the users. Most organic farmers with less than 500m2 of organic farm area reasoned that their use of organic fertilizers are “it increases the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties”, “conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure” and

“increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients” with 10, 10 and 9 of respondents respectively. These results still conforms to the previous results from other tables.

Table 23 presents the reasons for utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to the length of time as organic practitioners. Farmers reason for use of organic fertilizers are the same with previous tables, that is, “it increases the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties”, “conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure” and “increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients”. Surprisingly, 5 or 29.4% of the <2 years category, indicated that their reason is that it controls pests. This might be attributed to organic farming education through seminars they attended since their years of experience in using organic fertilizers does not warrant this result.

Overall, (19 to 23) result show that organic fertilizers is used by most respondent to increase the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties, conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure, and to increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients.

(29)

Table 22. Reasons of user for use of organic fertilizers in relation to organic farm area

REASONS FOR USE

ORGANIC FARM AREA (m2)

<500 500-899 900-1299

F % F % F %

Makes the soil fertile by increasing the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties

Conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure Increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients Provides better aeration

Increase the number of leaves per plant Increase the leaf area

Controls pest All of the above

10

10 9 6 1 1 5 1

58.8

58.8 52.9 35.3 05.9 05.9

29.4 02.1

2

2 2 2 - - 1 3

11.8

11.8 11.8 11.8

- - 05.9 17.6

1

- - - - - - 1

5.9

- - - - - - 5.9

(30)

Table 23. Reasons of user for use of organic fertilizers in relation to length of time as organic practitioner

REASONS FOR USE

LENGTH OF TIME AS ORGANIC PRACTITIONER (YEARS)

<2 2-4 5-7 +11

F % F % F % F %

Makes the soil fertile by increasing the nutrient contents of the soil physical properties

Conditions and improves the soil to hold the soil structure

Increase the ability of the soil to hold water and nutrients

Provides better aeration

Increase the number of leaves per plant Increase the leaf area

Controls pest All of the above Other reason

7

7

6 5 1 1 5 4 3

41.2

41.2

35.3 29.4 05.9 05.9

29.4 23.5 17.6

3

2

2 1 - - - 2 1

17.6

11.8

11.8 05.9

- - - 11.8 05.9

1

1

1 - - - - - -

5.9

5.9

5.9 - - - - - -

-

-

- - - - - 1 -

-

-

- - - - - 5.9

-

*Multiple Response

(31)

Intentions of the User to Increase Utilization of Organic Fertilizers

Table 24 presents the respondents intentions to increase the utilization of organic fertilizers related to the different demographic areas.

Comparing the number of farmers who intends to increase usage of organic fertilizers with those who do not intend to increase considering their years of farming indicated 23 (79.3%) against 6 (20.7%) and most of the respondents that are willing to increase their utilization have +30 years and 20-24 years of farming experience. Looking at the results in Table 24, this suggests that experience in farming tends to increase their tendency to use more organic fertilizers.

For the length of time as organic practitioner, more farmers intend to increase their use of organic fertilizers as compared to those who do not intend with 15 against 2 odds comprising a percentage difference of 76.4%. Indicative in Table 24 is the result that more organic farmers belonging to the <2 and 2-4 years categories intent to increase their use of organic fertilizers, having been schooled in the global trend of organic farming. This might suggest that continuous education and training of organic farmers is also necessary.

Comparing results between those who intend to increase against those who do not intend considering farm sizes, 23 against 6 odds is seen. Smaller farm sizes tend to increase their organic fertilizer consumption as compared to those with larger farms. This might be attributed to the cost of organic fertilizers which is prohibitive for larger farm areas.

Smaller organic farm areas tend to increase their organic fertilizer consumption more than

(32)

More transitional farmers tend to increase use of organic fertilizers as compared to organic farmers themselves with odds of 20 to 3. This suggests the popularity of organic fertilizers among Benguet farmers.

Table 24. Intention of user to increase volume of utilization of organic fertilizers

PARTICULARS

INTENTION OF THE FARMER TO INCREASE UTILIZATION OF

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

TOTAL

WILL INCREASE NO INTENTION TO INCREASE

F % F % F %

Years of Farming +30

25-30 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

5 2 6 3 3 3 1

17.2 06.9 20.7 10.3 10.3 10.3 03.4

3 - - 1 1 - 1

10.3 - - 03.4 03.4

- 03.4

8 2 6 4 4 3 2

27.6 06.9 20.7 13.8 13.8 10.3 06.9

TOTAL 23 79.3 6 20.7 29 100

Length of Time as organic Practitioner (Years) <2

2-4 5-7 11+

7 6 1 1

41.2 35.3 05.9 05.9

2 - - -

11.8 - - -

9 6 1 1

52.9 35.3 05.9 05.9

TOTAL 15 88.2 2 11.8 17 100

Farm Size (m2) <1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 4600-6399

7 11

2 3

24.1 37.9 06.9 10.3

- 6 - -

- 20.7

- -

7 17

2 3

24.1 58.6 06.9 10.3

TOTAL 23 79.3 6 20.7 29 100

Table 24. continued…

(33)

PARTICULARS

INTENTION OF THE FARMER TO INCREASE UTILIZATION

OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS TOTAL

WILL INCREASE

NO INTENTION TO INCREASE

F % F % F %

Organic Area <500 500-899 900-1299

10 4 1

58.8 23.5 05.9

1 1 -

05.9 05.9

-

11 5 1

64.7 29.4 05.9

TOTAL 15 88.2 2 11.8 17 100

Type of Farming Organic Transitional

3 20

10.3 67.0

2 4

06.9 13.8

5 25

17.2 82.8

TOTAL 23 79.3 6 20.7 29 100

Respondent’s Reasons of Increase Utilization of Organic Fertilizers

Table 25 presents the reasons why the respondents will increase utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to years of farming. Most farmers said that increasing the volume of utilization of organic fertilizers is necessary because it has good effect on plants, it conditions the soil better and it increases fertility on the soil. Of these reasons, many respondents belong to the 30+ years and 20-24 years farming experience. This suggests that as farming experience increases the beneficial effects of organic fertilizers become apparent to farmers.

Table 26 presents the reasons why the respondents will increase utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to farm size. Farmers with smaller farm sizes tend to increase their

(34)

Table 25. Reasons of user for increase of volume of organic fertilizers in relation to years of farming

REASONS FOR INCREASE OF VOLUME FOR

UTILIZATION

YEARS OF FARMING

+30 25-30 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

F % F % F % F % F % F % F %

Expansion of farm area Good effect on plant Conditions the soil better Increase fertility

Depends on the need of the plant

Other reason

3 7 7 6 3

2

10.3 24.1 24.1 20.7 10.3

06.9 - 1 1 - 1

-

- 3.4 3.4 - 3.4

-

1 6 4 5 4

-

03.4

20.7 13.8 17.2 13.8

-

2 3 3 3 3

-

06.9

10.3 10.3 10.3 10.3

-

2 2 2 2 1

-

6.9 6.9 6.9 6.9 3.4

-

3 4 4 2 -

-

10.3 13.8 13.8 06.9

-

- 1 2 2 1 -

-

3.4 6.9 6.9 3.4 -

-

*Multiple Response

(35)

Table 26. Reasons of user for increase volume of organic fertilizers in relation to farm size

REASONS FOR

INCREASE OF VOLUME FOR UTILIZATION

FARM SIZE (m2)

<1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 4600-6399

F % F % F % F %

Expansion of farm area Good effect on plant Conditions the soil better Increase fertility

Depends on the need of the plant

Other reason

4 5 6 6 2

1

23.5 29.4 35.3 35.3 11.8

05.9 6 15 12 12 9

-

35.3 88.2 70.6 70.6 52.9

-

- 2 2 - 1

-

- 11.8 11.8

- 05.9

-

2 3 3 1 -

1

11.8 17.6 17.6 05.9

-

05.9

*Multiple Response

1000-2799 m2 category with 15 (88.2%) of them said that it has good effect on plants and 12 (70.6%) claims that it conditions the soil better. Also, a great many of the farmers indicated that it increases fertility of the soil as one of their reasons. For the other reason, farmers that have less than 1000 m2 and 4600-6399m2 mentioned that it lessens the cost for farm inputs.

Table 27 presents the reasons why the respondents will increase utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to organic farm area. Organic farms with smaller areas use organic fertilizers on the knowledge that “it has good effect on plants”, “it conditions the soil better”, and “it increases fertility”. Others reasoned out that it lessens the cost for farm

(36)

reasoned that it is due to “expansion of farm area”, “good effect of plants” and “it conditions the soil better”.

Table 28 presents the reasons why the respondents will increase utilization of organic fertilizers in relation to the length of time as organic practitioner. The top three reasons why farmers will increase volume for utilization of organic fertilizers include “it has good effect on plants”, “it conditions the soil better”, and “it increases fertility”. Of those with the mentioned reasons, most of them belong to the <2 years of experience in organic farming and 2-3 years’ experience. This further suggests that conventions, trainings and education are effective tools in promoting organic farming.

Table 27. Reasons of user for increase of volume of organic fertilizers in relation to organic farm area

REASONS FOR INCREASE OF VOLUME FOR UTILIZATION

ORGANIC FARM AREA (m2)

<500 500-899 900-1299

F % F % F %

Expansion of farm area Good effect on plant Conditions the soil better Increase fertility

Depends on the need of the plant Other reason

1 8 9 7 6 2

05.9

47.1 52.9 41.2 35.3 11.8

4 3 2 1 - -

23.5 17.6 11.8 05.9

- -

1 1 1 - - -

5.9 5.9 5.9 - - -

*Multiple Response

(37)

Table 28. Reasons of user for increase of volume of organic fertilizers in relation to length of time as organic practitioner

REASONS FOR INCREASE OF VOLUME FOR

UTILIZATION

LENGTH OF TIME AS ORGANIC PRACTITIONER (YEARS)

<2 2-4 5-7 11+

F % F % F % F %

Expansion of farm area Good effect on plant Conditions the soil better Increase fertility

Depends on the need of the plant Other reason

2 6 7 6 4

1

11.8 35.3 41.2 35.3 23.5

05.9 3 5 4 2 2

1

17.6 29.4 23.5 11.8 11.8

05.9 - 1 1 - -

- - 5.9 5.9 - -

- 1

- - - -

-

5.9 - - - -

-

*Multiple Response

Reasons of Respondents for Not Using Organic Fertilizers

Table 29 presents the reason of non- usage of conventional farmers in relation to the years of farming. Education might be a strategy that could be employed in encouraging farmers to use organic fertilizers since most of them “do not know about it” with 55 of respondents indicating the category. Preference for commercial fertilizers, the second in the hierarchy, with 40, this might be an attributed to the high cost of organic fertilizers as compared to commercial ones. This is followed by “don’t know where to buy” with 18. This result

(38)

Table 29. Reasons for non-usage of organic fertilizers in relation to years of farming

REASONS FOR NON- USAGE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

YEARS OF FARMING

+30 25-30 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

F % F % F % F % F % F % F %

Do not know about it Can't afford it

Don't know where to buy Prefer to buy commercial fertilizer

Other reason

9 4 8

6 4

12.7 05.6 11.3

08.5 05.6

8 3 1

5 -

11.3 04.2 01.4

7.0 -

10 2 2

7 -

14.1 02.8 02.8

09.9 -

8 1 -

4 -

11.3 01.4

-

05.6 -

8 4 1

11 1

11.3 05.6 01.4

15.5 01.4

9 2 5

6 1

12.7 02.8 07.0

08.5 01.4

3 1 1

1 -

4.2 1.4 1.4

1.4 -

*Multiple Response

(39)

Looking at this result, however, it might be attributed to uneducated or not being informed due to weak information drive by concerned agencies.

Table 30 presents the reason of non- usage of conventional farmers in relation to the farm size. Most farmers have farm sizes of less than 1,000 to 2,799 m2 with most of them reasoned that they “do not know about it” and that they “prefer to buy commercial fertilizers” respectively. This suggests that uneducated and being uninformed and low cost of commercial fertilizers might be the reasons why farmers do not use organic fertilizers.

Farm size might not affect the respondents’ reasons, however, one farmer with farm size of 4600-6399 m2 prefer to buy commercial fertilizers than organic fertilizers.

Table 30. Reasons for non-usage of organic fertilizers in relation to farm size

REASONS FOR NON- USAGE OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS

FARM SIZE (m2)

<1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 4600-6399

F % F % F % F %

Do not know about it Can't afford it

Don't know where to buy Prefer to buy commercial fertilizer

Other reasons

21 5 5 19

-

29.6 07.0 07.0 26.8

-

28 10 9 19

4

39.4 14.1 12.7 26.8

05.6 6 2 4 2

1

8.5 2.8 5.6 2.8

1.4 - - - 1

-

- - - 1.4

-

*Multiple Response

(40)

Distribution of Non-user Respondent’s Willingness to Use Organic Fertilizers

In Table 31, most of those who are willing to use organic fertilizers are more experienced farmers with those of 30+ year of experience in farming having 14 (19.7%) out of 56. More farmers were willing to use organic fertilizers as compared to those who signified not to despite being informed with an odds ratio of 56 to 15 or a percent difference of 57.8%.

Based from the table considering years of farming, it seems that greater experience either contributes to willingness to use organic fertilizers and/or not to use organic fertilizers.

This may be attributed to stubbornness or practicality of farmers not using organic fertilizers.

Found in Table 31 is also the effect of farm size to the willingness to use or not to use organic fertilizers. Most, 56 (78.9%), of the respondent said that they are willing to use organic fertilizers. Majority of the farmers had less than 1000m2 and 1000-2799m2 farm sizes with 20 and 29 respondents respectively. Result of this comparison is inconclusive whether farm size affects the decision of the farmers to use or not to use organic fertilizers.

However, one farmer with more than 8,200m2 farm size decided to use organic fertilizers.

(41)

Table 31. Distribution of non-user respondent’s willingness to use organic fertilizers

PARTICULARS

RESPONDENTS WILLINGNESS TO USE

TOTAL

WILLING NOT WILLING

F % F % F %

Years of Farming +30

25-30 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5

14 9 9 3 11

7 3

19.7 12.7 12.7 04.2

15.5 09.9 04.2

4 - 4 2 4 1 -

5.6 - 5.6 2.8 5.6 1.4 -

18 9 13

5 15

8 3

25.4 12.7 18.3 07.0

21.1 11.3 04.2

TOTAL 56 78.9 15 21.1 71 100.0

Farm Size (m2) <1000 1000-2799 2800-4599 >8200

20 29 6 1

28.2 40.8 08.5 01.4

5 9 1 -

07.0

12.7 01.4

-

25 38 7 1

35.2 53.5 09.9 01.4

TOTAL 56 78.9 15 21.1 71 100.0

Pigura

Table 3  presents  the type, quantity and production cycle of organic fertilizer producers
Table 6 presents the price and basis of producers for the cost of organic fertilizers produced
Table 8. Type of organic fertilizers used by user in relation to their source
Table 9. Type of organic fertilizer used by user in relation to years of farming
+7

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

Resignation/Removal or Replacement Name of Person Position/Designation Effective Date of Resignation/Cessation of term mmm/dd/yyyy Reasons for Resignation/Cessation - - - -