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BIBLIOGRAPHY

WATTI, MARILOU B. APRIL 2013. Content Analysis of “Mr. Lonely” A True to Life Drama Program of DZWT. Baguio City Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Igrelyn P. Pinos-an, MDevCom

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to analyze the radio drama “Mr. Lonely” in terms of program profile, criteria in selecting the stories for the radio drama, classification of the themes of the stories aired and the values communicated in each story.

A key informant and phone interview were done to gather information from the staff of DZWT-Baguio. Thirty (30) episodes were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentage. The study was conducted from December 5, 2012 to January 9, 2013.

Results of the study showed that the story senders belonged to age bracket 20-29.

Majority of them were female, single and most of the letter senders were from La Union.

The drama stories were carefully chosen by the host; thus, he had to consider what is appropriate and helpful to the listeners.

The themes of “Mr. Lonely” drama were about love life, family problems and poverty. Moreover, the leading values communicated were understanding, true love, and forgiveness.

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The conclusions of the study are as follows: the drama program served as an awareness for listeners to share their stories, the host carefully chose the stories to be aired in every episode of the drama, the theme of the drama catered to different life situations of the listeners and, the radio drama taught values and lessons that may inspire the listeners.

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were drawn:

since the drama episodes aired are being replayed, the radio station must encourage listeners to send their stories to have new sets of dramas to be aired, an evaluation of the insight giving portion of the drama may be done to determine whether the pieces of advice given and values imparted successfully helped listeners with their problems and further studies may be conducted regarding how the letter senders felt after their letters were chosen and advices were given.

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INTRODUCTION Rationale

Radio has been the most widely used medium and the most effective communication channel used to promote development. This medium also provides entertainment and information to its listeners.

One way of providing entertainment and information is through drama. It is a form of communication like all the arts. It allows people to communicate with and make them understand others in new ways. This provides training in very practical aspects of communication and this is necessary in today’s increasingly information centered society.

According to Kurland (2000) drama is a form of literature intended for performers, where in the flow of study is brought to life by the performer. But since television and radio has been invented, broadcasting begins to develop. Drama now is a form of personality development where in a person can develop upon reflecting on the drama that is being played, and connect to the present situation.

Moreover, drama could also be a way to inculcate good moral values to listeners.

One of the drama programs that portray stories about different struggles in life is the “Mr. Lonely”. It is a program that is being aired by DZWT Radio Station. It is aired from 3:00-3:30 in the afternoon from Monday to Saturday. “Mr. Lonely” started in 1972 and the program airs stories based on the titles of the letters sent by the senders. The narrator in the drama program is Mr. Roger Ramirez. He is also referred as Mr. Lonely. At the end of each drama he gives his insights, comments and his advice to the letter sender as a form of encouragement.

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The drama “Mr. Lonely” is intended to be informative as well as entertaining for both rural and urban listeners covering age groups ranging from 10 years old and up.

Ramirez (2012) mentioned that to make it interesting, it has to be humorous and entertaining. To make it informative, it has to contain information needed by the listeners.

Further, as an educational tool, it contains advices, guides and tips injected indirectly in the course of the various dialogues in the program.

Other people are also involved in the program. Jocelyn Oblero fixes and writes the scripts. After finishing the scripts, she gives it to the Saleng Production for recording.

The talents of the production are Glenn Joseph Benawe, Teresa Callay, Jomar Rebutazo, Vergie Peckley, Mary Jane Castro and Kirby Rillera. Finally, it is Roger Refuerso Ramirez who serves as the director of the drama production.

The content and delivery of the drama program contribute to its popularity and so, there is an existing interest to analyze the content of this true to life drama program.

Statement of the Problem

Generally, the study aimed to analyze the content of the drama program “Mr.

Lonely”.

Specifically, it answered the following questions:

1. What are the profile of the story senders?

2. What are the criteria in selecting the stories for the radio drama?

3. What are the themes of the stories aired?

4. What are the values communicated in each of the story?

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Objectives of the Study

Generally, the study analyzed the content of “Mr. Lonely”.

Specifically, it:

1. determined the profile of the story senders;

2. determined the criteria in selecting the stories for the radio drama;

3. classified the themes of the stories aired; and 4. determined the values communicated in each story.

Importance of the Study

The results of the study may serve as a file for DZWT radio station. It may also serve as a reference for other radio stations offering drama programs in enhancing their programs.

Furtheremore, this may also serve as a reference material for communication students who wish to conduct more extensive studies concerning true to life drama programs.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study focused on the drama program “Mr. Lonely”. Specifically it analyzed the drama program profile. It also determined the criteria in selecting the stories for the radio drama, profile of the story senders and classification of the themes of the stories aired and the values communicated in each story.

The study was limited on the stories that were aired only from June 7, 2012 to November 5, 2012.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE Content Analysis

It is a research technique for the objective, systematic and qualitative description of the content of communication. It is the simplest type of evaluation consequently consisting of counting the numbers of occurrences per category. The object of content analysis can basically be any kind of recorded communication such as transcripts of interviews/ discourses, protocols of observation, video tapes, and written documents in general (Behrendt, 2008).

Berelson (1980) states that content analysis is a research tool focused on the actual content and internal features of media. It is used to determine the presence of certain words, concepts, characters or sentences within texts and to quantify this presence in an objective manner.

According to De Sola Pool (1989), content analysis is a product of the electronic age. Though content analysis was regularly performed in 1940’s, it became a more credible and frequently used research method since the mid 1950’s, as researchers started to focus on concepts rather than simply words, and on semantic relationships rather than just presence.

On the other hand, according to Stemler (2001), content analysis is a method for summarizing any form of content by counting aspects of the content. This enables a more objective evaluation than comparing content based on the impressions of a listener. For example, an impressionistic summary of TV program is not content analysis. Nor it is a book review: it is an evaluation. Content analysis, though it often analyses written words, is a quantitative method. The results of content analysis are numbers and percentages.

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Definition of Drama

A drama is a kind of literature intended for performance, where in the flow of the story is brought to life by the performer. It is originally presented on stage or theatre. But since television and radio has been invited, and broadcasting began to develop, drama now is being played on television and radio (Kurland, 2000).

Chionglo (2012) added that drama is a play that is acted out. It shows people going through some eventful period in their lives, seriously or humorously. The speech and action of a play recreate the flow of human life. A play comes fully to life only on stage. On the stage it combines of the author, director, actor, designer and others. Dramatic performance involves an intricate process of rehearsal based upon imagery inherent in the dramatic text.

The dramatic text presents the drama as a range of verbal imagery. The language of drama can range between great extremes, on the other hand, an intensely theatrical and ritualistic manner. It is almost exact reproduction of real life.

According to Za’bal (1967), drama program increased in popularity and that was one of the effective programs for the rural areas. The effect of the program was the government felt that there should be more programs that are fixed and specifically targeting group listeners.

Radio Drama

Back before there were televisions and computers, there was radio. Families of the 1930s and 1940s would gather around the radio and listen to their favourite programmes.

Millions of people tuned in daily to their favourite programmes, just as we tune into our favourite television shows. Radio allowed the listener to create their own images of characters and settings, a luxury that we no longer have in these days of television.

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(Jackson 2008).

According to Martin (2012), radio drama is one of the unique forms of entertainment. It influences the listener’s attention, emotion and widens ones imagination.

Also, Apte (2005) agrees that radio drama can be used to gain public participation in planning for biodiversity conservation. The major advantage of this tool is that radio breaks the barriers of literacy, and is heard even remote areas where there is little or no electricity. This tool can be adopted for other specialized aspects.

One of the longest running radio drama series in the history is the “Unshackled”

which presents stories of lives changed at Pacific Garden Mission in Chicago, USA.

According to the news release, following that first broadcast, the popularity of

"Unshackled!" was quickly evident, as hundreds of letters poured in each week. Because of WGN Radio's powerful 50,000 watt clear-channel transmitter, listener response came from the eastern half of the United States and Canada, and even from ships at sea in the Atlantic (Reynalds, 2012).

Radio drama became popular all over the world before the wide spread access to television programming. It depends on dialogue, music and sound effects to help the listener imagine the story in her/his “mind’s eye” in these sense, it resembles reading in some ways more than audio/ visual drama. In the television era, some audio drama has been produced and marketed that owes much to radio drama without ever being broadcast on radio (wordiq.com, 2010).

Furthermore, Ligligen (2012) said that listening to radio drama can help people voice out their own true stories.

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Values Reflected by the Drama

Drama becomes primarily a secular entertainment not surprisingly than the most popular forms which were comedy. The plays generally involve domestic intrigue although have moral values (Chakas, 2007).

Further, Pudsoc (2005) stated that a radio drama is an effective means to educate and inculcate good moral values to children.

Radio plays educate the community by sharing experience, and creating a context for reflection and action (Anonymous, nd).

In addition to this, Chakas (2007) said that the leading values that the respondents learned from radio drama “Dagiti Tugot iti Dana Ti Biag” were forgiveness and true love .On the other hand, it does not mean that these values were only derived from the love stories. Radio drama also provides values that cater to the themes like family problems, illness and friendship.

Furthermore, Martin (2012) added that the leading values learned from the radio drama laughingly Your’s Bianong include courage which implies that most people have been courageous in facing their struggles in life. Another value is respectfulness which shows that Filipinos know the great value of respect. Other values include forgiveness, endurance, industry, true love and hope.

Themes of the Drama

The theme of a drama refers to the central idea of the play. It can either be clearly stated through dialogue or action or can be inferred after watching the entire performance.

Additionally, themes of Indian dramas refer to what the play means as opposed to what happens or the plot. It is concerned with the jovial play of thoughts and ideas with in

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the crux of the play. Sometimes the theme is clearly stated in the title, otherwise it is generally stated through a dialogue by a character acting as the playwright’s voice; or it maybe that theme is less obvious and emerges only after some study or thought (Anynomous, 2008).

In the early days, the radio program “Unshackled” featured lives of people from skid row affected by alcohol and drug abuse. Stories of prostitutes, mobsters, and criminals were dramatized. Today's stories deal with issues such as abuse, abandonment, pornography, gambling, fear, lust, anger, sexual dysfunction and crime (Reynolds, 2012).

According to Maalaala Mo Kaya or MMK (2012) - the Asia’s longest running drama anthology, drama promises to bring inspirational stories that cross boundaries, create common ground, and connect people who share the same joys and sorrows in life. Further, true to life stories are from people from all walks of life- from the “kilig” moments of high school to extraordinary tales of overcoming impossible, marital feud, traumatic childhood experiences, and other family stories.

Another, Becht (2006) shared that drama could instruct and change society. This was supported by the study of Palubos (2004) that 53% of listeners in Guinaoang, Mankayan, Benguet listen to the comedy drama Kapitan Enteng because it features our country’s economic and political situation. Therefore, drama can also focus into political affairs.

Most themes of the drama “Mr. Lonely” were about love life, family problems, and poverty. These themes corresponds with the statement of Encarta (2006) by the mid 19th century that the interest of a drama is more on realistic details of the life of the people.

Also, themes are being classified according to the gist of the story.

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Definition of Terms

Themes. It refers to the main topic in the stories aired.

Values. It refers to the lessons shared by the host and by the letter senders the on the radio program

Drama. It refers to the “Mr. Lonely” radio drama

Host. It refers to the one in-charge in giving advices in the drama program and selecting stories to be aired.

Sender. It refers to the person who sends and shares his/her true to life experiences.

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METHODOLOGY

Locale and Time of the Study

Baguio City is a highly urbanized city located in the province of Benguet in Northern Luzon. The city has become the center of business and commerce as well as the center of Education in the entire Northern Luzon thereby, becoming the seat of government of the Cordillera.

There are four AM stations found in Baguio City. These are DZWT- Mountain Province Broadcasting Corporation, DZBS- Radio Philippine Network, DZEQ- Radyo ng Bayan and DZWX- Bombo Radyo Philippines.

The study was conducted at DZWT Radio Station. It is also known as Mountain Province Broadcasting Corporation. It is situated at 102 Bonifacio Street Baguio City, now found in Fr. Carlu Street Baguio City. The station is being managed by Rev. Fr. Paul C.

Basilio. The station can reach many places like Benguet, La Union, Mt. Province and other lowland province like Ilocos Sur and Nueva Viscaya.

The study was conducted from December 5, 2012 to January 9, 2013.

Respondents of the Study

There were two respondents in the study. First was Roger Ramirez, 50 years old.

He is the program host and also known as “Mr. Lonely”. He was in-charge of the production of the drama program.

The second respondent was Mr. John Ligligen, 34 years old. He was in charge of the engineering department. He was responsible in editing the dramas that were recorded

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Sample of the Study

The study analyzed the content of “Mr. Lonely” Drama program. It is a program that is being aired by DZWT Radio Station. It is aired from 3:00-3:30 in the afternoon from Monday to Saturday. “Mr. Lonely” started in 1972 and the program airs stories based on the titles of the letters sent by the senders. The narrator in the drama program is Mr. Roger Ramirez. He is also referred as Mr. Lonely. At the end of each drama, he gives his comment, lessons that could be learned from the story and insights to the letter sender as a form of encouragement.

The drama stories being aired now were actually the dramas that were played from 2006 to 2012. During the time of the study, the station is still recording new set of letters that were sent by the letter senders.

Thirty episodes of the radio drama program were used as samples of the study, five episodes were chosen by John Ligligen per month. He chose the top five episodes that were recorded first. These episodes were aired from June 7, 2012 to November 9, 2012.

Data Collection

First, a key informant interview with Mr. John Ligligen was used to get the background information of the drama program and some information about the narrator of

“Mr. Lonely”. The thirty episodes of the drama were also provided by Mr. John Ligligen.

Second, a key informant phone interview with Mr. Roger Ramirez was used to determine other information about the drama program.

After the interviews and the retrieval of a copy of the drama for the study, the researcher listened to the recorded episodes of the radio drama. Upon listening, a coding sheet prepared by the researcher was utilized to determine the profile of the letter senders, themes, as well as the values imparted by the drama.

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Data Gathered

The data gathered included the criteria in selecting stories for the radio drama, profile of the story senders such as the age, sex and civil status, the themes and values communicated in every story.

Data Analysis

The data gathered were tabulated, consolidated and analyzed through frequency counts and percentages. Descriptive analysis was used in discussing the results.

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Figure 1. Map of Cordillera Administrative Region showing the locale of the study

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

General Profile of the Story Senders

Table 1 shows the general profile of the story senders based on the scripts and the dramas aired.

Age. Among the 30 letter senders, 80% belonged to the age bracket 20 to 29 years

old while 16.66 % belonged to 30-40 years old. This shows that all letter senders were adult.

Status. Majority (66.6%) were single, 26.67% were married, 3.33% were widower

and the remaining 3.33%, were separated.

Sex. More than half (56.61%) of the senders were female while the rest (43.33%)

are male which shows that women were writer about their life than men.

Address of the story senders. It can be noted that the story senders were from 10 provinces over Northern Luzon. There is one story sender who did not state his/her address.

This shows that 40% of the story senders were from La Union. According to Ramirez, he said that the listeners and story senders of the program were usually lowlanders. This is due to the language used, which is Ilocano.

This agrees with Rambaud (2008) that the Ilocanos love their language and culture.

It is manifested in continuing support for their local, social, economic, cultural and other aspects of development through literature and research likewise with drama.

How the listeners send their stories Listeners can share their stories by sending it

through snail mail. According to Ramirez, this is the best way of sending stories since it contains detailed information. Also, it is easier to make a script out from the letters.

Table 1. General profile of the story senders

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This agrees with Locson (2007) that it is better for the senders to send letters because all the information they need is complete as compared to the text messages where only the gist of the story can be found.

Writing style. According to Ramirez, story senders had different ways of writing

their stories. Some purely narrate it in a way that all the happenings were clearly discussed or it is detailed. Others prefer following the way the drama is aired where there are dialogues which was in script format. Listeners were the ones who fixed it.

CHARACTERISTICS NUMBER OF EPISODES

n=30

PERCENTAGE (%) Age

20-29 years old 30-40 years old 41-60 years old

24

5

1

80

16.66 3.33 TOTAL 30 100

Sex Female Male 17

13

56.61 43.33 TOTAL 30 100

Civil Status Single Married Widower Separated 20

8

1

1

66.6 26.67 3.33 3.33 TOTAL 30 100

Province La Union 12 40.00 Baguio 7 23.33 Isabela 3 10.00 Pangasinan 3 10.00 Nueva Ecija 1 3.33 Nueva Viscaya 1 3.33 Quirino Province 1 3.33 Ilocos Sur 1 3.33 Not specified 1 3.33 TOTAL 30 100

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Letters were written in Ilocano dialect.

Criteria of DZWT in Selecting Stories to be aired

Results show that the criteria in choosing the stories to be aired were classified by the narrator.

Stories that badly need advice or solutions. In choosing a story to air, Ramirez does

not follow the first come- first serve basis; instead he prioritized the letters that badly needs advice followed by the letters that were already resolved.

Stories applicable for special events. He also added that he choose stories to be

aired applicable for special occasions such as Christmas, New Year, Valentine’s Day and All Souls Day. However, in the examples of the drama analyzed in the study, there were no stories applicable under these criteria.

Stories with moral values. Since the station belonged to the Catholic Media Network, it is important that the stories should have lessons for the audience to reflect on and be inspired.

It is clearly reflected that drama stories aired in Mr. Lonely are carefully chosen by the program host and thus, he has to consider what is appropriate and helpful to his audience.

This supports the goal of MMK (2012), though this drama is presented in a different media which is television, the process is also the same where stories are also based from the letters sent and advices are given after the drama is aired. Also, it is the same in terms of bringing inspirational stories and connects people who share the same joys and sorrows in life.

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Themes of the “Mr. Lonely” Drama

Table 2 shows the different themes of the stories in “Mr. Lonely”. It can be noted that half (50%) of the stories aired were about love stories which implies that love plays a big role in the society. Like the episode that was played on September 16, 2012 that even though the girl was pregnant by another man, the man accepted and married her because of his true love.

This agrees with Broadlit (2012) that even though the times have changed and people’s lives are so different, love doesn’t change that much in the plot of drama stories.

It is still a journey to find true love; it takes courage, commitment and enduring passion to keep it going.

Family problems ranked second with 30%. Examples of these problems include broken homes, conflicts that can be avoided, and other complications in the family.

One example of a family problem was an episode aired on November 5, 2012. In the story, Lyka and her husband have been married for five years. However their relationship was in trouble because lyka cannot give her husband a child. This is an example of couple relationship problem.

This agrees with Franklin (1999) that family problems represent a unique, but common, category of adjustment difficulty that causes people to seek psychological treatment. Problems can develop in a couple relationships, parent-child problems, and constant battles between siblings.

Adultery is ranked third (13.33%). This shows that there are a lot of cases who already committed this mistake so the concerned people must stop doing it to have a peaceful life.

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Adultery was showed on the episode that was aired on November 1, 2012.Ibot had a family but then he had a mistress, one day his children advised him to stop his wrong doing but then he refused. What made it more complicated was, her mistress warned him that she will commit suicide once he left her.

Though a secret affair is devastating, some relationships can be saved in the wake of adultery and this situation is being addressed by “Mr. Lonely” by giving advice to people involved.

This supports the study of Engel (2013) that this can be happen even in the most stable and loving relationships, someone cheats and commits adultery.

Finally, poverty ranked fourth (6.66%). This was showed in some of the episodes of the drama, people struggle in their day to day lives to have a stable job and feed their families. Like the episode that was aired on September 5, 2012, because of everyday needs, Bobbie sacrificed the studies of his son because he has to prioritize their daily needs.

This agrees with Shah (2013), that Poverty is the state for the majority of the world’s people and nations. This means that there are more people who are experiencing poverty and is manifested through unemployment and the inability to provide for the basic need.Situations like these are also portrayed in the radio drama.

Table 2. Themes of “Mr. Lonely” aired from June 7, 2012 to November 9, 2012

TOPICS NUMBER OF EPISODES

(n=30)

PERCENTAGE (%) Love life

Family Problems

15 9

50.00 30.00

Adultery 2 13.33

Poverty 4 6.66

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Values Reflected from the Drama

The values were classified according to what the senders learned from their experiences. Some were also based on the lessons that the host imparted at the end of the drama.

Table 3 shows the values reflected from the drama stories. The leading value that is reflected in the drama is understanding with a rate of 36.66%. Understanding is a feeling to accept someone’s situation wholeheartedly. One of the drama episode aired on August 2, 2012 shows this type of scenario. Daniel is in love with a woman with unstable mind, but because of his understanding and acceptance, he sincerely provided her comfort and did everything to give her medication.

Table 3. Values reflected by selected “Mr. Lonely” episodes From June 7, 2012 to November 9, 2012

*Multiple values reflected

True love and Forgiveness are both ranked second with a rate of 33.33%. These values were reflected on the episode aired on July 10, 2012 regarding a man and a woman in a relationship, the family of the man does not like the woman for him, but because of the strong power of love, the man truly insist the woman to his family so they were able to save their relationship. Forgiveness was also revealed in the episode where in the woman forgive the family of the man despite she received mistreatments from them.

Loyalty along with respectfulness both had 30% rating. Loyalty is being faithful to someone like in the episode that was aired on August 2, 2012 that the man remained loyal

VALUES NUMBER OF EPISODES PERCENTAGE

(%)

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to his partner even though she is not in stable mind, he still sacrificed everything just to give a bright future for her. He worked so hard to earned money for his love.

Likewise, respectfulness was shown in the episode that was aired on June 10, 2012 where in Eva together with her best friend were stocked in a bus and the only money they had is only one hundred pesos and it is not enough for their fair. So they need to made remedy in order for them to earn money and they decided to seduce the driver and the conductor to earn money but then both the driver and the conductor respected the two women by not taking advantage at them.

Understanding True Love Forgiveness Loyalty Respectfulness Cooperation Courage Acceptance Humble Patience Obedience Endurance Sincerity Honesty Hope

11

10

10

9

9

6

6

5

4

3

3

3

2

2

2

36.66 33.33 33.33 30.00 30.00 20.00 20.00 16.66 13.33 10.00 10.00 10.00 6.66 6.66 6.66

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Moreover, Table 3 shows that in every story, there are more than one value derived.

The values were classified according to what the story senders learned from his/ her experiences. Some are also based on what the host imparts at the end of the drama.

The result signifies that the use of drama is very beneficial in imparting values to its audience. As mentioned by UNFPA(2010), drama provides the audience with a range of characters some good, some not so good. As listeners follow the characters as they evolve and change while dealing with challenges, many apply the lessons to their own lives.

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

The study was conducted at DZWT-Baguio specifically to determine the profile of the story senders of the radio drama “Mr. Lonely”. It also determined the criteria in selecting the stories, themes and values communicated in each story. The study was conducted from December 5, 2012 to January 9, 2013.

The study was conducted at DZWT, Baguio City. Key informant interview was used to gather information from the host of the drama program, while background interview was done with the help of the engineering department, through John Ligligen.

“Mr. Lonely” is a true-to-life drama that was hosted by Roger Ramirez and it was first aired in 1972 in DZWT- Baguio. It was a daily ending drama for the listeners to share their experiences through sending their stories.

The sample of the study includes thirty (30) succeeding episodes aired from June 7, 2012 to November 9, 2012. The researchers listened to the drama stories and were content analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages.

Most of the story senders belonged to the age bracket 20 to 29. Majority of them were females and were single. Moreover, most of them were from La Union. All of the story senders used snail mails in sending their stories.

The drama stories were carefully chosen by the host and thus, he has to consider what is appropriate and helpful to the listener.

The themes of “Mr. Lonely” drama were about love life, family problems and poverty.

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Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were derived:

1. The drama program served as an avenue for listeners to share their stories.

2. The host carefully chooses the stories to be aired in every episode of the drama.

3. The theme of the drama caters to different life situations of the listeners.

4. Radio drama teaches values and lessons that may inspire the listeners.

Recommendations

The recommendations of the study based on the conclusion are as follows:

1. Since the drama episodes aired are being replayed, the radio station must encourage listeners to send their stories to have new sets of dramas to be aired.

2. An evaluation of the insight giving portion of the drama may be done to determine whether the pieces of advice given and values imparted successfully helped listeners with their problems.

3. Further studies may be conducted regarding how the letter senders felt after their letters were chosen and advises were given.

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Content Analysis of “Mr. Lonely” A True to Life Drama Program of DZWT WATTI, MARILOU B. APRIL 2013

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Recommendations Producers should improve the production technology used in the production of virgin coconut oil produced in Catarman, Northern Samar.. To improve efficiency of