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TUPENG, ANDREW D., APRIL 2011. Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

 

Adviser: Leoncia L. Tandang, PhD.

ABSTRACT

Different varieties of pole snap beans have been studied and evaluated in different areas in the Philippines that lead to the improvement and identification of new varieties. However, the nature of planting materials are sometimes unnoticed that affect the performance of the crop.

Henceforth, different production years of planting materials of five pole snap beans were evaluated. Moreover, the best variety and best storage duration of planting materials and the interaction effect of pole snap bean variety and different production years of planting materials were determined. This study was conducted at the Organic Farm of the Benguet State University in Balili, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Among the five varieties evaluated, Mabunga significantly outyielded all the other varieties evaluated. CPV 60 and B21 followed with similar yield. In addition, Mabunga was the first to germinate which was comparable to CPV 60, one day earlier than Tublay and B 21. Patig took eight days to emerge. CPV 60 had the highest percent germination which was comparable to B 21, Mabunga and Tublay. CPV 60 flowered and matured first among the varieties evaluated while Patig was the latest to flower and to mature.

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higher percent of germination, growth and yield performance than those produced in 2008.

Longer storage duration of planting materials caused the seeds to deteriorate that resulted to lower percent germination, shorter pods and lower yield.

Interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was found highly significant on the number of days from emergence to flowering, number of days from emergence to first harvest, weight of non-marketable pods per plot, total yield per plot and computed yield per hectare. Significant interaction effect was observed on the number of days from sowing to emergence, pod length and pod width. The percent germination, number of days from emergence to last harvest, pod diameter, weight of marketable pods per plot, reaction to bean rust infection and reaction to pod borer infestation were not significantly by both variety and production year of planting materials. Under organic production system, all of the varieties evaluated in this study were found profitable using seeds produced in different years since they gave positive ROCE, but highest ROCE could be realized when pole snap bean are grown from seeds produced within two years before planting period.

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Page

Bibliography..……… i

Abstract………... i

Table of Contents ……….. iii

INTRODUCTION ……… 1

REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Plant ……… 4

Climatic Requirements ……… 5

Varietal Evaluation ………... 6

Soil Fertilization ………. 6

Planting and Seed Handling Precautions ………... 8

Seed Germination and Viability ……….. 9

Seed History and Performance ………... 10

MATERIALS AND METHODS ……….. 12

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ………... 19

Agroclimatic Data ………. 19

Number of Days from Sowing to Emergence………..……… 20

Number of Days from Emergence to Flowering ……….. 22

Number of Days from Emergence to First Harvest ………... 22

Number of Days from Emergence to Last Harvest ……… 25

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Pod Length ……… 27

Pod Width ……… 30

Pod Diameter ……… 31

Pod Texture ………... 32

Pod Straightness ………... 32

Pod Shape ………. 32

Pod Color ………. 32

Weight of Marketable Pods per Plot ………... 32

Weight of Non-marketable Pods per Plot ………. 33

Total Yield per Plot ………. 35

Computed Yield per Hectare ……… 36

Reaction to Bean Rust ……… ……….... 38

Reaction to Pod Borer ………. 38

Return on Cash Expenses (ROCE) ………... 39

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ……….. 41

Summary ………. 41

Conclusions ………. 42

Recommendations ………... 42

LITERATURE CITED ………. 44

APPENDICES ……….. 46

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

INTRODUCTION

The snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is herbaceous plant that is grown worldwide for its edible bean, popularly both as dry and as a green bean. Botanically, it is classified as a dicotyledon. Snap beans are legumes and thus acquire their nitrogen through an association with rhizobia, a genus of nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

The bush varieties form erect bushes 20 – 60 cm tall, while the pole or twinning varieties form vines 2 – 3 m long vines. All varieties bear alternate, green or purple leaves, divided into three oval, smooth-edged leaflets, each 6-15 cm long and 3-11 cm wide. The white, pink, or purple flowers are about 1 cm long, and give way to pods 8-20 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, green, yellow, black or purple in color, each containing 4-6 beans. The beans are smooth, plump, kidney-shaped, up to 1.5 cm long, range widely in color, and are often mottled into more colors (Wikipedia, 2010).

Snap bean is an important food worldwide and a significant source of nutrient because of its fiber, proteins and vitamin contents. It is traditionally a basic food crop in many developing countries and it serves as a major plant protein source for rural and urban poor (Dursun, 2007).

Benguet is one of the major agricultural areas in the country where snap beans or

“Baguio beans”, as it is locally called have long been cultivated. Snap bean is one of the most popular crops being grown commercially. One important factor to consider for successful production is the variety that are adapted to the environmental condition. Some studies revealed that the growth and yield of pole snap beans are best in higher elevation areas which include Benguet province.

The commercial production of beans is distributed worldwide. It is highly adapted and performs well in terms of growth and yield. However, many problems are still encountered even

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with such knowledge and experiences about proper management in growing beans. Therefore, continued efforts and inclusive research approach are required to improve performance and resolve the yield, disease and quality problems that limit the production.

The seed is the most basic input in agriculture. It is the beginning or source of a plant. Its practical purpose is for planting, propagation and multiplication (Fernandez, 2003). In Benguet, a lot of studies have been conducted regarding snap beans but few focused on the performance of seeds that are stored in different span of years. Most of the farmers use their own produced seeds as planting materials. Proper storage and labeling are sometimes neglected that result to poor growth and low yield. In this regards, it is important to know the nature of the seed before sowing.

The objectives of the study were to:

1. evaluate the growth and yield of five varieties of pole snap bean that were produced in three different years under organic production system in La Trinidad, Benguet;

2. determine the best variety of pole snap bean for organic production in La Trinidad, Benguet;

3. determine the best year of seed production of pole snap bean as source of planting material; and

4. determine the interaction effect of variety and year of seed production of pole snap bean.

The study was conducted at the Organic Farm of Benguet State University, in Balili, La Trinidad, Benguet from November 2010 to March 2011.

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The Plant

Snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a member of the Fabaceae or legume family and is of New World origin. The wild ancestors of the modern snap bean come from Central and South America. These ancestral types are found across a range of environments, from moderately hot, arid climates to humid lowland tropics and even into cooler upland areas of South America. The beans of this species grown in North America today are grown in a more limited temperate climatic zone (Navazio et al., 2007).

Kampermpool (2005) cited that snap beans is a popular legume that provides a good source of protein and carbohydrates and their origin can be traced to Central America. It is widely cultivated in temperate, subtropical, and tropical regions. Snap beans are cultivated for its edible, tender pods and dry seeds.

Shrestha (1989) added that legumes are the richest and cheapest common source of protein among all foods of plant origin. Its protein content is a cheap substitute for animal protein. Legumes are recognized as important food for human diet and supplementary feed for animals.

Aside from the importance of legumes as food, Rai (1986) states that legumes are important in agriculture as replenisher of soil nitrogen. With the rising world population and the declining supply of fossil fuels required to manufacture nitrogen fertilizer, it may be necessary to rely more on microorganisms associated with legumes to supply plant need for nitrogen.

Legumes produce nodules in which the root nodule bacteria in symbiosis with the plants fix atmospheric nitrogen in the form to be utilized by the plant.

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Climatic Requirements

Snap bean is a tender, warm season crop that requires warm, well drained soils for germination. Temperature of 70°-80°F (21°-27°C) is preferred for optimum crop growth.

Temperatures above 90°F or below 50°F during flowering may adversely affect pod set and seed yields. Most snap bean cultivars germinate best when soil temperature is at or above 65°F (12°C), but germination may be inhibited at temperatures above 95°F (35°C). There are instances when seed growers must plant with soil temperatures below optimum in order to fully mature a seed crop by the end of the season. Cultivars vary considerably in their ability to germinate in cool, moist soils and to resist common root rot organisms that can damage or destroy seedlings (Navazio et al., 2007).

Peet (1995) states that beans are day-neutral or short day plants. The optimum temperature for seed emergence is 77 0F. Germination is slow at 60 0F and seeds rot at lower temperatures. Because of the large volume of the seed relative to its surface area, a moist soil is required for germination. Since bean cotyledons must be pushed through the soil to the surface, a crusted or cloddy soil reduces emergence.

Peet (1995) also added that the optimum temperature for plant growth is 60 to 70 0F with some growth occurring between 50 to 80 0F. Snap beans require 1,050 to 1,150 degree days of heat, with a base of 50 0F. Temperatures above 90 0F cause fibrous pods and blossom drop. Very rainy conditions during flowering also can cause flowers to drop. Southern peas are usually considered to be more heat and drought tolerant than snap beans.

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Varietal Evaluation

Varietal evaluation is a process in crop breeding which provides comparison of promising lines with the local check in order to establish the superiority of the lines developed by the breeder. It is only through varietal evaluation that a breeder sees the better performance of developed lines in terms of yield and quality, resistance to pests, stress and other parameters.

Different varieties have different potentials of fixing atmospheric nitrogen and yield with response to the inoculation. Varietal evaluation is important to determine high yielding varieties which is most responsive to inoculation (Shrestha, 1989).

According to Bantog and Padua in 1999, to ensure productivity of excellent varieties, varieties either from local or foreign collection have to be introduced. Nevertheless, the yield and quality potentials of varieties vary depending on the condition they are exposed to such as climate, weather, soil factors and the like. The ultimate way to determine the best variety/ies is to test how they fare in specific localities or representative areas per elevation.

In 2008, Tandang et al. identified and selected some promising varieties or potential parentals of snap beans not only for the highlands but also for the mid-elevation areas and lowlands. They added that these improved materials need further evaluation to identify new varieties that are high yielding, with good pod qualities and high resistance to major pests.

Soil and Fertilization

Snap beans are adaptable to a wide range of soil types but will have difficulty emerging in crushed soils. Cover crops or other types of mulch or use of a rotary hoe may be necessary on heavy soils to break the crust. Beans will grow satisfactorily on heavy soils after emergence, however, uniform emergence is particularly important for bush type beans which will be once over mechanically harvested. For maximum uniformity of emergence and subsequent maturity,

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all areas of the field must be well drained and prepared with no crushed, cold or wet areas. Snap beans prefer a well drained soil with a pH of 5.5 to 6.0 but the pH can be as low as 5.0 if Mn or Al are not present in toxic concentrations. Snap beans are sensitive to boron and may experience toxicity problems in fields where boron is naturally high or where it has been added to meet the requirements of cole crops such as cabbage or broccoli. If little or no nitrogen is available in the field, snap beans will nodulate and form symbiotic associations with N-fixing bacteria in the soil even without artificial inoculation. Plants fixing their own N often get off to a slower start in cool spring weather and are less uniform in bloom time and subsequent number of days to harvest, however. Inoculating bean seed with N-fixing bacteria has not been shown to increase yields or even provide nitrogen to snap beans. If not the proper strain, the N-fixing bacterium will be ineffective and possibly parasitic. Fertilization of snap beans is particularly difficult in sandy soils because the risk of salt injury to snap beans is high. High salt levels cause shriveled or desiccated areas on the foliage which often resemble cold injury. Initially, fertilizer applications are sometimes broadcast, rather than banded, to reduce salt injury, but side dressings of N at vining and/or bloom are recommended in sandy soils, or where there have been leaching rains. In soils where zinc is tied up by high pH and phosphate levels, zinc sulfate may be required.

Harvesting one ton of snap beans removes 30 to 74 pounds N, 2 to 6 pounds P2O5 and 5 to 6 pounds K2O from the soil. Manures can be used to supply nutrients for bean production.

Experiments in Alabama showed broiler litter with nutrient levels of 2.8 % N, 1.6 % P and 2.2 % K and applied at a rate of 2.1 tons per acre was as effective as commercial fertilizer (Peet, 1995).

Planting and Seed Handling Precautions

Bean seeds sometimes fail to germinate properly because they have dried down too much in storage. Such seed are said to be 'hard'. Depending on the cultivar, seed moisture contents

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

should not fall below 7 to 10 %. This represents relative humidity in storage of 30 to 45 % for beans kept at 77 0F. In some cases, exposing seed to humid conditions for several days before planting will help, but it is better to use properly stored seed. Bean seed is fragile and bags of seed must be handled carefully, not dropping or compressing seed bags. Cracking of the seed coats leads to leaching of carbohydrates and rotting of the seed after planting. Breaking off either the plummule or a cotyledon results in 'snakeheads' or 'baldheads' with slow growth, increased disease and insect susceptibility and decreased uniformity. Operating a plate type planter at less than 3 mph and plateless types at 4 to 5 mph will help protect seed during planting (Peet, 1995).

Icishahayo et al. (2007) stated that a crop may be suitable for commercial seed production if farmers are not satisfied with the availability or quality of their own seed or seed sold in markets and shops, experience seed shortages at planting time, are already used to purchasing seed, the crop suffers from diseases found inside the seed or carried in the soil, or good quality seed can be produced by non-specialists.

Mallya (1992) as cited by Icishahayo et al. (2007) added that seed quality is the total sum of many seed attributes like genetic purity, moisture content, mechanical damage, viability and vigor, size and appearance.

According to the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) (1999) as cited by Icishahayo et al. (2007) defined that health of seed refers to the presence or absence of disease- causing organisms, such as fungi, bacteria and viruses, and animal pests, such as eelworms and insects.

Schwartz and Gálvez (1980) as cited by Icishhayo et al. (2007) stated that fungal seed borne disease pathogens affect bean seed viability and germination. Furthermore, they said that germination tests are essential as they help to determine the maximum germination potential of a

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seed lot, which can be used to compare the quality of different seed lots and also estimate the field planting value. Seed quality adversely affects crop establishment and the capacity to realize yield potential. Healthy and pathogen-free seeds should be able to germinate and give rise to vigorous plants with high yielding capacity. In general what is considered clean seed has 0%

pathogen infection, however in tropical conditions marginal levels between 0.5 and 1% infection can be accepted.

Seed Germination and Viability

The term germination is applied to the resumption of the growth of the seed embryo after the period of dormancy. Germination does not take place unless the seed has been transported to a favorable environment by one of the agencies of seed dispersal. The primary conditions of a favorable environment are adequate water, oxygen and suitable temperature. Different species of plants germinate best in different temperatures; as a rule, extremely cold or extremely warm temperature does not favor germination. Some seeds also require adequate exposure to light before germination. Each species has its specific period of viability (capable of growing into healthy organism); seeds sown after the period of optimum viability may produce weak plants or may not germinate (Microsoft Encarta, 2007).

Seed History and Performance

Louwaars (1994) as cited by De Guzman and Fernandez (2003) stated that the use of seeds marks the transition from human food collection to the sedentary civilizations. Seed remains to be a basic input in any agricultural production system and thus, its proper storage is of utmost importance.

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Harrington (1973) as cited by De Guzman and Fernandez (2003) stated that in ancient times, seeds were stored in clay jars, woven grass or cane baskets, and leather bags. These containers are still used by farmers in many parts of the world. At present, hermetic storage, resealable tins or plastic containers are some of the recommended methods for storage of seeds.

In 1999, Bantog and Padua evaluated promising varieties of pole snap beans in different elevations. The study revealed that maturity was earliest in low elevation compared to mid elevation and high elevation. BSU Sel. No. 1 and Blue Lake were the earliest-maturing variety and latest-maturing variety, respectively. Alno, Burik and Patig are mid-maturing varieties. The study also proved that climatic condition, specifically temperature, have an enzymatic effect on biological and physiological activities in plants that resulted to shorter maturity. Regarding yield performance, Patig significantly outyielded all the varieties evaluated including Alno, the control, and BSU Sel. No. 1 was the poorest yielder. Burik and Alno yielded comparatively with Patig. Thus, they recommended Patig, Alno and Burik should be planted in high elevation areas for best results.

In 2005, Neyney evaluated the pod setting and fresh pod potential of commonly grown pole snapbean varieties in La Trinidad. He recommended Taichung and Violeta for commercial production under La Trinidad because of better performance than the others. These two varieties performed significantly in terms of number of flower cluster per plant, flower per cluster, number of pods per plant and weight of marketable and total pod yields.

In 2007, Tandang and her team evaluated snapbean cultivars for the Philippine highlands.

Twelve pole snap bean were included in the study namely: Alno, CPV 69, Hav 71, Patig, CPV 64, Violeta, Burik, B-21, N2643, CPV 60, Taichung, Bluelake and FM 1. The study revealed that Violeta significantly registered the highest computed yield/ha followed by Burik and N2643

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

An area of 225m² was thoroughly prepared and divided into three blocks consisting of 15 1m x 5m plots per replication. The experiment was laid out following 3x5 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications.

The seeds of pole snap beans were obtained from Benguet State University – Institute of Plant Breeding Highland Crops Research Station (BSU-IPB HCRS). The production year of planting materials was considered as factor A and the promising varieties of pole snap bean for organic production as factor B, as follows:

Factor A: Production year of planting materials

Factor B: Promising organic varieties

Y1 - 2008 V1 – Patig Y2 - 2009 V2 – Mabunga Y3 - 2010 V3 – CPV 60

V4 – Tublay V5 – B 21

Three seeds of snap bean were sown per hill in a double row plot at a distance of 30cm x 30cm between hills and between rows. All cultural management practices for organic production of snap beans such as application of BSU Grower’s compost, irrigation by the use of water pump from Balili River, hand weeding, trellising (Figure 1), hilling-up (Figure 2), and pest control with the use of yellow trap and leaf pruning or leaf thinning, i.e. removal of infected and infested leaves were practiced.

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Figure 1. Trellising of pole snap bean varieties

Figure 2. Hilling-up of pole snap bean Data Gathered:

1. Agroclimatic data. Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and sunshine duration prevailing over the experimental area during the period of study were collected at the BSU/PAGASA, Agronomical – Meteorological Station.

2. Maturity

a. Number of days from sowing to emergence. This was taken by counting the number of days from planting up to the time when at least 50% of plants per plot emerged (Figure 3).

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Figure 3 b plot (8 D Germi c.

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b. Weight of non-marketable pods per plot. This was gathered by getting the weight of pods that were abnormal in shape and had 20% or more insect pest and disease damage.

c. Total yield per plot. The over-all total weight of marketable and non-marketable pods was obtained by getting the sum of all the weight of marketable and non-marketable yield throughout the harvesting period.

d. Computed yield per hectare (t/ha). This was computed using the formula:

Yield per hectare (t/ha) = Total yield/plot (kg/m²) x 2

where 2 was the factor used to convert yield in kg/5m² plot into yield per hectare in ton/ha.

5. Reaction to bean rust and pod borer. This was determined at peak of harvesting stage using the respective rating scale for bean rust infection (Figure 6) and pod borer infestation used at BSU-IPB by Tandang et al., (2008) as follows:

a. Bean rust

Scale Percent infection Remarks

1 Less than 20% infection per plot highly resistant 2 20-40% infection per plot moderately resistant 3 41-60% infection per plot mildly resistant 4 61-80% infection per plot susceptible 5 81-100% infection per plot very susceptible

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Figur b. P S 1 2 3 4 5 G. Re and ROC

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Analysis of Data

All quantitative data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for 3x5 factorial experiment in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The significance of differences among treatments means were tested using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of significance.

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

RESULTS AND DICUSSION

Agroclimatic Data

During the conduct of the study, the prevailing temperature and relative humidity in La Trinidad were within the range that is favorable for organic production of snap beans. According to Navazio, J. et al. in 2007, temperature of 210C to 270C is preferred for optimum growth of snap bean. Table 1 shows the temperature that prevailed during the conduct of the study. It ranged from 15.15 0C to 23.83 0C and the relative humidity ranged from 77.50 % to 86.75 %.

The total amount of rainfall recorded was 7.34 mm in November 2010 then it declined in the succeeding months. In December, rainfall was only 2.76 mm and 1.64 mm in January 2011 which was observed insufficient for snap bean production. Thus, irrigation was done using water pump once a week to supplement adequate water requirement for snap bean production.

Sunshine duration was also low during the conduct of the study. In November, it was 262.40 min, then it increased to 303.00 min in December. There was 319.94 min daily sunshine duration in January 2011.

Table 1. The Agroclimatic condition gathered from November 2010 to January 2011.

MONTH

AIR TEMPERATURE

(0C)

RELATIVE HUMIDITY

(%)

AMOUNT OF RAINFALL

(mm)

SUNSHINE DURATION

(min) MIN MAX

November 15.15 23.83 84.50 7.34 262.40

December 14.10 24.78 86.75 2.76 303.00

January 18.23 24.28 77.50 1.64 318.94

Number of Days from Sowing to Emergence

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Effect of production year of planting materials. Highly significant differences on the number of days from sowing to emergence among the different production years of planting materials were noted (Table 2 Figure 3). Planting materials that were produced in 2009 and 2010 emerged similarly in seven days after planting (DAP), one day earlier than the emergence of planting materials produced in 2008.

Table 2. Number of days from sowing to emergence and from emergence to flowering, first harvest and last harvest of five pole snap bean varieties from seeds produced in three different years

TREATMENT

NUMBER OF DAYS FROM

SOWING TO EMERGENCE

FROM EMERGENCE TO FLOWERING FIRST

HARVEST

LAST HARVEST Production year of

planting materials (A)    

2008

7b 44 55a 92b

2009

6a 44 56b 93a

2010

6a 44 55a 93a

Variety (B) Patig

8c 47d 59c 95a

Mabunga

6a 42b 56b 95a

CPV 60

6a 41a 50a 91b

Tublay

7b 45c 56b 91b

B 21

7b 45c 57b 91b

(A x B) * ** ** ns

CV (%) 4.52 1.34 1.46 0.66

** - highly significant

* - significant ns - not significant

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

Effect of variety. Table 2 also shows the highly significant differences on the number of days from sowing to emergence among the varieties evaluated. Mabunga and CPV 60 emerged within six DAP, one day earlier than Tublay and B 21. Patig took eight days to emerge.

Interaction effect. Statistical analysis revealed that variety and production year of planting materials had significant interaction effect on the number of days from sowing to emergence. Figure 7 shows that CPV 60 with planting material produced in year 2008, 2009 and 2010 emerged six days after sowing which was similar to Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2009, 2010 and B21 with planting materials produced in 2010, one day earlier than other treatment combinations except Patig with planting materials produced in 2008 and 2009 which took eight days to emerge.

Number of Days from Emergence to Flowering

Production year of planting materials 2010 2009

2008

Number of days

4 6 8

Figure 7. Significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials on the number of days from sowing to emergence of pole snap beans

10

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three

Effect of production year of planting materials. Results revealed no significant differences on the number of days from emergence to flowering among the production years of planting materials (Table 2). Regardless of the production years of planting materials, snap bean took similar number of days from emergence to flowering, within 44 days.

Effect of variety. Among the varieties evaluated, CPV 60 significantly flowered earliest within 41 DAE, one day earlier than Mabunga. Tublay had comparable days from emergence to flowering with B 21, (45 DAE). Patig was the latest to flower in 47 DAE (Table 2).

Interaction effect. Observation showed highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials on the number of days from emergence to flowering. CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010 took the fewest days from emergence to flowering within 41 DAE, one day earlier than Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2008, 2009 and CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2008. Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2010 flowered within 43 DAE which is one day earlier than B 21 with planting materials produced in 2008 and 2010. Tublay with planting materials produced in 2008, 200, 2010 and B 21 with planting materials produced in 2009 flowered similarly within 45 DAE, two days earlier than Patig with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010. Patig with planting materials produced in 2008 took the most days from emergence flowering (Figure 8).

50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43

ys

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Number of Days from Emergence to First Harvest

Effect of production year of planting materials. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences on the number of days from emergence (DAE) to first harvesting among the different production years of planting materials (Table 2). Planting materials produced in 2008 were first harvested in 55 DAE similar to those produced in 2010 that was one day earlier than planting materials that were produced in 2009.

Effect of variety. Highly significant differences were noted on number of days from emergence to first harvest among the varieties of snap bean tested. Apparently, it was also observed that number of days from emergence to first harvest was related to number of days from emergence to flowering. Variety which flowered earliest were consequently harvested earliest. CPV 60 was first harvested variety within 50 DAE, six days earlier than Mabunga and Tublay. B 21 was first harvested within 57 DAE which was two days earlier than Patig (Table 2).

Interaction effect. Highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on the number of days from emergence to first harvest (Figure 9).

Production year of planting materials

Figure 8. Highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year planting materials on the number of days from emergence to flowering of pole snap beans

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The CPV 60 with planting materials produced in year 2009 and 2010 were first harvested within 49 DAE, two days earlier than CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2008.

Mabunga and Tublay with planting materials produced in 2008 was first harvested within 55 DAE, one day earlier than Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2009, 2010 and B 21 with planting materials produced in 2010. Tublay with planting materials produced in 2009 was first harvested within 57 DAE which was comparable to B 21 with planting materials produced in 2008, two days earlier than Patig with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010. Patig with planting materials produced in 2008 took many days form emergence to first harvest.

Number of Days from Emergence to Last Harvest

Number of Days from Emergence to Last Harvest

Effect of production year of planting materials. Significant differences were noted on the number of days from emergence to last harvest among production year of planting materials.

Planting materials produced in 2008 took 92 DAE to last harvest, one day earlier than planting

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

2008 2009 2010

Number of days

Production year of planting materials

Figure 9. Highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials on the number of days from emergence to first harvest

60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

materials produced in 2009 and 2010 (Table 2). This indicated that seeds produced within two years before planting had longer harvesting period than those produced more than two years at planting time.

Effect of variety. Highly significant differences were found on number of days from emergence to last harvest among the five varieties of snap bean evaluated (Table 2). CPV 60, Tublay and B 21 took 91 DAE to last harvest which was earlier than Mabunga and Patig which took 95 DAE to last harvesting. Moreover, CPV 60 had the longest duration of producing fresh pod yield within 41 days which was two days longer than Mabunga. Patig produced fresh pods in 36 days which was one day longer than Tublay while B 21 had the shortest duration of producing pods.

Interaction effect. No significant interaction effect of the variety and production year of planting materials used was noted on the number of days from emergence to last harvest (Table 2).

Percent Germination

Effect of production year of planting materials. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences in percent germination among the different production years of the planting materials. Seeds produced in 2009 and 2010 had higher percentage germination than the seeds produced in 2008 (Table 3).

Effect of variety. Highly significant differences were observed on the percent germination among different varieties of pole snap bean evaluated (Table 3). CPV 60 had the highest germination percentage followed by B 21 and Mabunga which was higher than Tublay.

Patig had the lowest percent germination. The differences in the rate of germination may be attributed to the varietal characteristics of different snap beans that were evaluated.

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Table 3. Percent germination of five pole snap bean varieties from seeds produced in three different years

TREATMENT

GERMINATION (%)

Production year of

planting materials (A)          

2008 48.66b

2009 70.67a

2010 79.62a

Variety (B) Patig

53.93e Mabunga

67.66c

CPV 60 76.07a

Tublay 64.43d

B 21 69.50b

(A x B)

     ns   

C.V. (%)

     11.22   

ns - not significant

Interaction effect. It was observed that there was no significant interaction effect of production year of planting materials and variety on the percent germination of snap beans (Table 3).

Pod Length

Effect of production year of planting materials. Significant differences were observed in pod length among different production years of planting materials (Table 4). Planting materials

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

produced in the year 2009 and 2010 had comparable pod length of more than 14.40 cm. Planting materials produced in 2008 had the shortest pods (14.12 cm).. This indicates that longer pods could be produced using those seeds produced within two years before planting than using more than two year old seeds in growing pole snap bean.

Table 4. Pod length, width and diameter of five pole snap bean varieties from seeds produced in three different years

TREATMENT POD LENGTH

(cm)

POD WIDTH (cm)

POD DIAMETER (cm) Production year of

planting materials(A)

2008 14.12b 1.02a 1.04

2009 14.49a 1.00b 1.04

2010 14.45a 1.03a 1.04

Variety (B)

Patig 13.78b 1.03a 1.03b

Mabunga 18.24a 1.04a 1.05a

CPV 60 13.72b 1.02a 1.05a

Tublay 12.98c 1.00ab 1.04ab

B 21 13.06bc 0.98b 1.03b

(A x B) * * ns   

CV (%) 2.92 2.16 0.85   

* - significant

ns - not significant  

Effect of variety. The different varieties showed highly significant differences on pod length (Table 4 and Figure 10). Mabunga produced the longest pods, longer than the other varieties evaluated. Tublay produced the shortest pods.

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Variety 3 Variety 4

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lanting mate

atig ga

ical analysis erials on pod

revealed sig d length of sn

p gnificant int nap bean. Fi

Variety 5 – pole snap be

eraction effe igure 11 show

Va

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ws that Mab ariety

y and bunga

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

with different production years of planting materials produced significantly longer pods than the other treatment combinations followed by CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2010.

Patig with planting materials produced in 2008 had 13.93 cm pod length, 0.53 cm longer than B 21 with planting materials produced in 2009. Patig with planting materials produced in 2009 had 13.57 cm length of pods, 0.5 cm longer than Tublay with planting materials produced in 2009.

Patig with planting materials produced in 2010 had 13.83 cm length of pod, 0.66 longer than CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2008. B 21 with planting materials produced in 2008 had the shortest pod length.

Pod Width

Effect of production year of planting materials. Highly significant differences were observed on the pod width among different production years of planting materials (Table 4).

2010 2009

2008 20

19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

Pod length (cm)

Production year of planting materials

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

Figure 11. Significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials on the pod length of snap beans.

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three

Planting materials produced in 2010 had the widest pod of 1.03 cm which was comparable to planting materials produced in 2008. Planting materials produced in 2009 had the narrowest pod with a mean width of 1.00 cm.

Effect of variety. Highly significant differences were observed on the pod width among different varieties (Table 4 and Figure 10). Mabunga had the widest pod which were comparable to pod width of other tested varieties except for B 21 which had the narrowest pods.

Interaction effect. Significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on fresh pod width of pole snap bean. Figure 12 shows that CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2010 had the broadest pod of 1.05 cm, comparable to Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010 and Patig with planting materials produced in 2008. Patig with planting materials produced in 2010 had similar pod width with CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2008 with a mean pod width of 1.03 cm, 0.04 cm wider than Tublay with planting materials produced in 2010 and B 21 with planting materials produced in 2008. Patig with planting materials produced in 2009 had comparable pod width with Tublay and Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2008, 0.02 cm wider than Tublay with planting materials produced in 2009. B 21 with planting materials produced in 2009 had the narrowest pod width.

1.07 1.06 1.05 1.04 1.03 1.02 1.01 1.00 0.99 0.98 0.97

Pod width (cm)

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Figure 12. Significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials on pod width of snap bean

Pod Diameter

Effect of production year of planting materials. Table 4 further shows no significant differences on pod diameter of snap bean among the production years of planting materials. All the planting materials produced in different years had comparable pod diameter of 1.04 cm.

Effect of variety. Highly significant differences in pod diameter were observed among the varieties of pole snap bean studied (Table 4). The pod diameter of Mabunga and CPV 60 were comparable, together with the pod diameter of Tublay which was statistically similar with pod diameter of B 21 and Patig.

Interaction effect. No significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on pod diameter of pole snap bean (Table 4).

Pod Texture

The varieties observed in the study had similar smooth textured pods. The study showed that different production year of planting materials did not affect the pod texture exhibited by the different pole snap bean varieties.

Pod Straightness

2008 2009 2010

Production year of planting materials

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The study showed that all of the varieties had straight pods. However, Mabunga and Patig produced more curve pods compared to other varieties. This could be due to varietal differences.

Pod Shape

Mabunga had round pods while the other varieties produced flat pods. The study showed that different production year of planting materials did not affect the pod shape of different pole snap bean varieties. Again, this could be due to varietal differences.

Pod Color

Mabunga produced purple pods while the other varieties produced green pods. The pod color of snap bean was not affected by the different production years of planting materials (Figure 10). The purple color of Mabunga pods is influenced by its unique varietal characteristic.

Weight of Marketable Pods per Plot

Effect of production year of planting materials. There were highly significant differences in weight of marketable pods per plot among the different production years of planting materials evaluated. Planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010 produced significantly higher than planting materials produced in 2008 (Table 5).

Table 5. Fresh pod yield per plot and computed yield per hectare of five pole snap bean varieties from seeds produced in three different years

TREATMENT

FRESH POD YIELD PER PLOT (kg/5m2) COMPUTED YIELD PER

HECTARE (t/ha)

MARKETABLE NON-

MARKETABLE TOTAL Production year of

planting material (A)    

2008 3.89b 0.94b 4.84b 9.67b

2009 5.31a 1.31a 6.61a 13.22a

2010 5.48a 1.36a 6.84a 13.68a

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Variety (B)

Patig 3.67d 0.83c 4.49d 8.99d

Mabunga 6.27a 2.04a 8.31a 16.62a

CPV 60 5.08b 1.13b 6.21b 12.42b

Tublay 4.26c 1.01bc 5.27c 10.54c

B 21 5.20b 0.99bc 6.19b 12.38b

(A x B) ns ** ** **

CV (%) 5.19 9.64 5.16

5.16

** - highly significant ns - not significant Effect of variety. The five varieties of pole snap bean tested also showed highly significant differences on the weight of marketable pods per plot. Mabunga yielded the highest marketable pods per plot. It was higher than marketable fresh pods of B 21 and CPV 60. Tublay yielded 4.26 kg/5 m2 while Patig recorded the least marketable yield per plot (Table 5).

Interaction effect. No significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on the weight of marketable pods per plot of pole snap bean (Table 5).

Weight of Non-marketable Pods per Plot

Effect of production year of planting materials. Highly significant differences were observed on the weight of non-marketable pods per plot among the different production years of planting materials (Table 5). Planting materials produced in 2010 and 2009 had higher non-marketable pods than planting materials produced in 2008 which had less than one kilogram of non-marketable pod yield per 5 m2 plot. The non- marketability of pods was caused not only by pest and diseases but also due to different stages of maturity. Planting materials that were produced in less than two years produced more matured and lumpy pods that were considered as non-marketable.

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Effect of variety. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences on the weight of non-marketable pods among the different varieties (Table 5). Mabunga had the highest non-marketable fresh pods per plot, It was followed by CPV 60 which had higher non-marketable pods per plot than Tublay and B 21. Patig also recorded the least weight of non-marketable pods per plot. The higher weight of non-marketable pods of Mabunga was due to the longer pods that tended to bend during pod development that resulted to non-marketable pods.

Interaction effect. Highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on the weight of non-marketable pods per plot.

Figure 13 shows that Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010 had the heaviest non-marketable pods, 1.0 kg heavier than CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2010. Tublay had 1.24 kg of non-marketable pods, less than 0.50 kg heavier than Patig with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010, CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2008 and 2009, Tublay with planting materials produced in 2009 and B 21 with planting materials produced in three different years. Patig and Tublay with planting materials produced in 2008 had the least weight of non-marketable pods per plot.

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

Weight (kg)

2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6

2009 2010 2008

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011 Figure 13. Highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting

materials on the weight of non-marketable pods per plot of snap beans

Total Yield per Plot

Effect of production year of planting materials. The total yield per plot of snap beans with planting materials produced in different years were found to be highly significant different (Table 5). Planting materials produced in 2010 produced the highest total yield per plot which was comparable to the total yield of planting materials produced in 2009. They significantly outyielded the planting materials produced in 2008.

Effect of variety. Mabunga gave the highest total yield per plot which was significantly higher than CPV 60 and B 21. Patig gained the lowest total yield per plot.

Interaction effect. The variety and production year of planting materials of pole snap beans had high significant interaction effect on total yield per plot (Figure 14).

Among the entries, Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2010 and 2009 yielded most significantly higher than CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2010. CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2009 had 6.65 kg of total fresh pod yield per plot which was comparable to the yield of B 21 with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010, Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2008 and Tublay with planting materials produced in 2010. Tublay with planting materials produced in 2009 had 5.81 kg total yield per plot which was comparable to B 21 with planting materials produced in 2008, almost 0.50 kg heavier than Patig with planting materials produced in 2009, 2010 and CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2008. Patig and Tublay with planting materials produced in 2008 recorded the least total yield per plot.

Production year of planting materials

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Computed Yield per Hectare

Effect of production year of planting materials. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences in the computed yield per hectare among the different production years of planting materials (Table 5). Planting materials that were produced in 2010 and 2009 has the highest computed yield per hectare than those of planting materials produced in 2008 (Table 5).

Figure 14. Highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials on the total yield per plot of snap beans

Effect of variety. In terms of computed yield per hectare, Mabunga also registered the highest yield per hectare. It was followed by CPV 60 and B 21. Also Patig recorded lowest computed yield per hectare (8.99 t/ha).

Interaction effect. Highly significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on the computed yield per hectare (Figure 15).

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

Production year of planting materials

Yield (kg)

2009 9.5

9.0 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.0 6.5.

6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5.

4.0 3.5

2008 2010

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2010 and 2009 yielded most followed by CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2010 and 2009. B21 with planting materials produced in 2009 and 2010 were comparable which were higher than Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2008 and Tublay with planting materials produced in 2010. Tublay with planting materials had 11.61 t/ha computed yield, 0.56 t/ha heavier than B 21 with planting materials produced in 2008. Patig with planting materials produced in 2008 yielded least consequently had the least computed yield per hectare.

This result shows that seeds of snap beans purposely for planting material are affected by duration of storage. Snap bean seeds stored in more than two years are less productive.

Figure 15. Interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials on the computed yield per hectare of snap beans

Reaction to Bean Rust

Effect of production year of planting materials. No significant differences were observed on the reaction to bean rust infection among the different production years of planting materials of snap beans. The study revealed that planting materials produced in 2008, 2009 and 2010 had comparable rating of mildly resistant to bean rust.

Production year of planting materials 2010 2009

2008 19

18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7

Legend:

Patig Mabunga CPV 60 Tublay B 21

Computed yield (kg)

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Effect of variety. Bean rust infection among five varieties of pole snap bean was found highly significant. Mabunga and Tublay had moderate resistance rating. CPV 60 and B 21 had both mildly resistant rating while Patig was found susceptible to bean rust.

Interaction effect. No significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on the bean rust infection in pole snap bean.

Reaction to Pod Borer

Effect of production year of planting materials. No significant differences were observed on the pod borer infestation among the different production year of planting material of snap beans.

Effect of variety. Highly significant differences were observed on the pod borer infestation among the different varieties tested. CPV 60, B 21, Tublay and Mabunga were rated moderately resistant to pod borer while Patig was most affected exhibiting mild resistance to pod borer.

Interaction effect. No significant interaction effect of the variety and production year of planting materials was observed on the pod borer infestation in pole snap bean. All the varieties tested with different production year of planting materials exhibited moderate resistance to pod borer except Patig with planting materials produced in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were found to have comparable mild resistance rating.

Return on Cash Expenses (ROCE)

Effect of production year of planting materials. The ROCE on growing pole snap beans grown for seeds of different production years of pole snap beans is shown in Table 6. It was seen that planting materials produced in 2010 recorded the highest ROCE followed by planting materials that were produced in 2009. Planting materials produced in 2008 registered the least

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

ROCE. Planting materials produced in the last two years before planting gave higher ROCE than those planting materials produced in 2008. Although positive ROCE was realized even when the seeds used in planting snap bean had been stored for three years under ambient room condition.

Effect of variety. All the varieties studied were found profitable. Mabunga that gave the highest pod yield consequently had the highest ROCE followed by B 21 which had comparable ROCE with CPV 60. Patig registered the least ROCE (Table 6).

Interaction effect. Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2010 and 2009 recorded the highest ROCE followed by CPV 60 and B 21 with planting materials produced in 2010. CPV 60 and B21 with planting materials produced in 2009 were comparable, 30% higher than Tublay with planting materials produced in 2010. Mabunga with planting materials produced in 2008 had 143.41% ROCE, 15% higher than Tublay with planting materials produced in 2009. Tublay with planting materials produced in 2008 had 13% advantage than Patig with planting materials produced in 2010. CPV 60 with planting materials produced in 2008 and Patig with planting materials produced in 2009 had comparable ROCE, 40% higher than Tublay with planting materials produced in 2008. Patig with planting materials produced in 2008 had the least ROCE.

Table 6. Return on Cash Expenses (ROCE) on growing five pole snap bean varieties from seeds produced in three different years

ENTRIES

MARKETABLE PODS

(kg)

GROSS SALE

(PhP)

TOTAL EXPENSES

(PhP)

NET INCOME

(PhP)

ROCE (%) Planting materials

produced in 2008

Patig 8.5 340 246.5 93.5 37.93

Mabunga 15 600 246.5 353.5 143.41

CPV 60 12 480 246.5 233.5 94.73

Tublay 9.5 380 246.5 133.5 54.16

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B 21 13.4 536 246.5 289.5 117.44 Planting materials

produced in 2009

Patig 11.9 476 246.5 229.5 93.10

Mabunga 20.5 820 246.5 573.5 232.66

CPV 60 16.5 660 246.5 413.5 167.75

Tublay 14.1 564 246.5 317.5 128.80

B 21 16.6 664 246.5 417.5 169.37

Planting materials produced in 2010

Patig 12.6 504 246.5 257.5 104.46

Mabunga 20.9 836 246.5 589.5 239.15

CPV 60 17.2 688 246.5 441.5 179.11

Tublay 14.7 588 246.5 341.5 138.54

B 21 16.8 672 246.5 425.5 172.62

• Total expenses includes land preparation, cost of compost fertilizer, trellis, care and management include weeding, hilling-up and watering.

Selling price: Php 40/kg

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Evaluation of Pole Snap Bean Varieties from Seeds Produced in Three Different Years Under Organic Production System / Andrew D. Tupeng 2011

SUMMARRY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

The study was conducted at Benguet State University Experimental Station, Balili, La Trinidad to evaluate different pole snap bean varieties with different production years of planting materials under organic production system; determine the best variety and best storage duration of seeds for planting material; and to determine the interaction effect of variety and different storage duration of planting materials.

There were significant differences in almost all the parameters observed in this study among the different production years of planting materials except for days from emergence to flowering, pod diameter and resistance to bean rust and pod borer. Planting materials produced in 2010 had better or comparable performance with planting materials produced in 2009 which significantly outperformed snap beans grown from planting materials produced in 2008.

In all the parameters measured, there were highly significant differences among the five varieties evaluated. Mabunga was the first to germinate which was comparable to CPV 60, one day earlier than Tublay and B 21. Patig took eight days to emerge. CPV 60 had the highest percent germination which was comparable to B 21, Mabunga and Tublay. Patig had the least percent emergence. CPV 60 flowered and matured first among the varieties evaluated. Patig was the latest to flower and to mature. Mabunga outyielded other varieties and it was observed moderately resistant to bean rust and pod borer. Patig was the poorest yielder and it was observed mildly resistant to bean rust and pod borer.

No significant interaction effect of variety and production year of planting materials was observed on the percent germination, number of days from emergence to last harvest, pod diameter, weight of marketable pods per plot, reaction to bean rust infection and reaction to pod

Pigura

Figure 1. Trellising of pole snap bean varieties
Figure 2. Hilling-up of pole snap bean  Data Gathered:
Figure 3 b plot (8 D     Germi c.
Figure 5. Ma
+7

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

Keywords: mass mortality of green mussel, improper disposal, RA 9003, environmental law implementation Solid Waste Disposal Practices of Green Mussel Farmers in Samar Philippines

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