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BALAJO, MIRRIAM E. APRIL 2010. Growth and Yield of Ten High Yielding Rice Varieties Under General Tinio, Nueva Ecija Condition. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Danilo P. Padua, Ph. D.

ABSTRACT

Ten different high yielding varieties of rice were planted to identify the best adapted variety/ies in terms of yield, resistance to pests and diseases, and return on cash expenses; identify the acceptability of the farmers and consumers; and determine the return on cash expenses of growing high yielding rice varieties under Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija condition from November 2009 to March 2010.

NSIC Rc 146 and NSIC Rc 138 had the highest grain yield of 5.33kg per 12 m2 recorded the highest number of productive tillers, longest panicle at harvest, tallest plants and were found resistant to stemborer and blast. Both varieties also exhibit the highest return on cash expenses (7.52%).

NSIC Rc 140 and NSIC Rc 130, and PSB 28 (Control) may also be considered as good varieties as they recorded the highest grains per panicle, highest filled grains and unfilled grains and also exhibited a good return on cash expenses. .

The other varieties used were not well-adapted to the area as they were affected by moisture stress that prevailed in the area during the conduct of the experiment as shown by their low grain yield and shorter height.

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grains just after cooking and even after it was stored overnight. Both were acceptable to the farmer and housewife respondents

NSIC Rc 138 and NSIC Rc 146, therefore, are highly recommended under Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija.

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Page Bibliography………... i

Abstract……….. i

Table of Contents……… iii

INTRODUCTION……….

REVIEW OF LITERATURE………

MATERIALS AND METHODS………...

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION………

1 3 8 15 Agroclimatic Data ………...

Number of Days from Transplanting

to Recovery………..…………...

Number of Days from Transplanting

to Tillering ………..

Number of Days from Transplanting

to Booting ……….. ...

Number of Days from Transplanting

to Heading ………...

Number of Days from Transplanting

to Maturity ………..………...

Number of Productive Tillers per Hill ………

Plant Height at Maturity ……….

Length of Panicle at Harvest ………..

Number of Grains per Panicle ………

Number of Filled and Unfilled

Grains per Panicle ………..

15

16

16

16

17

18 20 20 21 22

23

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Reaction to Stemborer Incidence ………...

Weight of 1000 Filled Grains ……….

Yield per 12m2 ………...

Computed Yield per Hectare ………..

Return on Cash Expenses ………...

Texture of Cooked Rice ……….

General Acceptability ……….

24 25 25 25 27 28 30 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION………

31 Summary ………....

Conclusion ……….

Recommendation ………...

31 32 32

LITERATURE CITED……….. 34

APPENDICES………... 39

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Rice is the world’s single most important food crop and a primary food for more than a third of the world’s population (IRRI, 2006). Rice production and consumption are concentrated in Asia where more than 90% of all the rice is found. It is the only grain crop which can be grown under diverse climatic and soil topographical conditions (Pal and Dekas, 1996).

In the Philippines, 80% of the Filipino households devote at least half of their expenditure to food and about a quarter of it is used for rice (Virmani & Hardy, 2003).

Thus, over the next 25 years, at least 65% more rice relative to year 2000 production volume would be needed to adequately feed the Philippine population.

Nueva Ecija Province, dubbed as the “rice bowl of the Philippines”, is the largest and biggest rice producing province in Central Luzon. Approximately 3,080 hectares in the town are rice fields in which 954 hectares have proper irrigation while 2,126 hectares are rain-fed. In General Tinio, Nueva Ecija the average rice production in rain-fed areas is 80 cavans per hectare. Rice production in the irrigated area is 95,400 cavans or an average yield of 100 cavans per hectare (BAS, 2009).

However, majority of the people in Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija, still depend on NFA (National Food Authority) rice. This problem is obviously due to shortage and low yield of rice varieties. The rice shortage is brought about by the growing population, decreasing production area and unpredictability of climate. In addition, there is apparent degeneration of the existing varieties planted in the area in terms of plant resistance to pest and disease. The continuous evaluation of new high yielding varieties of rice that will be suited in a certain location is one way to address

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such concern. Therefore it is important to introduce different high yielding rice varieties in order to identify varieties with better adaptability, greater resistance to pests and diseases and higher yield.

The result of this study could also serve as guide in selecting high yielding varieties for production. It may help convince local farmers to plant selected high yielding varieties and corresponding increase in their income. The study will be conducted to:

The study was conducted to:

1. evaluate the growth and yield of ten high yielding rice varieties under Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija condition;

2. identify the best adapted variety/ies under Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija condition in terms of yield, resistance to pests and diseases and return on cash expenses;

3. identify the acceptability of the farmers and consumers; and

4. determine the return on cash expenses of growing high yielding rice varieties in General Tinio, Nueva Ecija.

The study was conducted at a farmer’s field in Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija from November 2009 to March 2010

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Varietal Evaluation

Varietal evaluation is necessary for adaptability in a given location and it is also necessary to observe characters such as earliness, vigor maturity, yield and keeping quality because varieties have wide range of difference in size and yielding performance cited by Bawat (2004).

GMA Rice program stated that expansion of hybrid rice cultivation is one of their focus to achieve the goal two of DA which is enhancing productivity to reduce the price of wage, good’s and increasing farmers income. At present hybrid rice is the only available genetic tool for increasing the yield potential of rice on the average farmer can get an additional 1,272kg rice/ ha using the hybrid ,as compared with yield obtain in PhilRice trial come from mestizo at 12t/ha in Cagayan and Bohol province (DA 2005- 2006).

High grain of rice can be achieved only though a proper combination of variety, agronomic practices and environment. Of these three factors variety and agronomic practices can be manipulated.

Chagwasi (1996) stated that under Tabuk, Kalinga condition, PSB Rc18 produced the highest yield among 10 high yielding varieties studies. However Valera (2003), fund that planting PSB Rc18 in Nalbuan, Baay-Licuan Abra, was the earliest to mature although produce low grain yield.

Five inbred and hybrid varieties of rice evaluated in Nalbuan, Baay-Licuan Abra, PSB Rc46 produce the highest grain yield and hybrid mestizo had the highest weight of 1000 filled grains and its yield is comparable to inbred PSB Rc46 (Valera, 2003). Also in

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Barangay Tukod, San Rafael Bulacan one farmer who tried planting mestizo reveled that hybrid mestizo gives a high yield and he harvested 150 cavan’s /ha in his first trial (Samonte, 2009).

Batane (2004) stated that under Barangay Bilis Burgos, La Union, PSB Rc28 was the earliest to mature while PSB Rc96 has the highest grain yield/plot and per hectare among eight varieties studies. On white heads evaluation SL8 and PSB Rc96 were rated resistant. However (Siteng, 2005) fund that planting SL8 in Kadayakan, Maria Aurora showed that SL8 acquired the highest grain yield for both per plot and / ha (3.58 and 5332.32 kg) and SL8 were also resistant to white heads.

Seven varieties of rice were evaluated in Publacion Kibungan, Benguet. Result showed that PSB Rc 96 and PSB Rc28 were the earliest to mature. SN-73 had the highest grain yield (Belino, 2005).

Seven varieties of rice were planted and evaluated at Bugayong, Binalonan Pangasinan. Result showed that NSIC Rc138 recorded the highest number of productive tillers and gained the highest number of grain pert panicle. It obtained 3.31 to 2.06 tons per plot and per hectare. However it was the PSB Rc82 who is the earliest to mature (Urbano, 2008).

Water and fertilizer Requirement

Uptake of water is the first need for germination, irregular rainfall means slowed and uneven seedling growth. Severe drought will kill the seedling.

Water stress must be avoided while rice plant is still growing to prevent retards on the growth and reduced tillers, large amount of unfilled grains is due to lack of water.

Also insufficient water result to wilting, that reduced the capacity of the plant to

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produced and transport its food (Urbano, 2008).

The use of proper doses of nutrients, nitrogen (N) in particular, is important to attain high yielding and efficient nutrients use in intensive rice ecosystem.

IRRI (1986) stated that basal fertilizer application with a combined P and K level of 30 to 40 kg/ha each of P 20 and K 20 help early seedling vigor and stand establishment, rapid coverage of the field by ice foliage with consequent reduction of weed population.

Tillering ability

The number of tiller per plot increase as the distance between plant increases.

However the number of tiller per square meter reduces when you do wide spacing of plants, also close spacing will result in mutual shading, less tiller and lanky plant which are susceptible to lodging (Arraedeau and Vergara, 1988).

A combination of high tillering ability and compact or nonspreading culm

arrangement is desirable for all rice farmers. Compact culms that are moderately erect allow increased solar radiation to tillers and less mutual shading per unit of land area. In improved plant, heavy tillering is prepared over medium or low tillering, because dwarf does not have an optimum leaf area index and heavy tillering does not result in excessive plant size or mutual shading. Those leaf thicknesses have been related to high yielding ability through increased photosynthetic rate per unit of leaf area. However some highly productive varieties have relatively thin leaves when either transplanted or direct seeded.

These suggest that the character does not have an important and direct relationship to yield potential.

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Effect of Temperature

Rice can be grown most successfully in regions that have a mean temperature of about 23.89ºC or above during the entire growing season of 4-5 months. Rice yield are higher in warm temperature regions that have a low summer rainfall than in the humid tropics where rice disease and soil of low fertility are more prevalent (Martin & Stamp, 1976).

For paddy rice water temperature is a major determinant of growth and yield. In rice paddies water temperature and difference significantly affect production, especially in cool climates. However, there is no model to evaluate the effect of water temperature on rice yield.

Cultural management

Biag (2009) emphasizes that practice synchronizes planting after a fallow period will helps prevent pest build-up. Also it is a good start in rice production for it prevents the overlapping of population of insect and disease. Proper sanitation most be done by removing all straw piles in the paddies after harvest and minimizes size of levees to 15cm wide x 20cm high to avoid rat burrows and by removing seedling with stem borer egg masses before transplanting.

Preservation of beneficial insect, close monitoring, through land preparation, plant resistant varieties and avoid excessive nitrogen.

Harvesting and threshing

Harvest “palay” when 80% of the grains are mature, this is indicated by a yellow panicle or colored straw. Delay in harvesting may lead to grain shattering. On the other

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hand, early harvesting before maturing produce immature and chalky grains that breaks easily during milling (PHILRICE, 1997-1998).

Timely harvesting produce the best rice quality, increases rice marketability and consumer acceptability and increase rice production as a result of production of losses.

Although adverse weather condition often times move the harvesting schedule either a little earlier or later than desired (PCARRD, BPRE and PARRFI, 2001).

Harvested “palay” must be threshed immediately to minimize field losses and grain quality problem. Rice should have 14% moisture content or lower to maintain grain quality during storage. Seeds and area should be cleaned and ensure well ventilated

storage room to avoid rodent attack and have air circulation (PHILRICE, 1997-1998).

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study tested ten high yielding varieties from Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) as follows:

CODE VARIETY T1 IR64 T2 NSIC Rc 144 (Tubigan 8)

T3 NSIC Rc 134 (Tubigan 4) T4 NSIC Rc 138 (Tubigan 5) T5 NSIC Rc 140 (Tubigan 6) T6 NSIC Rc 150 (Tubigan 9) T7 NSIC Rc 146 (PJ7) T8 NSIC Rc 130 (Tubigan 3) T9 NSIC Rc 154 (Tubigan 11)

T10 PSB Rc 28 (Agno, Control)

Seedbed and land preparation

Ten seedbeds measuring 1m x 1m each were prepared for the ten different varieties. One variety was sown in each seedbed to avoid mixture. Labels were placed on each seedbed for proper identification.

An experimental area of 360m² was prepared and was divided into 30 plots with a measurement of 2m x 6m each. Before transplanting, the soil was puddled and leveled using "Kuliglig".

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Lay-outing and transplanting

After land preparation, the seedlings were transplanted in designated plots following the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Each of the ten varieties was planted with two seedlings per hill on a straight row at a distance of 20cm x 20cm. Missing hills were replanted within ten days after transplanting.

Fertilizer Application

Two weeks after transplanting, application of fertilizer was done. A mixture of 7 kg of 14-14-14 and 7 kg of urea (42-0-0) was used.

Weeds and Insect Pest Control

Hand weeding was done to avoid competition for water and nutrients. Insect pests and diseases were controlled to reduce economic loss. Other recommended cultural practices were followed to ensure high yield.

Determination of Acceptability

Acceptability for cooked rice was determined by a panel of twenty farmers and consumers. The acceptability of cooked rice was based on tenderness and cohesiveness of the newly-cooked and left over rice.

Farm Location

Barangay Palale is located in the Northern part of General Tinio, Nueva Ecija.

The distance of Barangay Palale from the city of General Tinio Nueva Ecija is 25 km from the National highway and it is about 35 km from Cabanatuan City (Fig 1).

The average daily temperature was 22˚C at minimum and 30˚C at maximum.

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Figure 1. Overview of the experimental area

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Barangay Palale has a sandy, loamy, clayey soil and characterized by flat lands to hilly and rough mountainous areas with a slope of 25 to 80 degree.

This condition of the location fall within the ranges that is suitable for rice production.

Data gathered:

1. Agroclimatic Data. Temperature, relative humidity, amount of rainfall during the conduct of the study were taken from Cabanatuan PAGASA office.

2. Number of days from transplanting to recovery. The number of days from transplanting to period of seedling recovery was recorded when the rice plants were almost dark green in color.

3. Number of days from transplanting to tillering. This was recorded when 50% of the total plant started producing tillers.

4. Number of days from transplanting to booting. This was recorded when 50% of the plants have booted, determined by visual observation when the flag leaf sheath swelled or showed enlargement.

5. Number of days from transplanting to heading. This was recorded when 50% of the plants produced panicle.

6. Number of days from transplanting to maturity. This was recorded when 80%

of the grain in the panicle ripened or turned yellow.

7. Number of productive tillers per hill. The number of productive tillers was counted using ten hills per treatment selected randomly. Only the rice plants that produce panicles were considered productive.

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8. Plant height at maturity (cm). This was measured from the soil level to the tip of the panicle using ten samples selected at random.

9. Length of panicle at harvest (cm). This was measured from panicle base to panicle tip excluding the awn taken at random at harvest.

10. Number of grains per panicle. This was taken using randomly selected ten sample panicles per plot.

11. Number of filled and unfilled grains per panicle. This was recorded by counting the number of filled and unfilled grains at maturity.

12. Reaction to blast resistance (neck rot). Evaluation of the severity of rice blast was taken from the plant at the center rows. Ten sample hills were selected randomly.

Computation of percent infection was done using the formula (PhilRice, 1996):

No. of panicles infected

% infection= X 100 Total no. of panicles

Scale

1 2 3

Description

0-5% are affected by blast 6-25% are affected by blast

26% and above are affected by blast

Rating Resistant Intermediate Susceptible

13. Stem borer incidence. This was determined based on the actual % dead hearts and white heads using the middle row of the plot as sampling area. Ten sample hills was selected at random where dead hearts were counted 45 days after transplanting while white heads, ten days before harvesting. The rating was based on the standard used by PhilRice (1996).

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Rating Description %Dead heart %White heads 1 Resistant 1-10 1-5

3 Moderate resistant 11-20 6-10 5 Intermediate 21-30 11-15 7 Moderate susceptible 31-60 16-25

9 Susceptible 60 and above 25 and above 14. Weight of 1000 filled grains (g). 1000 seeds were selected at random after drying at 14% moisture content and then weighed.

15. Yield per plot (kg). Grain yield per plot was taken after drying to 14 % moisture content (MC) then weighed.

16. Computed yield per hectare (kg). This was taken by converting grain yield per plot into yield per hectare using ratio and proportion.

Yield per plot (kg) x

Yield /ha= --- X --- 12m² 1 hectare (10,000 m2)

17. Return on Cash Expense. This was taken using the formula:

Net Income

ROCE = --- X 100 Total Cost of Production

18. Texture of cooked rice. This was the texture of the ten different varieties of rice just after cooking and after storing overnight the samples was put in plate together with spoon and place on the table. It was tested by twenty respondents (10 farmers and 10 housewives). The varieties were evaluated based on the following scale:

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Scale Description

1 Soft 2 Moderately soft 3 Hard

4 Moderately hard 5 Very hard

19. General acceptability. This was taken using the following scale:

Scale Description

1 Like very extremely 2 like very much 3 Like moderate 4 Dislike slightly

5 Neither like nor dislike

Data Analysis

All quantitative data were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The significance of difference among the treatment means were tested using the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT).

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Agroclimatic Data

Table 1 presents the temperature, relative humidity and rainfall which were gathered from November 2009 to March 2010. March had the highest temperature with a minimum of 22.4 ºC and a maximum of 35 ºC while the lowest temperature was recorded in December with a minimum of 20.5 ºC and a maximum of 32.3 ºC. Relative humidity ranged from 81-88%. The highest relative humidity was noted in November (88%) while the lowest was noted in March (81%). November had the highest rainfall of 44.8 mm.

The temperature during the conduct of the study is still favorable to rice plant since temperature for cool and warm rice production ranges from 16-25 ºC and 25-35 ºC, respectively (Vergara, 1992).

Table 1. Agroclimatic data from November 2009 to March 2010

MONTH TEMPERATURE (ºC)

MIN MAX

RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)

RAINFALL (mm)

November 22.6 33.4 88% 44.8

December 20.5 32.3 86 1.0

January 21.0 32.5 84 0.2

February 21.1 34.1 84 +/ Trace

March 22.4 35 81 6.0

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Number of Days from Transplanting to Recovery

Table 2 shows the number of days from transplanting to recovery. It was noted that NSIC Rc 144 and 146 recovered in 6 days, followed by NSIC Rc 138, NSIC Rc 140 and NSIC Rc 130. The five remaining varieties recovered in 10 days.

PHILRICE (1997-1998) stated that transplanting 2-3 seedlings per hill at a depth of 2-3 cm into the soil is satisfactory. Too deep planting will delay recovery and reduce the number of tillers produced.

Number of Days from Transplanting to Tillering

Table 2 shows the number of days from transplanting to tillering. It was recorded that NSIC Rc 144 produced tillers in 18 days. It was closely followed by NSIC Rc 138, NSIC Rc 140, NSIC Rc 146 and NSIC Rc 130 which produced tillers in 19 days. IR64 and PSB 28 (control) were the last to produced tillers.

It was observed that early tillering varieties produced more tillers than late tillering varieties. Also early tillering varieties matured earlier under normal condition.

Early tillering is a desirable trait since tillers tend to be more productive.

Number of Days from Transplanting to Booting

The average number of days from transplanting to booting is shown in Table 2.

NSIC Rc 144, was the earliest to boot in 47 days, which was 1-3 days earlier than the other varieties. It was followed by NSIC Rc 138, NSIC Rc 140, NSIC Rc 146, NSIC Rc 130 that booted in 50 days or 3 days later than NSIC Rc 144. IR64 and PSB 28 (control) were late maturing compared to the other three varieties. Number of days from transplanting to booting may not always be due to varietal characteristic but also to

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Table 2. Number of days from transplanting to recovery, to tillering, to booting, to heading and transplanting to maturity of ten high yielding rice varieties

environmental influence such as temperature. Low temperature has been known to delay booting (Yoshida, 1981).

Number of Days from Transplanting to Heading

Table 2 also shows the number of days from transplanting to heading. NSIC Rc 144 was the earliest to produce heads with a mean of 54 days which was 1-7 days earlier than the other varieties. IR64 and PSB 28 (control) were the last to produce heads in 64 days after transplanting. This could mean that the varieties which produced heads earlier are also early maturing. Furthermore, early maturing varieties have lesser exposure to

NUMBER OF DAYS FROM TRANSPLANTING TO:

VARIETY

RECOVERY TILLERING BOOTING HEADING MATURIY

IR64 10 23 54 64 88

NSIC Rc 144 6 18 47 54 83

NSIC Rc 134 10 22 52 61 86

NSIC Rc 138 8 19 50 64 86

NSIC Rc 140 8 19 50 59 86

NSIC Rc 150 10 22 52 61 86

NSIC Rc 146 6 19 50 59 83

NSIC Rc 130 8 22 52 59 86

NSIC Rc 154 10 22 52 61 86

PSB 28 (control)

10 23 54 64 88

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different pests and diseases and environmental stresses which gradually affect yield of the plant.

Number of Days from Transplanting to Maturity

Table 2 shows the number of days from transplanting to maturity. NSIC Rc 144 and NSIC Rc 146 were the earliest to mature in 83 days (Fig. 2). IR64 and PSB 28 (control) were the latest to mature in 88 days. This result could imply that early maturing varieties have lesser exposure to birds and rats especially during ripening stage.

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Figure 2. The ten varieties at 80 DAT

NSIC Rc 134 NSIC Rc 138

NSIC Rc 140 NSIC Rc 150

NSIC Rc 146 NBSIC Rc 130

NSIC Rc 154

NSIC Rc 144 IR64

PSB 28(control)

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Number of Productive Tillers per Hill

Table 3 shows the number of productive tillers per hill. NSIC Rc 150, NSIC Rc 146, NSIC Rc 140, NSIC Rc 130 produced the most numerous productive tillers with an average of 9.00. The rest of the varieties recorded the least productive tillers per hill with an average of 8.00.

Not all tillers produce heads since some tillers may die and others remain in their vegetative stage due to competition for water, nutrients and sunlight. Therefore production of tillers may not be a good basis for determining the yield potential of rice (UPLB, 1983).

Plant Height at Maturity

Plant height at maturity is shown in Table 3. It was recorded that NSIC Rc 146 was the tallest (72.59 cm) among the ten varieties of rice studied. It was followed by NSIC Rc 138 with an average height of 70.20 cm. IR64 was the smallest with a height of 61.44 cm. The differences are due to the varietal characteristic of the crop. The taller the plant the weaker they are and more susceptible to lodging or falling when their panicle

turns heavy with grains (Arraedeau and Vergara, 1988).

Taller plants may have higher ability to compete with weeds but it may also cause spacing problems. Yield reductions due to weeds decreased with increasing plant height (Yoshida, 1981).

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Table 3. Number of productive tillers per hill and plant height at maturity of ten high yielding rice varieties

*Means with the same letters are not significantly different at 0.05 level by DMRT

Length of Panicle at Harvest

The length of panicle at harvest was measured from the panicle base to the panicle tip excluding the awn. Table 4 shows that PSB 28 (control) had the longest panicle with a mean of 21.38 cm. It was closely followed by NSIC Rc 138 and NSIC Rc 146 with means of 21.57 cm and 21.37 cm, respectively. NSIC Rc 144 had the shortest panicle with a mean of 19.76 cm. It could mean that the longer the panicles could translate to more grains per panicle.

VARIETY PRODUCTIVE TILLER PLANT HEIGHT (cm) PER HILL 80 DAT

IR64 8.00 61.44c

NSIC Rc 144 9.00 69.64ab

NSIC Rc 134 9.00 68.12b

NSIC Rc 138 9.00 70.20ab

NSIC Rc 140 9.00 67.94b

NSIC Rc 150 9.00 67.51b

NSIC Rc 146 9.00 72.59a

NSIC Rc 130 8.00 69.21ab

NSIC Rc 154 8.00 64.23c

PSB 28 (Control) 8.00 69.45ab

C.V. (%) 6.51 2.75

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Number of Grains per Panicle

The number of grains per panicle is shown in Table 4. It was observed that NSIC Rc 140 gained the highest number of grains per panicle with a mean of 107, followed by NSIC Rc 130 with a mean of 98. NSIC Rc 144 had the lowest number of grains per panicle, which may indicate long spaces between the grains in the panicle. Significant differences can be attributed to the compactness of the grains in the panicle.

Table 4. Length of panicle at harvest and number of grains per panicle of ten high yielding rice varieties

VARIETY LENGTH OF PANICLE NUMBER OF GRAINS AT HARVEST (cm) PER PANICLE

IR64 19.77 89

NSIC Rc 144 19.76 81

NSIC Rc 134 19.77 89

NSIC Rc 138 21.57 91

NSIC Rc 140 20.63 107

NSIC Rc 150 19.97 93

NSIC Rc 146 21.37 93

NSIC Rc 130 20.39 98

NSIC Rc 154 19.81 92

PSB 28 (control) 21.38 84

C.V. (%) 4.67 8.37

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According to Yoshida (1981) low solar or unfavorable condition during reproductive stage to post flowering reduces the number of grain yield.

Number of Filled and Unfilled Grains

The number of filled and unfilled grains is shown in Table 5. It was observed that NSIC Rc 140 had the highest number of filled grains with a mean of 93, followed by NSIC Rc 130 and PSB 28 (control) with a mean of 87 and 83, respectively. IR64 had the lowest number of filled grains with a mean of 75. On the other hand, NSIC Rc 130 had the highest number of unfilled grains with a mean of 15 and IR64 gained the lowest number of unfilled grains.

Table 5. Number of grains per panicle and number of filled and unfilled grains of ten high yielding rice varieties

VARIETY NUMBER OF FILLED NUMBER OF UNFILLED GRAINS GRAINS

IR64 75 9

NSIC Rc 144 78 5

NSIC Rc 134 77 12

NSIC Rc 138 79 9

NSIC Rc 140 93 14

NSIC Rc 150 82 9

NSIC Rc 146 81 9

NSIC Rc 130 87 15

NSIC Rc 154 83 12

PSB 28 (control) 83 9

C.V. (%) 7.33 23.64

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PhilRice (2001) stated that while rice plant is still growing, water stress must be avoided to prevent retardation of growth and reduction of tillers. Large amount of unfilled grains is due to lack of water. Insufficient water result in wilting, therefore reducing the capacity of the plant to produce and transport its food. Thus, the high number of unfilled grains in some varieties may be due to insufficient water.

Yoshida (1981) further stated that low air and water temperature could cause injuries, such as failure of grains to germinate, delayed flowering, high spikelet sterility which results to higher unfilled grains per panicle and irregular maturity. High number of unfilled grains reduced yield.

Reaction to Blast Incidence (Neck Rot)

The reaction to blast incidence (neck rot) of the ten high yielding rice varieties was recorded. All the rice varieties were found resistant to blast (neck rot). The reaction was based only on natural condition because there is no inoculation or introduction of pest and disease in the area of the study. This could be altered if inoculums or pest are introduced.

Reaction to Stemborer Incidence

Evaluation of stemborer incidence was expressed as dead hearts and white heads.

Dead heart was taken 45 days after transplanting and it was recorded that all of the varieties were field resistant to dead heart. On white heads evaluation, IR64 and NSIC Rc 150 were rated moderately resistant. Other varieties are resistant to the stemborer.

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Table 6. Reaction to stemborer incidence of ten high yielding rice varieties

Weight of 1000 Filled Grains

Table 7 shows the weight of 1000 filled grains. Among the ten varieties evaluated, it was observed that NSIC Rc 146 gave the highest weight with a mean of 26g compared to PSB Rc 28 (control) with a mean of 24g. It was followed by NSIC Rc 140 with a mean of 25g. NSIC RC 154 had the lowest weight of 21g. This can be attributed to the size, shape and fullness of the grains.

Yield per 12 m2 and per Hectare

Table 7 shows yield per 12 sm2 and per hectare of ten high yielding rice varieties.

NSIC Rc 138 and NSIC Rc 146 had gained the highest yield both per plot and per VARIETY DEAD HEARTS WHITE HEADS

IR64 Resistant Moderately Resistant

NSIC Rc 144 Resistant Resistant

NSIC Rc 134 Resistant Resistant

NSIC Rc 138 Resistant Resistant

NSIC Rc 140 Resistant Resistant

NSIC Rc 150 Resistant Moderately Resistant NSIC Rc 146 Resistant Resistant

NSIC Rc 130 Resistant Resistant

NSIC Rc 154 Resistant Resistant

PSB 28 (control) Resistant Resistant

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hectare (5.33 kg/plot and 4.4 tons/ha) compared to PSB 28 (control) with a mean of 4.23 kg/plot and 4.11 tons/ ha. NSIC Rc 144 has the lowest grain yield. The highly significant difference could be due to number of grains per panicle produced and length of panicle which could translate into more grains per panicle.

The low yield of the ten rice varieties may be due to the onset of El Niño phenomena during the growth of the plants. According to PCCARD (1983), rice has three critical stages wherein moisture deficit reduce grain yield substantially. These are (1) transplanting period (or seedling establishment), (2) tillering stage and (3) the period

Table 7. Weight of 1000 filled grains and yield per 12m2 and per hectare of ten high yielding rice varieties

VARIETY WEIGHT OF 1000 YIELD PER 12m2 YIELD PER HECTARE FILLED GRAINS (g) (kg) (tons/ha)

*Means with the same letter are not significantly different at 0.05 level by DMRT

IR64 23bcd 4.25abcd 3.54bcd

NSIC Rc 144 23bcd 3.8d 2.96dc

NSIC Rc 134 22cd 4.25abcd 3.54e

NSIC Rc 138 25ab 5.33a 4.44a

NSIC Rc 140 25ab 4.93abc 4.11ab

NSIC Rc 150 23bcd 4.00cd 3.33bcde

NSIC Rc 146 26a 5.33a 4.44a

NSIC Rc 130 22cd 4.67abc 3.89abc

NSIC Rc 154 21d 3.77cd 3.14cde

PSB 28 (control) 24abc 4.93ab 4.11ab

C.V. (%) 6.35 12.66 12.63

(31)

from about 14 days before to a week after panicle initiation. Yield reduction due to moisture stress during heading or flowering is largely caused by unfertilized flowers.

Return on Cash Expenses (ROCE) The return on cash expenses (ROCE) of ten high yielding rice varieties is shown

in Table 8. NSIC Rc 138 and NSIC Rc 146 had the highest ROCE (17.52) compared to PSB 28 (control) (8.71 %). NSIC Rc 154 had the highest negative ROCE (-16.86). These results indicate that not all the varieties are suitable in Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija. It also shows that NSIC Rc 136 and NSIC Rc 146 are the best varieties among the ten varieties evaluated since both had the same positive ROCE. The onset of El Niño during the conduct of the study had somehow resulted to insufficient water supply that affected the performance of the varieties studied. It is possible that given the right amount of water, these ten varieties might perform better and give positive ROCE.

Moreover, those varieties with positive ROCE could have performed better and have

higher ROCE.

(32)

Table 8. Return on cash expenses (ROCE) of ten high yielding rice varieties

Note: the selling price of rice grains is based on Php 17.00/kilo.

Texture of Cooked Rice

Table 9 shows the texture of cooked rice of the different varieties. Ten farmers and ten housewives were used as testing panel for both newly cooked and cooked rice that was stored overnight. PSB 28 (control), NSIC Rc 138, NSIC Rc 134, NSIC Rc 150 NSIC Rc 130 and IR64 had soft grains, while NSIC Rc 144 had hard grains. The other varieties produced moderately soft grains that were newly cooked. Likewise for rice left overnight, PSB 28 (control), NSIC Rc 134 and NSIC Rc 150 maintained their soft quality. The rest of the varieties were moderately soft except for NSIC Rc 146 and NSIC Rc 138 which were moderately hard. NSIC Rc 154 easily spoiled after storing overnight.

VARIETY GRAIN YIELD PER PLOT

(kg/12m²)

GROSS INCOME (Php)

COST OF PRODUCTION

(Php)

NET INCOME (Php)

ROCE (%)

IR64 4.25 72.25 77.09 -4.84 -6.00

NSIC Rc 144 3.80 65.00 77.09 -12.49 -16.20

NSIC Rc 134 4.25 72.25 77.09 -4.84 -6.00

NSIC Rc 138 5.33 90.61 77.09 13.52 17.52

NSIC Rc 140 4.93 83.81 77.09 6.72 8.71

NSIC Rc 150 4.00 68.00 77.09 -9.09 -11.79

NSIC Rc 146 5.33 90.61 77.09 13.52 17.52

NSIC Rc 130 4.67 79.39 77.09 2.30 2.98

NSIC Rc 154 3.77 64.09 77.09 -13.00 -16.86

PSB 28 (control)

4.93 83.81 77.09 6.72 8.71

(33)

Mackill, et al., (2010) further stated that rice with intermediate amylose content approaches the ideal for many consumers; they are fluffy when cooked and remain soft when cool. Intermediate amylose is preferred in most rainfed lowland of Asia particularly in Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. Thus, the varieties which maintained soft grains even after storing overnight may have intermediate amylase content and may be preferred by Filipino consumers.

Table 9. Texture of cooked rice of ten high yielding rice varieties VARIETY EATING QUALITY

NEWLY COOKED RICE RICE STORED OVERNIGHT

Rating Scale: 1- Soft, 2- Moderately soft, 3-Hard, 4- Moderately hard, 5- Very hard

IR64 Soft Moderately hard

NSIC Rc 144 Moderately hard Moderately hard

NSIC Rc 134 Soft Soft

NSIC Rc 138 Soft Moderately hard

NSIC Rc 140 Moderately soft Moderately soft

NSIC Rc 150 Soft Soft

NSIC Rc 146 Moderately soft Moderately hard

NSIC Rc 130 Soft Moderately soft

NSIC Rc 154 Moderately soft Spoiled

PSB 28 (control) Soft Soft

(34)

General Acceptability

Table 10 shows the general acceptability of cooked rice of the different varieties.

Ten farmers and ten housewives were used as testing panel for both newly cooked and cooked rice that was stored overnight. PSB 28 (control), NSIC Rc 138, NSIC Rc 134, NSIC Rc 150 NSIC Rc 130 and IR64 liked very extremely while NSIC Rc 144 was disliked slightly. The newly cooked rice of the other varieties were liked very much.

Likewise for cooked rice left overnight, PSB 28 (control), NSIC Rc 134 and NSIC Rc 150 were liked very extremely. The rest of the varieties were liked very much, except for NSIC Rc 154 which was neither liked nor disliked by the panelists.

Table 10. General acceptability of ten high yielding rice varieties

VARIETY GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY

NEWLY COOKED RICE STORED

RICE OVERNIGHT IR64 Liked very extremely Liked very much

NSIC Rc 144 Disliked slightly Disliked slightly NSIC Rc 134 Liked very extremely Liked very extremely NSIC Rc 138 Liked very extremely Liked moderate NSIC Rc 140 Liked very much Liked very much NSIC Rc 150 Liked very extremely Liked very extremely NSIC Rc 146 Liked very much Liked moderate NSIC Rc 130 Liked very extremely Liked very much

NSIC Rc 154 Liked very much Neither liked nor disliked PSB 28 (control) Liked very extremely Liked very extremely

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary

The study was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield of ten high yielding rice varieties; identify the best adapted variety/ies in terms of yield, resistance to pests and diseases, acceptability of the farmers and consumers; and determine the return on cash expenses of growing high yielding rice varieties under Barangay Palale, Nueva Ecija condition.

No significant differences were observed among the varieties in terms of number of days from transplanting to plant recovery, tillering, booting, heading and maturity, number of productive tillers per hill, and number of grains per panicle. NSIC Rc 146 and NSIC Rc 138 produced tillers in 19 days and had the highest plant height at maturity with means of 72.59 cm and 70.20 cm, respectively. It was also recorded that these varieties gained the greatest number of productive tillers and gained the highest yield per plot.

NSIC Rc 144 was the earliest to produce tillers in 18 days and was the earliest to boot, to form heads and mature in about 80 days after transplanting. IR64 and PSB 28 (control) were the latest to reach maturity.

Highly significant differences in plant height at maturity were observed among the varieties. NSIC Rc 146 was the tallest followed by NSIC Rc 138, NSIC Rc 144, PSB 28 (control) while IR64 was the shortest. NSIC Rc 138 had the longest panicle, followed by PSB 28 (control), NSIC Rc 146 and NSIC Rc 130, while NSIC Rc 144 had the shortest panicle.

(36)

NSIC Rc 138 and NSIC Rc 146 obtained the highest grain yield per plot and per hectare (5.33 kg/plot and 4.44 tons/ha) compared to PSB 28 (control) (4.93 kg /plot and 4.11tons/ha).

All varieties were found resistant to stemborer except for IR64 and NSIC Rc 154 which were moderately resistant. On blast (neck rot) evaluation, all varieties were resistant.

PSB 28 (control), NSIC RC 134 and NSIC Rc 150, were liked very extremely by the panelist.

Conclusion

Based on the result of the study, NSIC Rc 146 and NSIC Rc 138 had the highest grain yield of 5.33 kg per 12 m2, recorded the highest number of productive tillers, longest panicle at harvest, tallest plants and were found resistant to stemborer and blast.

Both varieties also exhibited the highest return on cash expenses (7.52%).

PSB 28 (Control), NSIC RC 134 and NSIC Rc 150 had soft grains just after cooking and even after it was stored overnight. Both were acceptable to the farmer and housewife respondents.

Recommendation

Based on the result of the study, NSIC Rc 138 and NSIC Rc 146 are recommended at Barangay Palale, General Tinio, Nueva Ecija, for higher yield and return on cash expenses.

PSB 28 (Control), NSIC RC 134 and NSIC Rc 150 are recommended for processing due to soft grains and acceptability by farmers and housewives.

(37)

LITERATURE CITED

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BUREAU OF AGRICULTURE STATISTICS. Undated. General Tinio takes pride in the number of professionals working in Manila and abroad and is one of the most literate towns in the province. Thanks to the "ikmo" industry and good attitude of most parents for believing that education is the best legacy that can be imparted to their children. Accessed at http://www.generaltinio.gov.ph/index.php?option

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PA162 &lpg=PA162&dq=describe+amylose+content&source=bl&ots=ckpCd_A Le6&sig=opfBmpdufai7BqqTFiXm_3w8DEY&hl=en&ei=F5VdS_yYLsGLkAX 10JGeAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CDAQ6AEwBw

#v=onepage&q=describe%20amylose%20content&f=false

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McGraw-Hill. New Delhi. P. 1.

PCARRD, BPRE and PARRFI. 2001. The Philippines recommends for rice post production operations (2nd ed). Phil agriculture and resources research foundation, INC. Los Baños, Laguna. Pp. 9-10.

PCARRD. 1983. The Philippines recommends for irrigation water management.

Philippine council for agriculture, forestry and natural resources research development. Los Baños, Laguna. 1 (34). Pp. 28-29.

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PHILRICE. 2000. PhilRice R&D highlights 1999. PhilRice Maligaya, Munoz, Nueva Ecija. P. 90.

PHILRICE. 1996. Rice production technoguide. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Pp. 32- 43.

PHILRICE. 1997-1998. PhilRice technoguide-calendar. Phil Rice research institute.

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Unpublished BS Thesis. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 26.

VERGARA, B. S. 1992. A farmers primer on growing rice. IRRI. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Pp. 3-10.

(39)

VIRMANI, S. S., C. X. MAO, and B. HARDY, 2003. Hybrid rice for food security, poverty alleviation and environmental production. IRRI. P. 381.

YOSHIDA, S. 1981. Fundamental of rice crop science. IRRI. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. Pp. 30-32.

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APPENDICES

Appendix Table 1. Number of days from transplanting to recovery

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 10 10 10 30 10

NSIC Rc 144 6 6 6 18 6

NSIC Rc 134 10 10 10 30 10

NSIC Rc 138 8 8 8 24 8

NSIC Rc 140 8 8 8 24 8

NSIC Rc 150 10 10 10 30 10

NSIC Rc 146 6 6 6 18 6

NSIC Rc 130 8 8 8 24 8

NSIC Rc 154 10 10 10 30 10

PSB 28 (control) 10 10 10 30 10

TOTAL 86 86 86 258 8.6

(41)

Appendix Table 2. Number of days from transplanting to tillering

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 23 23 23 69 23

NSIC Rc 144 18 18 18 54 18

NSIC Rc 134 22 22 22 66 22

NSIC Rc 138 19 19 19 57 19

NSIC Rc 140 19 19 19 57 19

NSIC Rc 150 22 22 22 66 22

NSIC Rc 146 19 19 19 57 19

NSIC Rc 130 22 22 22 66 22

NSIC Rc 154 22 22 22 66 22

PSB 28 (control) 23 23 23 69 23

TOTAL 209 209 209 627 20.9

(42)

Appendix Table 3. Number of days from transplanting to booting

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 54 54 54 162 54

NSIC Rc 144 47 47 47 141 47

NSIC Rc 134 52 52 52 156 52

NSIC Rc 138 50 50 50 150 50

NSIC Rc 140 50 50 50 150 50

NSIC Rc 150 52 52 52 156 52

NSIC Rc 146 50 50 50 150 50

NSIC Rc 130 52 52 52 156 52

NSIC Rc 154 52 52 52 156 52

PSB 28 (control) 54 54 54 162 54

TOTAL 513 513 513 1539 51.3

(43)

Appendix Table 4. Number of days from transplanting to heading

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 64 64 64 192 64

NSIC Rc 144 54 54 54 162 54

NSIC Rc 134 61 61 61 183 61

NSIC Rc 138 64 64 64 192 64

NSIC Rc 140 59 59 59 177 59

NSIC Rc 150 61 61 61 183 61

NSIC Rc 146 59 59 59 177 59

NSIC Rc 130 59 59 59 177 59

NSIC Rc 154 61 61 61 183 61

PSB 28 (control) 64 64 64 192 64

TOTAL 606 606 606 1818 60.6

(44)

Appendix Table 5. Number of days from transplanting to maturity

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 88 88 88 264 88

NSIC Rc 144 83 83 83 249 83

NSIC Rc 134 86 86 86 258 86

NSIC Rc 138 86 86 86 258 86

NSIC Rc 140 86 86 86 258 86

NSIC Rc 150 86 86 86 258 86

NSIC Rc 146 83 83 83 249 83

NSIC Rc 130 86 86 86 258 86

NSIC Rc 154 86 86 86 258 86

PSB 28 (control) 88 88 88 264 88

TOTAL 858 858 858 2574 85.8

(45)

Appendix Table 6. Number of productive tillers per hill

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

ns= not significant Coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.51%

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 8 8 8 24 8

NSIC Rc 144 9 8 9 26 9

NSIC Rc 134 8 9 9 26 9

NSIC Rc 138 9 9 9 27 9

NSIC Rc 140 10 9 8 27 9

NSIC Rc 150 9 9 9 27 9

NSIC Rc 146 9 10 9 28 9

NSIC Rc 130 9 8 9 26 8

NSIC Rc 154 8 9 8 25 8

PSB 28 (control) 8 9 8 25 8

TOTAL 87 88 86 261 9

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 0.267 0.133 1.63ns 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 4.667 0.519

Error 18 5.733 0.319

TOTAL 29 10.667

(46)

Appendix Table 7. Plant height at maturity

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

** = highly significant

Coefficient of variation (CV) = 2.75%

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 63.85 64.42 56.05 184.32 61.44

NSIC Rc 144 68.91 68.83 71.18 208.92 69.64

NSIC Rc 134 69.54 65.85 68.97 204.36 68.12 NSIC Rc 138 69.93 70.87 69.81 210.61 70.20 NSIC Rc 140 68.24 67.81 67.76 203.81 67.94 NSIC Rc 150 67.07 67.71 67.76 202.54 67.51 NSIC Rc 146 71.99 72.16 73.64 217.79 72.59 NSIC Rc 130 68.07 69.60 69.97 207.64 69.21 NSIC Rc 154 63.19 63.87 65.63 192.69 64.23 PSB 28 (control) 69.29 69.42 69.65 208.36 69.45

TOTAL 680.08 680.54 680.42 2041.06 68.04

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 0.011 0.006 8.52** 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 269.243 29.916

Error 18 63.205 3.511

TOTAL

29 332.460

(47)

Appendix Table 8. Length of panicle at harvest

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

ns= not significant

Coefficient of variation (CV) = 4.67%

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN IR64 19.55 20.07 19.68 59.3 19.77

NSIC Rc 144 19.71 19.63 19.94 59.28 19.76

NSIC Rc 134 20.59 19.11 19.6 59.3 19.77

NSIC Rc 138 22.23 21.74 20.73 64.7 21.57

NSIC Rc 140 20.64 20.63 20.62 61.89 20.63 NSIC Rc 150 19.81 19.28 20.82 59.91 19.97 NSIC Rc 146 20.87 21.79 21.46 64.12 21.37 NSIC Rc 130 19.42 19.94 21.82 61.18 20.39 NSIC Rc 154 19.18 19.5 20.74 59.42 19.81 PSB 28 (control) 23.74 20.4 20 64.14 21.38

TOTAL 205.74 202.09 205.41 613.24 20.44

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 0.839 0.419 1.86ns 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 15.208 1.690

Error 18 16.377 0.910

TOTAL

29 32.424

(48)

Appendix Table 9. Number of grains per panicle

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Ns= not significant

Coefficient of variation (CV) = 8.37 REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 85 99 82 266 89

NSIC Rc 144 79 83 81 244 81

NSIC Rc 134 106 74 88 267 89

NSIC Rc 138 90 91 92 273 91

NSIC Rc 140 12 101 110 322 107

NSIC Rc 150 100 88 92 280 93

NSIC Rc 146 85 104 91 279 93

NSIC Rc 130 101 94 100 295 98

NSIC Rc 154 93 95 88 277 92

PSB 28 (control) 85 81 85 51 84

TOTAL 835 910 908 2653 88

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 70.067 35.033 2.33ns 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 1272.533 141.393

Error 18 1091.267 60.626

TOTAL

29 2433.867

(49)

Appendix Table 10. Number of filled grains per panicle

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Ns = not significant

Coefficient of variation (CV) = 7.33%

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 72 74 78 224 75

NSIC Rc 144 74 80 81 235 78

NSIC Rc 134 84 70 78 232 77

NSIC Rc 138 73 81 84 238 79

NSIC Rc 140 94 88 97 279 93

NSIC Rc 150 91 76 80 247 82

NSIC Rc 146 78 84 82 244 81

NSIC Rc 130 90 85 85 260 87

NSIC Rc 154 84 89 74 248 83

PSB 28 (control) 93 80 76 249 83

TOTAL 835 804 816 2455 82

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 35.467 17.733 2.22ns 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 720.833 80.093

Error 18 647.867 35.993

TOTAL

29 1404.167

(50)

Appendix Table 11. Number of unfilled grains per panicle

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

Ns = not significant

12.66 %23.64%

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 12 7 7 26 9

NSIC Rc 144 5 6 3 14 5

NSIC Rc 134 22 6 89 37 12

NSIC Rc 138 9 10 8 26 9

NSIC Rc 140 16 13 12 43 14

NSIC Rc 150 11 13 12 26 9

NSIC Rc 146 4 16 8 28 9

NSIC Rc 130 15 9 20 44 15

NSIC Rc 154 11 6 19 36 12

PSB 28 (control) 7 8 13 28 9

TOTAL 112 94 111 317 11

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 23.267 11.633 1.20ns 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 246.300 27.367

Error 18 409.400 22.744

TOTAL

29 1404.167

(51)

Appendix Table 12a. Reaction to stemborer incidence (Dead hearts) REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 1 3 2 6 2.00

NSIC Rc 144 0 0 0 0 0.00

NSIC Rc 134 1 0 1 2 0.67

NSIC Rc 138 0 1 0 0 0.33

NSIC Rc 140 1 2 1 4 2.00

NSIC Rc 150 1 1 1 3 1.00

NSIC Rc 146 0 0 0 0 0.00

NSIC Rc 130 1 1 0 2 0.70

NSIC Rc 154 2 1 2 5 1.67

PSB 28 (control) 1 1 2 4 2.00

TOTAL 8 10 9 27 0.90

(52)

Appendix Table 12b. Reaction to stemborer incidence. (White heads)

REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 1 3 2 6 2.00

NSIC Rc 144 0 1 0 1 0.30

NSIC Rc 134 1 0 1 2 0.70

NSIC Rc 138 0 0 0 0 0.00

NSIC Rc 140 0 0 1 1 0.30

NSIC Rc 150 1 4 1 6 2.00

NSIC Rc 146 1 0 0 1 0.30

NSIC Rc 130 0 1 1 2 0.70

NSIC Rc 154 1 1 0 2 0.70

PSB 28 (control) 0 0 0 0 0.00

TOTAL 5 10 6 21 0.70

(53)

Appendix Table 13. Weight of 1000 filled grains

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

*= significant

Coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.35 % REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 21 23 24 68 23bcd

NSIC Rc 144 24 22 22 68 23bcd

NSIC Rc 134 23 20 22 65

22cd

NSIC Rc 138 23 25 26 74 25ab

NSIC Rc 140 25 26 25 76 25ab

NSIC Rc 150 25 24 22 71 23bcd

NSIC Rc 146 26 26 27 79 26a

NSIC Rc 130 20 23 23 66 22cd

NSIC Rc 154 22 20 21 63 21d

PSB 28 (control) 25 24 24 73

24abc

TOTAL 23 23 24 23.4 7.8

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 0.067 0.033 3.19* 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 62.533 6.948

Error 18 39.267 2.181

TOTAL

29 101.867

(54)

Appendix Table 14. Yield per 12m2

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

**= highly significant

Coefficient of variation (CV) = 12.66 % REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 3.50 5.50 3.75 12.75 4.25

NSIC Rc 144 3.40 3.50 3.75 10.65 3.8

NSIC Rc 134 4.75 3.50 4.50 12.75 4.25

NSIC Rc 138 5.75 4.75 5.50 16.0 5.33

NSIC Rc 140 5.55 4.50 4.75 14.80 4.93

NSIC Rc 150 4.0 3.50 4.50 12.0 4.00

NSIC Rc 146 5.50 4.75 5.75 16.0 5.33

NSIC Rc 130 4.50 4.75 4.75 14.0 4.67

NSIC Rc 154 3.5 4.30 3.50 11.3 3.77

PSB 28 (control) 4.80 5 5 14.80 4.93

TOTAL 45.25 44.05 45.75 135.05 4.50

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 0.153 0.076 3.70** 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 10.822 1.202

Error 18 5.842 0.325

TOTAL

29 16.817

(55)

Appendix Table 15. Computed yield per hectare

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

**= highly significant

Coefficient of variation (CV) = 12.63 % REPLICATION

VARIETIES I II III TOTAL MEAN

IR64 2.92 4.58 3.13 10.62 3.54

NSIC Rc 144 2.83 2.92 3.13 8.88 2.96

NSIC Rc 134 3.96 2.92 3.75 10.62 3.54

NSIC Rc 138 4.79 3.96 4.59 13.33 4.44

NSIC Rc 140 4.63 3.75 3.96 12.33 4.11

NSIC Rc 150 3.33 2.92 3.75 10.00 3.33

NSIC Rc 146 4.58 3.96 4.79 13.33 4.44 NSIC Rc 130 3.75 3.96 3.96 11.67 3.89 NSIC Rc 154 2.92 3.58 2.92 94.17 3.14 PSB 28 (control) 4.00 4.16 4.16 12.33 4.11

TOTAL 37.71 36.71 38.14 112.56 3.75

SOURCE OF

VARIATION

DEGREE OF FREEDOM

SUM OF SQUARE

MEAN OF SQUARE

OBSERVED F

TABULAR F 5% 1%

Replication 2 0.106 0.053 3.71** 2.46 3.60

Treatment 9 7.488 0.832

Error 18 4.041 0.224

TOTAL

29 11.635

Pigura

Figure 1. Overview of the experimental area
Table 2 also shows the number of days from transplanting to heading. NSIC Rc  144 was the earliest to produce heads with a mean of 54 days which was 1-7 days earlier  than the other varieties
Table 2 shows the number of days from transplanting to maturity. NSIC Rc 144  and NSIC Rc 146 were the earliest to mature in 83 days (Fig
Figure 2.  The ten varieties at 80 DAT
+7

Mga Sanggunian

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Specifically, 1 to identify the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of: age, sex, religion, educational attainment and occupation; 2 to determine the willingness of the

Observations show that there were no significant differences among the varieties of lisianthus in terms of number of days from transplanting to flower bud formation, number of days from