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BIBLIOGRAPHY

FELICITAS C. BUSENTO. April 2013. Programming of Z-Radio 98.7 FM and its Acceptability among Taxi Drivers in La Trinidad, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Anna Liza B. Wakat, MDC

ABSTRACT

This study characterized the listeners of the radio programs and determined how the management decide on the format, anchorperson, choosing of topics, reasons for incorporating AM style in FM stations. Three sets of guide questions were used during the interview schedule, one for the taxi drivers, one for the station manager and one for the hosts of the three programs using AM format who served as a key informant. Data gathered were illustrated in tables and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as percentage, frequency count and ranking.

The listeners of the tree programs using AM style in programming were from different ages, tribal affiliation, were either married or single and had their formal education. The respondents accept AM style in programming because they were entertained at the same time they were informed. Regarding the decision making of the program, it was the hosts who still decided on the format and choice of topics.

The taxi drivers preferred program was Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia which were for information and entertainment.

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With the result, it is therefore recommended that they should maintain Ilocano for discussion because they can easily understand the discussion and they may maintain AM style in programming. In addition, the hosts may consider a survey on listenership and or acceptability of the program in other sector of society.

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INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Radio is a tool that reaches large number of audiences. Radio provides the opportunity to communicate with many people. This opportunity can be used for many beneficial and educational purposes.

Radio has no boundaries; any person with a radio has the potential to receive a signal, and thus a transmission. The idea of being able to reach so many people is an enticing prospect to anyone interested in the field of communications. As Robert McLeish states in his book Radio Production, radio is perhaps the most accessible form of media; people often tune into the radio while driving, while working around the house or yard, and even while exercising. Not only does radio have the potential to reach many people, it also has the power to express emotion through the power of voice.

Lynch and Gillispie, 1998 explained that, until relatively recently, AM (Amplitude Modulation) radio was much more prevalent than FM (Frequency Modulation) radio. It was not until the 1960s that FM radio became more popular, as the FM stations agreed to air many popular rock n’ roll songs that AM radio stations had deemed too controversial.

AM and FM are two very popular and very different methods of sending information over the airwaves. AM is amplitude modulation while FM is frequency modulation.

Modulation is the act of modifying a certain aspect of the carrier frequency in accordance to the information being sent. It is then clear that AM modifies the amplitude of the

carrier frequency while FM modifies its frequency.

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As AM stations, they have their own format to follow depending on the station. But they all belonged to the “more talk, less music” type unlike the FM stations, which have more music.

Today, FM radio features hundreds of music and news/talk stations. Therefore, this study aims to know the reasons in using AM style in FM station.

In Baguio City, 98.7 Z Radio (DWUB 98.7 MHz Baguio City) is a music and information FM radio station owned and operated by Benguet Broadcasting Corporation in the Philippines. The station's studio and transmitter are located in The University of Baguio, Baguio City.

Z-Radio performs the information function, educate and entertain. With this, they use different formats like musical program, talk program, news program, magazine program, and variety program.

Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia, Tambalang Edong Carta at Jimmy Lozano and Tangguyob Ti Umili are programs that are using AM style in programming. The host used Ilocano as the medium in delivering information, informal talk programs and they play Ilocano, Kankanaey and Ibaloi songs.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the acceptability of the respondents in using AM style in programming in FM station.

Specifically, it answered the following questions:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the station people?

2. What is the profile of the radio station?

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3. What is the profile of the programs using AM style?

4. How do the management decide on the format, anchorperson, choosing of topics and incorporating AM style in FM station?

5. What are the challenges encountered in the programs?

6. What are the taxi driver’s acceptability of AM style in FM station among listeners?

Objectives of the Study

Generally, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of the respondents in using AM style in programming in FM station.

Specifically, it intends to:

1. identify the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and station people;

2. determine the radio station profile;

3. determine the program profiles of Z-Radio programs that use AM style;

4. determine how the management decides on the format, anchorperson, choosing of topics and incorporating AM style in FM station;

5. determine the challenges encountered by the host/anchorperson in their programs; and,

6. determine the acceptability of AM style in FM station among listeners;

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Importance of the Study

The result of this study may help the announcer, program planner and radio program implementers for the improvement of their program.

The information to be gathered will help in planning broadcast programs of Z- Radio.

Scope and Limitation

This study was limited to Z Radio programs that are using AM style.

The study was focus on radio station profile, socio-demographic profiles of the respondents and the station people, program profile using AM style, how the management decide on the format, anchorperson, choosing of topics, challenges encountered by the host/anchorperson, reasons for incorporating AM style in FM station.

It was not include other Z-Radio programs.

The study was conducted on December 2012 to January 2013.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Characteristics of the Respondents

According to Anno (2003) almost all of the respondents in Mankayan,Benguet had formal education with 46.67% reaching secondary level; 34.67%, collage level; and 17.33%, elementary level. There was only 1.33% who did not have any formal education. Even though, this is not the reason for not listening to the radio because some radio station broadcast in Ilocano, which is widely understood in the locality. There are 32% of the respondents derived their income from farming. Some obtained their income from small- scale business or government employment.

In the study of Martin (2012), Content Analysis of ‘Laughingly Yours, Bianong and Pagsarmingan’, most of the story senders belonged to age bracket 20 to 29. Majority of them were females and were single. Moreover, most of them were from Pangasinan.

According to Juan (2012) majority of the listeners in Barangay Madaymen, Kibungan, Benguet belonged to the age bracket of 21-30 and most of them are males who are single. The respondents had their formal education and most of them were farmers.

Kankana-ey was the leading tribal affiliation of the respondents.

In the study of Cayabas (2012), many of the respondents of Barangay Data, Sabangan, Mountain Province was 27.5% aged 60 and above 50% was females and 50%

were males. There were 67.5% of the respondents who were married and many have three to four children. The major crops they planted were rice, and highland vegetable.

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Program Format

There are different types of radio programs such as musical program, talk program, news program, magazine program, and variety program. Musical program generally aims to entertain. Second is talk program, this is preferred by adults audiences who have knowledge of and interest in the subject since this type of program lacks variety. The third is news program. News program uses direct, concise, and told with simple word. Fourth is the magazine program which contains a variety of either related or unrelated items or segment that are linked together by narration, music, or sound effects. Lastly is the variety program. The term “variety show” implies combination of more elements of entertainment and arts; it has a combination of various types of performance and technique (Community Broadcasting Staff, 1979).

The radio format of Radyo Agrikultura was a magazine program. Interviews, plugs, and music were included in the said program. Within a week there is a format they follow.

On Mondays the topic focused on high value crops and development programs of the Department of Agriculture. Every Tuesday the topics focused on livestock and poultry. For Wednesday the topic focused on healthy lifestyle about the importance of vegetables. On Thursday, topics were any concerns and requests from municipalities and barangays. Then on Friday, recaps of all the subject matter are tackled within the week. Furthermore, there was also a sequence they follow in a day. The program begins with greetings to all the intended audience. Next is the introduction of the main topics followed by the discussion of sub topics including the situations of the concerned places where topics were suited/applicable. Then followed by airing interviews from the fields concerning the present topics (Cayabas, 2012).

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Production Process

Program production includes the program was planning of subject matter, format, concreteness, and variety; gathering and organizing the materials; and the actual production which includes making of script, assembling of resources, directing and editing (Community Broadcasting Staff,1979).

The anchorperson decided on the subject matter, next was research about the topic.

According to Mary Langpawan, the anchorperson of Radyo Agrikultura she did reading, internet search and most of all, personal interview with the resource person concerned with the topic since the program did not do live interview on the program. When the information was processed, it was time now to prepare all the materials for the actual production such as the equipment (tapes, microphones, recording device) and the program material (processed information, music, sound effects). Actual production includes directing that involves planning and control of talent and equipment during broadcast. After recording was the editing to get the program time right, and cutting out portions which are irrelevant to the subject matter (Cayabas, 2012).

Scheduling of Topics

Scheduling of topics was done depending on what was the present need or campaign for the month. Every topic was scheduled in a week. For example, for the agriculture which has many subtopics, the sub topics, were divided per day. Scheduling also depended on how long a certain topic will take (Cayabas, 2012).

Another important consideration in program especially for technical programs is subject matter coverage and time allotment for the resource speaker and the topic. The

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radio producer should determine the extent and scope of the subject matter content, its length and limitation. How long will be the topics on air and how many days in a week will it take on air (Community Broadcasting Staff, 1979).

AM and FM Programming

Convenience of news and information services typical of an AM radio station, along with the usual musical content of an FM station.

Norberg (1996), author of Radio Programming Tactics and Strategy, said that listeners have their established expectation for an AM or an FM station every time they tune in, and meeting these expectations could more often than not ,spell success or demise for a radio station. AM radio is usually expected to deliver relevant talk programs, and FM stations its music playlist.

DYRU Super Radio’s dual FM and AM format become an example of a programming innovation, or a reflection of a possible programming trend among FM station in the Philippines nowadays. Although DYRU may not be unique and may not be the first to implement this kind of strategy, still its programming tactic may not be widely observed and implemented. And since the general audience expectation for FM radio has remained to be the delivery of musical content, some may also question the FM station’s considerable news and current affairs content (Salazar, 2011).

While it had been traditional FM stations air mainly musical content, DYRU took a different turn for an FM station by venturing out of its traditional programming and into the AM audience. It has followed a typical AM radio programming of news and public affairs on early morning (5:00 am-9:00 am, E-eitsahan), midday (11:30 am-12:00 pm,

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RGMA Network News), 12:00 pm-1:00 pm, Pasipeut) and evening time slot (7:00 pm- 7:30 pm, RGMA Network News), and (7:30 pm-9:00 pm, Parks de Libertad). These programs have similar news and current affairs format (Salazar, 2011).

Host/Anchorperson

The announcer should have a personality so varied that he can adapt himself and his announcing style to the constantly changing demands and his announcing style to the constantly changing demands of the listeners and the program. Audience change from hour to hour. The announcers must be ready to change with them without losing any of his individual integrity. An announcer’s style may be referred warmth and vitality and seem like an interested friend; another may capitalize on a honey approach, talking as one neighbour to another over the back fences; another may rely on a quite authority’s assurance, apparently unruffled by anything or anybody; another may work with a bouncy, breezy manner (Community Broadcasting Staff, 1979).

In the study of Linggoden (2004), respondents claimed that the host of Voice of America (VOA) news program delivered message in a fast way (80.43%), 63% told that the voice of the host was not good because most of the pronunciation was slang which made the respondents confused. This finding showed that delivery of information affected the listeners so they did not understand some of the topics of the program.

In Bontoc,Mountain Province, some host of program of DWFR Radyo ng Bayan Bontoc was ranked as good in delivering the message. Respondents claimed that the host used words that were easy to understand (Dawiguey, 2004).

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Acceptability of the Respondents to the Radio Programs

Terms used in radio broadcasting. According to Cayabas (2012), 75% of the respondents in Barangay Data, Sabangan, Mountain Province perceived that the words used were simple. She also added that almost all respondents (95%) claimed that in terms of information delivery, it was easy to understand. Only 5% claimed that it was difficult to understand.

Balio (2004) found out in her study that almost all of the respondents perceived that the terms used in the radio programs of DWFR,Radyo ng Bayan Bontoc regarding the topics on agriculture was or easy to understand. Few respondents said that the terms used in the radio programs were highly technical.

Language used. In the study Palayen (2007), majority (84%) of her respondents in Baculongan Sur perceived that the language used were appropriate because he uses

“Kankanaey” which is local dialect of the respondents. Few (16%) of the respondents said that some of the languages are too technical for them to understand.

In the study of Dawiguey (2004), 44% of her respondents preferred Ilocano as a medium in delivering the program. Farmer- respondents claimed that they prefered Kankanaey while most of the students-respondents (30%) claimed that they prefer English.

Programs aired by Radyo ng Bayan Bontoc were broadcast in Ilocano.

ProblemsEncountered Lack of funds to finance the radio programs can be a problem because in almost all

cases the problems was funding. Although people had know-how and broadcasting facilities and personnel were available, no funds were available to start the project. That

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Is why both radio and TV educational program folded up because of lack of funds (Nakano, 1990).

Another problem is worn-out or obsolete equipment. Limcaoca (1990) stated that worn-out or obsolete equipment are the problem because in the case of the PTV-4 network, most of their equipment are old and obsolete like the master control facilities. The facilities are more than 20 years old and do not conform to prevailing standards of color broadcasting. He also added that lack of support facilities, particularly vehicles for field production and the like is a problem too.

Gomez (997) stated that in DZWT is badly needed equipment such as production equipment generator, two way communication system and even simple equipment as portable cassette records can affect the quality of the information being aired by the station.

Other problem in implementing educational programs are the following educational channel, manpower and training staff, better utilization of production and supporting materials (Nakano, 1990).

The problem on the lack of manpower and staff training led incompetence in the operation of broadcasting and in station management. Because of lack of competent manpower, BP and BMC started training radio personnel in 1975. From 1975 to 1977, BMC trained 213 managers, 285 announcers, 56 chief technicians, 113 sales managers, and representative, 44 news writes and 34 drama writers. Another dimension was added in 1976; training by correspondence. Under the Distance Study System for Announcers, 861 announcers enrolled for courses on communication, social effect of radio, history of Philippines radio, development communication, and oral skills (Maslog, 1988).

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Solutions to Problem Encountered

There are solutions to the problems in implementing educational programs.

Funding should be permanent to prevent interventions. Subsidy should come from the national government, its different departments and agencies foundation, philanthropic institution, individual and business corporation (Maslog, 1988).

According to Gomez (1997) mechanism to strengthen linkages with government or non-government agencies and institutions at the provincial and local levels should be devised for better and more efficient coordination regarding its use for development efforts.

Gomez also added that using radio for social change could not operate in a vacuum of institutional support hence the need to enlist the support of these agencies.

In the study of Daguiwey (2004), they also suggested that they should replace the one kilowatt with a ten kilowatt, additional funds to augment the financial needs of the station and purchase of facilities.

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METHODOLOGY

Locale of the Study

The municipality of La Trinidad (Figure 1) is the capital town of the province of Benguet (Figure 2). It is located 256 kilometres north of Metro Manila, at geographical coordinates 16 degrees, 21 minute north latitude and 120 degrees and 25 minutes east longitude. It is bounded on the north by the municipality of Tublay, on the south by the City of Baguio, on the west by the municipalities of Sablan and Tuba.

La Trinidad's land area is measured at 80,795,152 hectares. With this land area, the municipality counts as the smallest of all the 13 municipalities of the province of Benguet.

It comprises only less than three percent of the provincial land area and according to the 2010 census it has a population107, 188 of people. It is however the most developed and fastest growing economy among the municipalities of Benguet. This resulted mainly from its proximity to Baguio City and its role as seat of provincial government, educational center and trading hub of the province's vegetable industry. It also serves as the tourism gateway to the Cordillera and has made its name as the "Strawberry Capital of the Philippines".

This study was conducted on November-January 2012.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study were Fernando “Pandong” Balaodan, Tatang Edong Carta, Jimmy Lozano and Vladimir Cayabas, the Hosts/Anchorperson of Z Radio and Rey Laureano, Station Manager.They all served as the key informants of the study.

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Figure 1. Map of Baguio City showing the locale of the study

Figure 1. Map of La Trinidad, Benguet showing the locale of the study Z-RADIO

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The second group consists of taxi drivers of La Trinidad, Benguet. The 30 taxi drivers were chosen through purposive sampling. The criteria in choosing the respondents

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are (a) must be a listeners of radio programs using AM style in programming; (b) must be a taxi driver of La Trinidad, Benguet.

Data Collection

Interview schedule using guide questions were used to gather data from the respondents and key informant schedule were used to gather data from the key informants.

Data Gathered

The data gathered from the key informants were radio station profile, socio-demographic profiles of the respondents and the station people, program profile using AM style, how the management decide on the format, anchorperson, choosing of topics, challenges encountered by the host/anchorperson, reasons for incorporating AM style in FM station, while the data gathered from the respondents were the acceptability of AM style in FM station among the listeners.

Data Analysis

The data gathered were tabulated, presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency count, rank and percentage.

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Socio-demographic Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 shows the socio-demographic profile of the respondents. The profile includes the age, civil status, language spoken and educational attainment.

Age. As shown in Table 1, among the 30 taxi driver respondents, 14 (46.7%) belonged to the age bracket 31-40 years old, 8 (26.7%) belonged to the age bracket 21-30 years old, 5 (16.6%) belonged to the bracket 41-50 years old while 3 (10%) fell within the age bracket 20 and below. The youngest respondent was 17 years old while the oldest was 40 years old.

Civil status. There were 63.3% of the respondents who were married and 36.7 were single.

Language spoken. Majority (53.3%) of the respondents spoke Ibaloi and 46.7% spoke Kankana-ey. According to the respondents, although they spoke in their own dialect, they understood and spoke in Ilocano.

It implies that all of the respondents spoke more than one language.

Educational attainment. Results show that 60% among the respondents reached high school level, 20% have been to Elementary, and 13.3% reached college level while 6.7%

attended vocational school.

Findings show that majority of the respondents had formal educational attainment while some of the respondents had low educational attainment but literate to understand the radio program.

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Table 1. Socio-demographic profile of the respondent

Married 19 63.3 1

Single 11 36.7 2

TOTAL 30 100

Language Spoken

Kankana-ey 14 53.3 1

Ibaloi 16 46.7 2

TOTAL 30 100

Educational Attainment

Elementary 6 20 2

Secondary 18 60 1

College 4 13.3 3

Vocational 2 6.7 4

TOTAL 30 100

PROFILE FREQUENCY

n=30

PERCENTAGE (%)

RANK Age

20 and below 3 10.0 4

21-30 8 26.7 2

31-40 14 46.7 1

41-50 5 16.6 3

TOTAL 30 100

Civil Status

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Socio-demographic Profile of the Key Informants

The profile includes age, civil status, language spoken, and educational attainment.

Among the five key informants three of them were aged 37, 31, and 45 years old and two of them were 49 and 66 years old. All of the respondents were male and they had their formal education. Regarding their civil status four of the key informants were married and one was single while three of the key informants spoke Ilocano and two spoke Kankana-ey, although they spoke in their own dialect, they understood and spoke Ilocano.

Station Profile of Z-Radio

98.7 Z Radio (DWUB 98.7 MHz Baguio City) was a music and information FM radio station owned and operated by Benguet Broadcasting Corporation in the Philippines which was managed by the manager station Rey Laureano. The station's studio and transmitter were located in the University of Baguio, Baguio City.

Z radio was first aired in November 2006 and the primary area coverage was in Baguio City and Benguet province. However, the signal reaches part of Region I, II and III. The station slogan was "The Station that plays the hits first".

The program delivers international, national, regional, and local news and they play a variety of music.

Z Radio has block time programs which are Tambalang Edong Carta at Jimmy Lozano, Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia hosted by Fernando “Pandong”

Baloadan, and Tangguyob ti Umili hosted by Vladimir Cayabas. For these programs, the hosts are the one who decide the whole production. Block time programs were those whose airtimes were paid by the groups or individuals for their program to be aired in the station.

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The other programs were produced by the radio station. These were: Breaking Point, Sound trip, Bumper 2 Bumper, Outbreak Afterburn, Retro Flashback Friday - The Hits of the 80s & 90s, New Wave Party Zone - New Wave music, The All Hit Weekend Specials - All request, Alternative Sunday - All Baguio Christ Centered Church Religious Program, The rescue program with the Archangel: - A capella Christian music, and Da Partners, Night Fever with Gorgeous Em.

Profile of Programs that Use AM Style in Programming

Tambalang Edong Carta at Jimmy Lozano. This program aired live from 8:00AM to 10:00 AM, Mondays to Saturdays. This is a 2-hour program/show which was launched in April 25, 2011 that delivers local, regional, national & international news, commentaries, public service, and plays a variety of music. Tambalan program is produced & managed by ECARTA Media Productions & Promotions situated at 3rd floor Rm.1 Danes Building Chugum St. corner Kayang St. Baguio City.

During Sundays the programs were Tambalan Sunday Edition which was hosted by Susie Lozano the wife of Jimmy Lozano. The Sunday edition also delivers local, regional, national & international news. It also plays a variety of music and discuss topic based on the current issues.

Tangguyob ti Umili. The program set every Wednesdays and Saturdays from 10:00 to 11:30AM was hosted by Vladimir Cayabas the School Coordinator of National Institute of Information Technology (NIIT). The one hour and 30 minutes program. According to Cayabas the program applies the principle of “EduTainment” or merging the values of

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education with the graces of entertainment in informing the public on pressing concerns that affect the community.

The program format that he used was talk program.

Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia. The program aired live from Mondays to Sundays, 5:00 AM-8:00 AM. The show was launched on May 16, 2008 which was hosted by Fernando “Pandong” Balaodan. The program format he used was magazine program.

The 3-hour program delivers news, commentaries, public service, and plays a variety of music. The listeners may send their requests and greetings via text message. The anchorperson plays 80’s, 90’s, Ilocano, Kankana-ey and Ibaloi songs. Among the guest of Balaodan were politicians in Benguet and presidents of different colleges and universities.

Decision Making of the Program

Generally, the station decides on format because they are block time programs where in they are responsible for the programming of their programs like in deciding on what format will they used and the station management are not involved in programming of the programs that are block timers.

Format. Every program has its own format used.

Tambalang Edong Carta at Jimmy Lozano. They used magazine format where in they defined it as a combination of both spoken and musical items making it entertaining and interesting with a purpose to inform. Their definition of a magazine program supports the definition by Community Broadcasting Staff (1979) which says that a number of items of related or unrelated topics, usually linked together by the narration, music or sound

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effects. Inform. The magazine program is a mixture of topics, contributors and ways of presenting them, using various techniques.

Finding shows that the anchorpersons are knowledgeable on what magazine program is because they veterans in broadcasting.

Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia. They also used magazine program. The program contains interviews, musical numbers, plugs, and news.

This is similar with the study of Cayabas (2012) that the radio format of Radyo Agricultura was magazine program. Interviews, plugs, and music were include in the said program.

Tangguyob ti Umili. The anchorperson used talk program that during discussion question and answer were spontaneously that makes the discussion more interactive.

Anchorperson/Host. The station manager did not have many criteria in choosing host/anchorperson as long as they were capable to broadcast and follow the agreement between the management which they should have community or extension care activities like blood letting activity as their corporate social responsibility.

Choosing of topic. The hosts of the programs Tambalang Edong Carta at Jimmy Lozano and Tannguyob ti Umili chose their topics to be discussed based on what they watched on television. The next is they ask/invite the resource person concerned with the topic to be interviewed. All interviews were done live. Also they had a pre-planned set of topics for the whole week.

This corroborates with the findings of Cayabas (2012), that decision making of the topic of the program, is up to the anchorperson or the host of the program to decide. They decide the topic to be aired that depends on what fits the present situation or topic relevant

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in the community or society, or if there was a current campaign on agriculture just like organic farming.

Tambalang Edong Carta at Jimmy Lozano. They followed the standard format every Mondays which they played advertisements, jokes, music, greetings and news. Tuesday programs focused on Philhealth hour. For Wednesdays, the topic focused on Philippine National Police (PNP) slot. On Thursdays the topic was focused on Rural Bank of Baguio City. For Fridays they focused on Baguio City Police program. On Saturdays, topics were about Social Security System (SSS). Then on Sundays, the program was Tambalan Sunday Edition which delivered news and discussed topics based on the current issues.

They also play variety of music and have some jokes related to the topic that they discussed.

Examples are:

Joke no.1

Doctor: Pumapayat ka ata. Sinunod mo pa ang payo ko na 3 meals a day?

Babae: Ah 3 meals a day ba akala ko 3 males a day.

Joke no.2

Teacher: Apay ta drawing mo nga nagrugit?

Student: Ma’am tinuno gamin nga bangus isu nga nga narugit ket nangisit.

Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia. The anchorperson decided the topic

to be discussed based on the current issues and what he observed in the surroundings.

Next was he also asked the concerned resource person but if the resource person cannot go to the station he did phone interviews

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Incorporating AM Style in Programming. The anchorpersons/hosts of the programs that used AM style in programming decided on the style of their program because they were block timers. They are the one who decide the whole production of their program.

The hosts incorporated AM style in programming because it was the most liked set up of programming based on the survey done by the hosts of the programs.

Balaodan said that he used AM style because it was all in one package wherein the listeners were entertained and at the same time they were informed.

Carta on the other hand said that FM has greater sound quality and it was easily accessed because many cell phone models had FM radio. Also on the part of the anchorpersons using AM style in programming it make them feel relaxed in broadcasting because the music serves as break for them to take a rest unlike in AM that they need to talk continuously until the program is done.

Program Acceptability of Taxi Driver Respondents

Program. All of the 30 respondents said that the three programs were acceptable to them. But in terms of program preferences, their answers were varied. Table 3 shows the program preference by the respondents. The program, “Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia”, ranked number one (66.7%) as the respondents’ preference while the 26.7%

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Table 3. Program preference of the respondents

PROGRAMS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE

n=30 (%)_

Good Morning

Cordillera and 23 66.7 Ilocandia

Tambalang Tatang

Edong Carta at Lolo 10 26.7 Dorski Jimmy Lozano

Tangguyob Ti Umili 3 6.6

*multiple response

of the respondent chose Tambalang Tatang Edong Carta at Lolo Dorski Jimmy Lozano and 6.6% preferred Tangguyob Ti Umili.

The reasons of the respondents in listening to the program include: they were informed about the event happening in surroundings and they were entertained.

According to the respondents, they get information and they listen to the programs for entertainment that makes them relax and ease from the program Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia.

This corroborates the findings of Dawiguey (2004) that great majority (96%) of the respondents listen to the program because it gives information about the events around them while the rest listened to the program for entertainment because the hosts are amazing that makes the listeners able to laugh and smile.

Program hosts. All of the respondents said that the hosts of the three programs were acceptable to them since they were able to deliver their messages clearly and simply.

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This corroborates the findings of Juan (2012) that listeners of Madaymen, Kibungan tend to listen to radio program since the host is good in delivering the topics clearly and appropriately.

The study of Dawiguey (2012) also noted that the hosts of Radyo ng Bayan Bontoc was good in delivering the message and the host’s used easy words in delivering message for easy understanding.

Findings imply that the hosts were appropriate to be the anchorpersons of the programs that used AM style in programming.

Language. Table 4 presents the acceptability of the respondents regarding the terminologies and language used.

Majority of the respondents (73.4%) accepted Ilocano as the language in broadcasting because it is the common language of Benguet, while 26.6% claimed that they do not accept the language used because they prefer Kankana-ey, Ibaloi and Filipino. Those who claimed that they don’t accept Ilocano as language because the respondent spoke Ibaloi and Kankanaey

Romeo Lang-asan, a respondent said that Ilocano as a medium of communication is acceptable because he can easily understand the discussion.

This result is similar to the findings of Dawiguey (2004) where 44% of respondents in five barangays of Bontoc, Mountain Province preferred Ilocano as a medium in delivering the program.

This is also similar with the result of Paulino (2003) where 76% respondents in Palina, Kibungan, Benguet prefer Ilocano as the language in broadcasting.

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Terminologies used. Almost all of the respondents (97.7%) claimed that the terminologies used in the program were acceptable because they were simple.

It is possible that the respondent highest educational attainment has an effect on how they understand the message from the radio. Only one of the respondents claimed that the terminologies used were not acceptable because it was technical.

The 97.3%, who claimed that the terminologies used were simple, have attended high school. On the other hand, one respondent who said that the terminologies were technical only reached elementary.

This corroborates the findings of Cayabas (2012), that the 75% of the farmers of Barangay Data, Sabangan, Mountain Province claimed that the word used in broadcasting were simple, have attended college or high school while those who have not attended school had difficulty in understanding some terms

Table 4. Acceptability of the terminologies used and language used in the programs

CRITERIA ACCEPTABLE NOT ACCEPTABLE Frequency % Frequency % ________________________________________________________________________

Terminologies 29 96.7 1 3.3 Language 22 73.4 8 26.6

AM style in programming. All of the respondents claimed that they want the AM style in programming of Z- Radio.

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In an interview, some of the respondents said that they want the AM style used by Z-radio because they do not need to transfer to other station just to listen to news. The other respondents said that it is “2 in 1” wherein they were entertained at the same time they were informed.

Also, the respondents said that it is good that they used AM style in programming because the stereo of the taxi drivers can only access FM stations so it is good that they incorporated AM style in FM. The respondents said that they did not just listen to music but they were also updated about the price of the gasoline.

Findings show that all of the respondents wanted the set up of programming in using AM style in FM station.

Challenges Encountered by the Hosts/Anchorpersons

For Tambalang Edong Carta at Jimmy Lozano. The host/anchorperson said that their problem was difficulty in finding advertisers for their program. This may be due to

the fact that the program was only launched in 2011 so it was relatively new. To remedy this, the host personally invites advertisers and they also give discounts on the fee. Aside

from that, they make advertisement based on what the advertisers want.

They also have an account executive that is in charge for inviting advertisers.

For Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia. There are a lot of texters send messages against the host’s or unwanted messages. To remedy this, before reading the messages on air he screened the message before reading on air and the host ignores the unwanted text messages.

For Tangguyob ti Umili. The host so far the host/anchorperson of the two programs did not encounter any problems in their programs because the program is still young.

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary

The study was conducted in La Trinidad, Benguet to characterize the listeners of the radio program. It aimed to characterized the listeners of the radio program, how the management decide on the format, anchorperson, choosing of topics, reasons for incorporating AM style in FM station.

Interview schedule was used to gather information from the 30 respondents who listen to the program who used AM style in programming. Purposive sampling was used in choosing the respondents.

Many of the listeners belonged to the aged 31-40. Majority of the respondents had their

formal education and the leading tribal affiliation of the respondents was Ibaloi.

While the five key informants three of them were aged 37, 31, and 45 years old and two of them were 49 and 66 years old. Ilocano was the leading tribal affiliation.

The anchor person decides on the format of the program. Regarding the choosing of topics and incorporating AM style in FM programs was decided by the anchorperson

Incorporating AM style in programming is acceptable to the listeners.

All of them accept the three programs that used AM style and majority of the respondents preferred program was Good Morning Cordillera and Ilocandia. The respondents claimed that they accept Ilocano as a medium of communication because they can easily understand the discussion.

Most of the listeners said that the, language used and terminologies used and program host was acceptable.

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All of the respondents said that the host/anchorperson was acceptable because they deliver the message clearly and simple and most of the respondents accept the word used were simple.

Findings showed that all of the listeners liked the AM style in programming of Z Radio because it is 2 in 1 wherein they were entertained at the same time they were informed.

Regarding the challenges, the three programs did not have much problems because the programs were still young.

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. Ilocano as the language in the radio program is still acceptable to the listeners of Benguet.

2. Block time programs of Z-Radio has the control over format, production process, scheduling of topics and incorporating AM style in an FM station.

3. There is wide acceptance of AM style of programming in FM stations as proven in this study.

4. There are not much challenges encountered by the hosts in the programs.

Recommendation

Based on the conclusion, the following recommendations were formulated:

1. Since the result shows that the respondents accept Ilocano as a medium of communication, the host/anchorperson may maintain using Ilocano for discussion.

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2. The host may maintain the AM style in programming because it is acceptable to the listeners.

3. The radio programs may consider conducting a survey on listenership and/or acceptability of their programs in other areas and with other sectors of the society.

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LITERATURE CITED

ANNO, J. 2003. Listenership of Radio Natin Buguias in Three Barangays of Mankayan, Benguet. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 4-14.

BALIO, D. K. 2004. The Agriculture-Related Radio Programs in Mountain Province: An Assessment. MS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp.8- 29, 54-91.

CAYABAS, C. 2012. Evaluation of Radyo Agrikultura,an Agricultural Radio Program of DZWT. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. P.31-34, 35, 21-28

COMMUNITY BROADCASTING STAFF. 1979. A Manual on Community Broadcasting. UP Los Baňos, Laguna. Pp. 85-97,133-199.

DAWIGUEY, A. G. 2004. Radio Program Preference and Perception of Listeners on Radyo Ng Bayan-Bontoc in Five Barangays of Bontoc,Mountain Province.

BS Thesis.Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 6-7, 12- 25.

GOMEZ, E. D. 1997. Radio DZLB: Pioneer in Community and Educational Broadcasting. In Maslog et al. Communication for People Power: An Introduction to Community Communication. UNESCO Project TAMBULI. Institute of Development Communication. Pp. 34-38.

JUAN, J. 2012. Perception of Barnagay Madaymen Kibungan, Benguet Listenership on

‘Gansa Di Tawid Radyo’ Program. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp.30, 33.

LIMCAOCO, C. A. 1990. Educational Broadcasting and Peoples Television 4. A Review of Profiles and Prospect from the five-year experience with Symposia on Educational Broadcasting in the Asia-Pacific Region. Symposium on Educational Broadcasting in Asia and Pacific Region. P.36.

LINGGODEN, L. 2004. Attitudes and Perceptions of Farmers on Voice of America (VOA) News Program on Magic 99.9 Country FM. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 10- 25.

LYNCH, J. R. AND G. GILLISPIE. 1998. Process and Practice of Radio Programming.

Lanhan, MD: UP, America. P. 23. MARTIN, R. K. 2012. Content Analysis of

‘Laughingly Yours,Bianong’and ‘Pagsarmingan’. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 27.

MASLOG, C. C. 1988. Philippine Communiucation: An Introduction. Philippine Association of Communication Educator. Quezon City. Pp.213-214,239.

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NAKANO, T. 1990. Profile of Educational Broadcasting in 1990's. A Review of Profiles and Prospect from the five-year experience with Symposia on Educational Broadcasting in the Asia-Pacific Region. Symposium on Educational Broadcasting in Asia and Pacific Region. Pp.11, 13.

NORBERG, E. G. 1996 Radio Programming Tactics and Strategy. (Focal Press:USA).

P.10.

PALAYEN, J. 2007. Perception of Baculongan Sur Vegetable Farmers on ‘Boses Ti Farmers’Program. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet.Pp.16-17.

PAULINO, N. 2003. AM and FM Station Listenership in Barangay Palina, Kibungan, Benguet. BS Thesis BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp.11-15.

SALAZAR, F. 2011.RGMA DYRU Super Radyo Kalibo’s FM-AM Programming: A Descriptive Study. BS Thesis. UP, Diliman, Quezon City. Pp. 10-13.

Pigura

Figure 1. Map of Baguio City showing the locale of the study
Table 1. Socio-demographic profile of the respondent
Table 3. Program preference of the respondents
Table 4. Acceptability of the terminologies used and language used in the programs

Mga Sanggunian

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