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BAGANO,REVIE K. APRIL 2012, Socio-economic Activities of Senior Citizen in Barangay Proper Besao, Besao Mountain Province.Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Hilario C. Perez, MSc ABSTRACT

The study was determined the socio-economic activities of senior citizen in the development of Barangay Proper Besao, Besao Mountain Province. Specifically it determined the profile of the respondents; to find out Socio-economic activities of the respondents; ;the problems encountered by senior citizen ; and the areas of improvement to further integrate development activities in Barangay Proper, Besao Mountain Province.

All of the respondents are senior citizen, majority of them were married, had undergone formal education, are farmers, and are active in joining and planning activities; farming is their main source of income.

Findings shows that socio-economic activities of the respondents to the development of the community include, social, cultural spiritual participation and socialization activities,animal raising, backyard farming, nutrition programs. All of the respondents are active in joining them to drive attain goals of the activities/programs implemented.

The problems encountered by the respondents in the implementation of activities include the lack of funds/financial constraints, lack of experience and training, lack of interest, poor participation, lack of cooperation from community members and local leaders.


funding/financial support, additional trainings and seminars, support of community membership in cooperatives and other organization.

Full support of the activities/programs from local government and non-government organization is needed. There is a need to build on the capacity of beneficiaries through training especially on livelihood activities and agricultural trainings for their benefits.




Bibliography……… i

Abstract ………. i

Table of Contents……… iii


Background of the study……….. 1

Statement of the problem……… 3

Objectives of the Study……… 3

Importance of the study………. 3

Scope and Limitation………. 4


Activities and Programs of Women in Community Development……….. 5

Involvement of Women in Development………..……… 7

Problems Encountered………... 8

Livelihood Development projects……… 9

Implementation of Productive Livelihood Development Projects………... 10


Locale and time of the Study………. 11

Respondents of the Study……… 11

Instrumentation and Data Gathering……….. 11

Data Collection……….... 11






A. Letter to the Respondents………... 22

B. Survey questionnaire………... 23  



Background of the Study

Community involvement or participation is fundamental to meeting essentials needs, it follows that presentation in decision-making of matters should be broadly based and open to all. However, it is the fact that many communities do not wish to give equal representation to certain groups living in their midst. Their reasons may be based on cultural values. In some traditional societies women regarded as an inferior group in spite of their crucial contributions to the survival of the family and community. Other reasons include ethnic, religious and political rivalry particularly in local history recalls open confrontation or conflict. Like in Baguio City where in it has 128 barangays and home about 350,000 people of diverse cultural, linguistics, and religious background (Anonymous, 2004).

The basic community development principle of starting from where the people are building on what they have. The building of self-reliant communities’ entails a people- centered of community organizing and development where the people are the principal actors and the government and non-government organizations serving as facilitators. According to Manalili (1980), the community organizing processes are: entry into the community integration, social analysis, spotting development of potential indigenous leaders, core group formation, and recruitment of members; setting up of an organization, strengthening the organization and working with other organizations for development.


Community is one of the primary factors in acknowledging the success of a certain community project. In every barangay, women organizations are composed of the popular sector or the ordinary community people. The growing role of women in the church and differences over social issues, including the church’s stand on homosexuality, caused divisiveness in the 1980’s and 1990’s (Apalla, 2007).

It is in this research study of the socio-economic activities of senior citizen in barangay Proper Besao to look their involvement, their contributions, activities and projects in the enlistment of their lives and the development of the barangay and their family as a whole.

Majority of Besao people belong to the Episcopal Church (Anglican). The first church in this town is St. Benedict’s church , built in Kin-iway, Besao in 1908. Later , these American Anglican missionaries established the primary school in 1909 and opened the St. James High School in 1913.Besao is one of the municipalities to have and Official Municipal Hymn that is sung every fiesta and on other occasions. The lyrics of this Municipal Hymn were composed by Theresa G. Villanueva and the music was composed by Rev. Daniel P. Carino.All in all, Besao has 16 public elementary schools and 2public and 2 private secondary schools. Besao boasts of many educated citizens who are now occupying key positions in the government service and also in private institutions. In a job that is male dominated, Inspector Helen Tindowen has her share of hardships when she was assigned police chief in Besao last September 2007. To show her men and also the municipality that she can do her work, she has led her men to do patrol in the barangays. After months of being the COP, she claims that Besao is a peaceful place (Beleo, 2010).


Statement of the Problem

The study seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What are the socio-demographic profiles of the respondents?

2. What are the socio-economicactivities of senior citizen inBesao, Mt. Province?

3. What are the problems encountered by the respondents?

4. What are the areas to improve of senior citizen’s in the said activities?

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study were as follows:

1. To determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents;

2. To determine the socio-economic activities of senior citizen; in the development of Barangay Proper, BesaoMt.Province;

3. To find out the problems encountered by the respondents;and

4. To find out the areas to improve senior citizen’s participation in the activities .

Importance of the Study

The study will be a great help for the senior citizen in planning and evaluating their activities for the improvement of their barangay. Theresult of the study also serves as references to other barangays with the same organization and to the other researchers and students who will conduct the same studies.


Scope and Delimitation

The study was delimited on the senior citizen of Barangay Proper in Besao, Mt.Province. The study focused of the member’s socio-demographic profile, the projects and activities being implemented by their organization, the extent of their participation in such projects and activities and the problems they encountered in the organization.



Activities and Programs of Women in Community Development

A key for the success of the movement is the mobilization of the political commitment to the goal. It is relatively easy for government to adopt as a policy, since the justice of the approach obviously makes good sense. But still require political courage to implement it in the face of resistance offered by those benefiting from the existing pattern of things. According to Dacsig (2008) in her article in the Adivay “Visiting the Land of the Free”, she claimed that “A government’s strong political will as evidenced by a purposive population program and policy is crucial to transform the negative effects on development of low income, low female education and high infant and child mortality levels, which will eventually help improve quality of life.

More important is the fact that it allows for the participation of the community (Tan, 1980). People’s participation is possible since the community members are equipped with knowledge, skills and attitudes through education and trainings. These confirm the goal of the PHC to invest in human resources-depending on the needs of the community and the availability of health workers. To date, many community members are actively involved in the promotion of health- either through Community Health Workers or women’s organizations (Community Health Delivery,2000).

Other forms of participation of the community are seen along maternal care.

Aware of the fact that there are existing traditional healers, programs are implemented to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA’s) not only to assist in the birth process but also as family planning motivator. It was found out that TBA’s continue to play an important


role maternal ad child care in the Philippine community and is expected that in time, statistics be derived showing the improvements regarding maternal and neonatal morbidity. Aside from utilization of TBA’s to attend to maternal and child care, women’s organizations (WOs) are also organized by NGO’s rallying around gender and reproductive women are risk even before she becomes pregnant (WHO, 1984). Several groups have taken actions-among these are the church and NGO’s who poured efforts at reaching out the decreasing maternal health.

Participation in community activities, the average are rural women considering all aspects of community life, projects a high degree of participation in rural activities such as fiestas, weddings, funerals, baptism, etc. Rural women also show increasing participation in civic activities like nutrition programs, community beautification, cleanliness, and club membership.

Integrated pest management is one of the activities being implemented by women organization in their farming activities in Kemiri, Indonesia. Their main crops such as corn, soya beans, peanuts and vegetables and their main crop is rice.

However pest and disease have caused serious damage to rice by white rice stem borer to control infestations during the vegetative and reproductive stages the farmers applied additional urea to induce growth but plant died and they replanted again but same situation until such 5 women farmers turned up at the agricultural extension office in Malang ask for help. They set a demo farm and conducted experiments to help the farmers problem by applying organic fertilizer (bokashi) resulted to their production raised to their production 6.7-7 tons/hectare, their income from the scale of rice has increased for two seasons they spend less buying pesticides, and the use of less seed (10


kg/ha instead of 50 kg/ha). Gradually, this group is starting to develop organic farming by using rice cultivations techniques that do not use chemical pesticides and fertilizers, using the integrated pest control approach. In the long run the IPM provides a technical solution, empowers women and contributes to more sustainable and secure livelihoods for farmers (Chrisanto, 2007).

In the village of Sirigu in Northern Ghana the woman are part of a dowry system:

after paying an agreed price. The parents hand the bride over to the family of the man.

The woman’s art of pottery and basket waving has taken an important place in the provision of the family upkeep. Since 1997 more than 150 women have formed the Sirigu Women’s Organization for pottery and art: SWOPA. The women are very gifted in using traditional colors, symbols and shapes creating new improve opportunities based on traditions helps new generations to remember their cultural heritage. With the additional income from tourist services and the sales of art, the women can spend more money on food, health and education of their children. But it also strengthens the position of the women in the household and society. The contribution of women in decision making in the household has improved and the percentage of girls in primary and secondary education has increased (COMPAS, 2005)

Involvement of Women in Development

Reasons for low level of women participation in attending in community development have lesser time in attending because most of them do household chores;

take care of their children and farm activities. Time is very precious to them that they prefer to the fields rather than attending meetings. On the other hand reasons in good participation are formulation of barangay ordinance penalizing household who do not


attend assembly meetings, posting of notices prior to assembly meeting, active barangay officials and volunteers who provides motivation and influence to the community, and provision of foods so the people will not get hungry and concentrate on the activity (Dacsig, 2008).

Problems Encountered

Community Participation has now achieved universal acceptance. The development of more adequate systems of health promotion is conceivable without the people themselves playing greater and more self-reliant, both in the identification of health problems, and finding appropriate and cost effective solution to them.

Participation implies active involvement in all aspects of rural development in planning and priority setting, financing, delivery of services and evaluation as well as the traditional recipient role (Castro, 2003)

Guiague (2002) found that implementation of projects is not extensively affected by unavailability of funds and inaccessibility of sites for agricultural projects and programs. These are coupled with lack of communication facilities. LGU officials do not participate actively in the implementation of agricultural programs and projects. Thus it was recommended that in the aspect of effective support services, funds and transportation facilities and strong coordination between LGU and the implementing body should be established and this can be done by involving them in the project from planning to the implementation period.

Buen et.al.(2003) found that farmers/beneficiaries encountered serious problems such as; difficulty to convince fellow farmers to change their old beliefs and practices of farming, illiteracy among most of local leaders, lack of fellow farmer’s capability to


adopt technology, lack of interest in attending meetings/briefings. On the other hand, extension workers perceived that the problem on physical resources is serious and that the problem of road network highly affects the respondents.

Livelihood Development Projects

According to Baladad (1995), as cited by Laus (1983) poultry raising was considered a minor part of the farmer’s way of life. But when technology advanced into the picture and with the introduction of better breeds, the pattern of the industry changed farm backyard industry into big business of producing eggs and chicken. She also cited that according to partnership for progress journal, poultry farmers have the innovations where the Filipinos are considered as one of the most conservative people on earth, they are satisfied with their farming practices. The farmers stick to their farming practice thus, food production is not increased. The products are not sufficient for domestic consumption and export.

In the adoption of technologies or projects, there is improvement of the well being of the rural people and established public relation that help in community improvement.

It also enables people to engage and fully participate in development that improves the quality of living and promotes progress to the nation.

Therefore, a home visit is an inviting factor for parents, farmers and others to attend and join projects being implemented. This improves problems considering management and marketing of products because the programs implementers can monitor and assist the people.


Implementation of Productive Livelihood Development Projects

Improving the overall management of the farm, improving the efficiency of crop production conserving and improving the soil, adjusting the status, improving marketing of products, participation of programs and organizations, improving high living condition and meeting the psychological needs such as recognition and the sense of the progress towards desired goals (Baladad,2002).



Locale and Time of the Study

The study was conducted in Barangay Proper, Besao, Mountain Province. Besao is a 5th class municipality among the ten municipalities of the province. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 9,875 people in 1,735 households. There were 14 barangays of Besao namely: Agawa, Ambagiw, Banguitan, Besao East or (Besao Proper), where the study was conducted, Besao West, Catengan, Gueday, Lacmaan, Laylaya, Padangaan, Payeo, Suquib, Tamboan and Kin-iway.

The study was conducted in November to December 2011.

Respondents of the Study

There were 68 respondents in the study. TheSenior citizen’s in Barangay Proper, Besao, Mountain Province.

Instrumentation and Data Gathered

In the data gathering the instrument used was survey questionnaire coupled with interview guide to get appropriate and concise information.

The instruments were prepared and personally administered by the researcher.

The data gathered was tallied, recorded and documented.

Data Collection

The survey questionnaire was used to collect the data, which was given personally to the respondents by the researcher. The researcher helped the respondents accomplished and explained some statements that the respondents do not understand.


Figure 1. Map of Besao showing the locale of the study


Data Analysis

After the interview and the data gathering, the researcher tabulated, consolidated and recorded the data in accordance with the problems or objectives of the study.

Descriptive statistics like frequency counts, percentages, and means were computed and interpreted.



Background Information

The background information of the respondents with regard to their age, civil status, educational attainment, occupation, employment, and monthly income is discussed in the succeeding paragraphs.

Age. Table 1 shows the age range of the respondents. Result shows that 38.82 were 65-70 years old and 63-64 years old respectively and 22 or 32.36% belonged to the age range of 60-62 years old. This indicates that all of the respondents are members of the organization for quite sometime and are still strong in participating in any planned activities for development of their own community.

Educational attainment. Among the 68 respondent, 61% finished college; 21

%elementary graduate; and 18% high school graduate. This means that this senior citizen organization is not selective on educational attainment.

Civil status. Table 1 indicates that 80.9% were married; 13.2% were widow/er;

and 5.9% were single.

Occupation. As regard to their occupation majority of the respondents 61% of them are farmers; 22% were retired government employees; 17% are housewives as shown in table 1.

Monthly income. The income received by the respondents shows that 66% are receiving 10,000-5,500 per month; 28% are receiving below 5,000; 3% are receiving 10,500-15,000 per month and only few 3 % are receiving 15,500-20,000 per month.


Table 1. General information about the respondents



a.Age Bracket 60-62 63-64 65-70

22 23 23

32.36 33.82 33.82

TOTAL 68 100.00

b. Educational Attainment

College graduate Elementary

High School level

College undergraduate

41 14 13

61.00 21.00 18.00 TOTAL 68 100.00 c.Civil Status

Married Single Widow

55 4 9

80.90 5.90 13.20

TOTAL 68 100.00

d. Occupation Farmers

Retired government employees Housewife

41 15 12

61.00 22.00 17.00

TOTAL 68 100.00

e. Monthly Income 5,000- below 5,500- 10,000 10,000-15,000 15,500-20,000

19 45 2 2

28.00 66.00 3.00 3.00

TOTAL 68 100.00

Socio-Economic Activities of Senior Citizen

Table 2 shows the socio-economic activities in the development of the barangay.

Majority of them (86.76 % were actively involved in cultural, moral and spiritual


Table 2. Socio-economic activities of the senior citizens


Spiritual Participation Swine production Vegetable farming

Health awareness and sanitation Community beautification: waste management


59 55 47

44 44


86.76 80.88 69.12 64.71



*multiple response

activities80.88% , are involved in swine production;69.12% are involved in agricultural /vegetable farming64.71 % are involved in waste management; 64.71% are involved in health awareness and sanitation ; 69.12 %; and 25% percent are involved in weaving.

Problems Encountered by the Respondents

Table 3 shows that all of the respondents had encountered problems in the implementation of the different projects in the study area.

Majority of the respondents claimed that they had problems on lack of funds/financial support 73.5 %; 58. 82 %;lack of experience and trainings 42.65 % ; lack of interest in attending meetings/briefings,41.18% poor participation of the members; and 32.35 % lack of cooperation from the members and local leaders.


Table 3.Problems encountered by the respondents



Lack of funds/financial 50 73.53


Lack of experience and trainings 40 58.82

Lack of interest in attending meetings 29 42.65 Briefings

Poor participation of the 28 41.18 Members

Lack of cooperation from the 22 32.35

members and local leaders

*multiple response

In the interview conducted result shows that most of the development activities participated in by the senior citizen’s organization in the study area need to have a financial support to make these successful.

Areas of Improvement to Further Integrate socio-economic activities

Table 4presents the areas of improvement to further integrate socio-economic development activities of senior citizen. The table shows the main areas for improvement include funding or financial support (89.71 %), additional trainings and seminars (85.29

%) and support from community members and local leaders (51.47 %).

Without the necessary financial support plans could not be realized and development will not be possible.


Table 4. Areas of improvement to further integrate socio-economic activities


Funding and financial support 61 89.71

Additional trainings and seminars 58 85.29

Support from community members and local leaders

35 51.47

*multiple response




The study was conducted to identify the socio-demographic character of the respondents; the socio-economic activities by the respondents; problems encountered;

and the areas of improvement to further integrate development activities in Barangay Proper, Besao, Mountain Province.

Senior citizen organization is composed of members whose age ranges from 60- 70 years. old. Most of the respondents finished college; main source of income is farming. Most of the respondents were farmers/self-employed and only few are retired government employees and housewives. Majority of them had monthly income ranging from Php-5,500-10,000.

Findings show that the socio-economic activities of the respondents with regards to their involvement in the development of the community include weaving, animal raising, home gardening/ backyard farming, spiritual participation (like- cultural, moral and spiritual participation)socialization activities ( nutrition programs, clean and green and waste management.

Majority of the respondents were highly involved in spiritual participation: peace and order other involvement are in socialization activities, animal raising, nutrition programs, clean and green programs, backyard faming/home gardening and weaving.

Furthermore all of the respondents are active in participating which gives them courage to attain goals of the programs/projects implemented.

With regards to the problems encountered by the senior citizen in the implementation of programs/projects are lack of funds, lack of experience and training,


lack of interests in attending meeting/ briefings and poor participation. Majority of the respondents stated that these problems affected their efficiency towards project implementation.


Based on the findings, the following conclusions are made:

1. The Senior citizen in Brgy. Proper Besao Mt. Province are active towards socio-economic activities.

2. They actively participated in spiritual and cultural activities in the barangay.

3. The most common problems encountered are the lack of funds financial support, poor participation of the members, lack of cooperation from the community members, lack of cooperation from community members and local leaders, and lack of trainings and seminars

4. The socio-economic activities of senior citizens are not given enough support.


1. There should be livelihood training skills for senior citizens to make them more active in economic activities despite their age.

2. The local government should implement programs/activities for senior citizens.

3. Socio-economic activities of senior citizens should also be supported by the community




ANONYMOUS, 2004. City of Baguio.Proceedings of Baguio City convergence for Health Population.Baguio City

APALLA, J. A 2007. Community Mobilization in the Health Care Delivery System in Selected Barangay Health Centers of Baguio City as an Integral Elementary and Primary Health Care. MS Thesis. BSU, Open University L.T. B.Pp.11

BALADAD, E. L. 2002. Poultry raising. Kalayaan Press Inc. Pp. 40

BELEO, E. 2010.The Episcopal Church in the Philippines.http://iawn.anglicancommunication.org/news/index.cfml.2010/9/30.

BUEN, R. E. AND J. A. SOLIMEN. 2003. Status of Extension Programs of StateUniversities and Colleges in the Cordillera Administrative Region. BSU Graduate School Research Journal.Volume XI. Pp. 137-147.

CASTRO, P. E. 2003. Health Care Practices in the community. Guiani, Print House, Malabon, Philippines.

CHRISTANTO, H. 2007. LEISA: Integrated Pest Control for Empowering Women Farmers.Magazine on Low External Input and Sustainable Agriculture. P.26 COMMUNTIY HEALTH DELIVERY.Tambalan, July- December 2000

COMPAS Magazine. 2005 Endogenous Development Strengthening Local Economies.Sirigu Women’s Organization of Pottery and Art.Pp.24.

DACSIG. R. 2008. Participation as an important Component in the Implementation of Poverty Alleviation Project.Bsu Open University L.T.B.

GUIAGUE, J. M. 2002. Provincial Agricultural and Fishery Council (PAFC) as partners in Community Development in Mountain Province.MS thesis. BCU, BaguioCity ,March 1997.

LAUS, R. C. “Participation in the Implementation of Programs and Projects in The Agrarian Reform communities in Paracelis, Mt.Province”. MS Thesis, BCU, BaguioCity , March 1997.

MANALILI, A. G. 1980. “Community Organizing for People’s Empowerment,”

Copyright 1990 Kapatiran., Kaunlaran Foundation, Inc.First Printing, Manila, Philippines.

TAN. 1980. Philosophy of Community Based Health Program.

WHO. 1984. Organization of Primary Health Care in Communities.


APPENDIX A Communication Letter BenguetStateUniversity

College Of Agriculture La Trinidad Benguet

Dear Respondents:

I am Revie K. Bagano, a fourth-year student of BenguetStateUniversity, who is presently conducting a study entitled “SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF SENIOR CITIZEN IN BRGY.PROPER ,BESAOMT.PROVINCE”. This is a major course requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture.

The question given to you will be used to fulfill as academic requirement and contribute to research.

In addition, the success of the study relies in you and how honestly you answer the questions. Your valued cooperation and assistance are highly appreciated and your answers will be kept confidentially.

Thank you very much and god bless!

Respectfully yours,

REVIE K. BAGANO Researcher




APPENDIX B Survey Questionnaire

The questionnaire will help the researcher to shed the light on the issue of “Socio- economic activities of Senior Citizen of Barangay Proper Besao, MountainProvince.”

Please check or fill up the following spaces provided for requiring your answers.

Your Cooperation and frank answers will be highly appreciated.

I. General Information


2. Age:__________ Sex:____

3. Civil Status:

____Single __Married

____Separated __Widow

4. Educational Attainment:

____Elementary ___HighSchool

____College ___Others (pls.specify)

5. Status in Organization:_______Officers ____________Member 6. Occupation:________Gov’t____________ Self –employed

7.Monthly Income (in Php.)______________

8. Major source of income:

_____Sari-sari store _____Farming

_____Government _____Others (pls. Specify) 9. Minor source of income:

___Sari-sari store _____Farming

_____Government _____Others (pls. Specify)

II. What are the social and economical Programs and Activities participated by the respondents in the development of the Barangay?

_________Weaving _________Gardening _________Animal Raising

_________Community Beautification _________Nutrition Programs


_________Cultural, moral and spiritual participation


_________Others(pls. Specify)

IV. What are the problems encountered by women in the implementation of activities and programs?

__________Poor participation of the members

__________Lack of cooperation from the community members and local leaders __________Lack of funds

__________Lack of experiences and training

__________Lack of interest in attending meetings/briefing _________Others (pls. Specify)

V. What areas of improvements should be taken into account to further integrate women in develop activities?

_________Funding and financial support _________Additional training seminars

_________Support from community members and local leaders _________Others (pls. Specify)

Mga Sanggunian


To determine the profile of the respondents in terms of sex and reading readiness level, frequency and percentage were used, to determine level of performance in reading of the selected

Summary of variances identified in the implementation of POCT programs QSE Variances identified Organization POCT supervision not under the laboratory Lack of POCT Committee