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CALISAAN, MARICHU D. APRIL 2008. Communication Strategies Applied by DA-CAR in the Promotion of GMA Rice Program in Sablan, Benguet. Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet.

Adviser: Filmore Y. Awas, BSc

ABSTRACT

The study focused on the communication strategies applied by the DA-CAR in the promotion of GMA Rice Program in Sablan, Benguet. It involved the problems encountered by both the respondents and the implementers during implementation of the program. It also aimed to determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents;

the awareness on the GMA Rice Program and their source of information; the language preference of the beneficiaries with regards to the strategies applied in informing the beneficiaries; and to determine the effects of the communication strategies applied by the program as perceived by the beneficiaries.

An interview schedule was used in gathering the needed information from 45 respondents. The study was conducted from October 2007- February 2008; data gathered were analyzed using frequency and percentage.

There were more farmer respondents represented in the 20-37 age groups; were married; and had formal education. All of the beneficiaries were aware of the GMA Rice Program implemented by the DA-CAR and other agencies.

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seminars, trainings and workshop; used of radio for local broadcasting; and through IEC printed materials. Beneficiaries and implementers preferred Ilokano language in implementing the program for interpersonal communication. Farm-to-farm cross visit and other extension services including distribution of IEC printed materials improved their farming and it also imparted knowledge. Seminars, trainings, and workshop, and listening to radio, helped them understand more about the program.

The problems encountered by the beneficiaries were inadequate materials in the distribution of IEC materials; lack of monitoring team to supervised them in farm-to-farm cross visit; lack of funds to attend seminars and trainings; and limited radio coverage.

For the implementers, lack of time or interest of the participants during trainings, seminars, and workshop and lack of manpower in the implementation were the problems often encountered.

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Page

Bibliography. . . i

Abstract . . . i

Table of Contents . . . iii

INTRODUCTION Rationale . . . 1

Statement of the Problem . . . 2

Objectives of the Study . . . . . . . 3

Importance of the Study . . . 3

Scope and Limitation of the Study . . . 4

REVIEW OF LITERATURE GMA Rice Program . . . 5

What is Communication Strategy? . . . 7

Strategies Applied . . . 8

Perception of the Respondents . . . 9

Language Preference . . . 9

Effect of Communication Strategy . . . 10

Communication-related Problems by the Implementers . . . 11

Problems Encountered by the Beneficiaries . . . 11

METHODOLOGY Locale and Time of the Study . . . 13

Respondents of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

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Data Gathered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Beneficiaries of the GMA Rice

Program in Sablan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Awareness on the Existence of

the GMA Rice Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Sources of Information on GMA Rice

Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Program Components being Implemented

and the Strategy Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Communication Strategies Used in the

Implementation of the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Communication Strategies Used in the

Implementation of the Program as

Perceived by the Beneficiaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Frequency of Application of the Strategies

Used in Implementing GMA Rice Program . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Language Preference of the Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Effects of the Strategies Applied in Implementing

the Program as Perceived by the Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Problems Encountered by the Beneficiaries with

regards to the Strategies Used in the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Communication Problems Encountered by

the Program Implementers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

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Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 LITERATURE CITED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 APPENDICES

Appendix A. Communication Letter . . . 42 Appendix B. Interview Schedule

for Beneficiaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Appendix C. Questionnaire for Implementers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

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Rationale

Farming is one of the vital professions in Asian countries where farmers could gain profit and produce high quality of yield. As modernization comes, farmers are searching for technologies, farm implements and methods to be used to have good quality of rice especially in the Philippines.

In the Philippines alone, rice is the major crop that farmers plant since it is the staple food of the people here.

Rice is related to the national poverty issue. The 2000 family income and expenditure survey (FIES) reported that 39% of Filipinos are living below the poverty rim. It also constitutes as much as 30% of a family’s food expenditure and doubles that in low income brackets. In effect, an increase in price of rice decreases the household’s disposable income and could intensify poverty (ATI, 2005).

These and other factors moved the government to find ways to alleviate the problem. The Department of Agriculture (DA) for one is designed in helping the farmers to have good quality of crops and high yield productions. Different programs are being conducted by the agency to promote higher quality of crops in the country; one of these is the Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA)- Rice Program.

In promoting GMA Rice Program, the DA, together with its partner agencies, is conducting campaigns to different places specifically in the Cordillera for their clienteles to properly absorb and understand the program.

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Since agricultural programs are meant to reach the farmers to increase their farm production, different communication strategies are being used to disseminate the information for the beneficiaries to be well informed.

The study aims then to assess the communication strategies applied by the DA to promote GMA Rice Program in Benguet specifically in Sablan since these have the highest GMA rice production entire the province as compared to other municipalities.

Statement of the Problem

Information has a vital role in the community. It creates change in perception and makes right decisions to achieve its goal. Therefore, the study aims to assess the strategies applied by the DA-CAR to disseminate information regarding GMA Rice Program for the beneficiaries. Thus, there is a need to answer the following questions:

1. What is the socio-demographic profile of the respondents?

2. What is the level of awareness of the beneficiaries in the program? What is their source of information?

3. What strategies are being used by the implementers in implementing GMA Rice Program?

4. What language do the beneficiaries prefer in implementing the GMA Rice Program?

5. What are the effects of the communication strategies applied by the program as perceived by the beneficiaries?

6. What are the problems encountered by the implementers and beneficiaries?

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Objectives of the Study The study was able to:

1. determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents;

2. determine the respondents’ awareness on the GMA Rice Program and their source of information;

3. determine the strategies used in implementing the GMA Rice Program;

4. determine the language preference of the beneficiaries with regards to the communication-related strategies applied in disseminating GMA Rice Program;

5. determine the effects of the communication strategies applied by the program as perceived by the beneficiaries; and

6. determine problems encountered by the implementers and beneficiaries in the implementation of the GMA Rice program.

Importance of the Study

Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA) Rice Program is one of the programs of the Arroyo’s administration to promote new rice varieties. This program gears towards attainment of rice self-sufficiency and in improving rice productivity and income of farmers and other stakeholders.

The Department of Agriculture (DA) is the main agency tasked to promote agricultural development.

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Since the program is still on-going, the result of the study could be used as a reference for the implementers in evaluating and improving the communication strategies being applied in the program.

The result could also be of use by other students as a reference in conducting the same scope of study.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The study focused on the communication strategies applied by the DA-CAR in the promotion of GMA Rice Program from 2005 to 2006. It also involves the problems encountered by both the respondents and the implementers during implementation of the program.

The study limited its scope in determining the methods used in implementing the GMA Rice Program, language preference of the respondents and the effects of the strategies applied in the program.

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METHODOLOGY

Locale and Time of the Study

The study was conducted at the Department of Agriculture Cordillera Administrative Region (DA-CAR), at ATI-CAR, OPAG, and at Sablan, Benguet from October 2007 to January 2008.

The DA-CAR was located at Guisad Road, Baguio City, ATI-CAR was located at the BSU compound, Km. 5, La Trinindad, Benguet and OPAG was located at Km. 6 La Trinidad, Benguet.

In addition, Sablan (Figure 1) is a 5th class municipality in the province of Benguet. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 9,652 people in 1,873 households. It is politically subdivided into 8 barangays: Bagong, Balluay, Banangan, Banengbeng, Bayabas, Kamog, Pappa, and Poblacion.

Respondents of the Study

Respondents were the program coordinators of the DA-RFU-CAR, OPAG, ATI- CAR, technicians, and the farmers in Sablan, Benguet who were directly involved in the program.

Forty-five farmers, two assigned technicians in Sablan, Benguet, and selected agencies involved in the program (ATI-CAR, OPAG, DA-CAR, and Sablan-MAO) were the respondents of the study.

The researcher used purposive-quota sampling in this study.

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Figure 1. Map of Sablan, Benguet

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Figure2. Map of Sablan, Benguet showing the location of the study

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Data Collection

The data collected through personal interviews with the respondents. For the respondent’s language preferences and socio-demographic profile, data was gathered through the questionnaire prepared. Some data were collected from the initial report of the DA-CAR under the said program specifically on their major problem, which is communication gap. From this data, the researcher was able to draw questions on problems associated with communication gap.

The Department of Agriculture –Cordillera Administrative Region (DA-CAR), Agricultural Training Institute-Cordillera Administrative Region (ATI-CAR), Office of the Provincial Agriculturist (OPAG), and the Municipal Agriculturist Office-Sablan were personally interviewed.

Data Gathered

Using an interview schedule, the data gathered the beneficiaries, technicians, implementing agencies involved in the program; identify the beneficiaries and the implementers of the program; to determine the strategies used by the implementers;

determine the language used by the implementers in implementing communication strategies; and the problems encountered by both implementers and the beneficiaries during the implementation of the program.

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Data Analysis

The data gathered from the respondents were consolidated and tabulated. The socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the communication strategies applied by the DA-CAR were interpreted using percentages and frequencies.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

GMA Rice Program

Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA) (Makapagpabagong Programa Tungo sa Masagana at Maunlad na Agrikultura at Pangisdaan) will be the banner program for agricultural development, a transitional blueprint for putting AFMA to work. As such, it will focus on achieving food security and poverty alleviation, with the LGUs (local government units) and other stakeholders developing their own plans and programs suitable to their respective localities. Such plans and programs should be able to ensure food security by increasing productivity in irrigated areas, while addressing poverty alleviation by providing support to marginal areas to empower those who have the least (DA-CAR,1999).

The GMA Rice Program shall take its own shape with the full implementation of the Agriculture and Fisheries Act (AFMA) by mid-1999 (ATI-CAR,2005).

REPUBLIC Act 8435, otherwise known as the Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA), aims to strengthen the agriculture and fishery sectors through modernization, greater participation of small-holders (or small stakeholders), food security and food self-sufficiency, private sector participation and people empowerment. Sec. Leonardo Q. Montemayor, appointed on February 12, 2001 during the PGMA Administration, led the DA in the implementation of AFMA. The Ginintuang Masaganang Ani Countrywide Assistance for Rural Employment and Services (GMA-

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CARES) was implemented. This is the precursor of the present day Ginintuang Masaganang Ani Rice and Corn Program (ATI-CAR, 2005).

The Department of Agriculture (DA) is the main agency tasked to promote agricultural development. Reorganized under Executive Order 116 dated January 30, 1987, the DA is mandated to provide the policy framework and help direct public investments in agriculture and fishery. In partnership with local government units (LGUs), it provides the support services necessary to make agriculture and agri-based enterprises profitable, and helps spread the benefits of development to the poor, particularly those in the rural areas (ATI-CAR, 2005).

Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA) Rice Program is one of the programs of the Arroyo’s administration to promote new rice varieties (ATI-CAR, 2005).

This program gears towards attainment of rice self-sufficiency and in improving rice productivity and income of farmers and other stakeholders (ATI-CAR, 2005).

This program also aims to increase rice production from 14.49 million tons in 2004; 15.88 million tons in 2006; 16.67 million tons in 2007; and to increase rice farming income through reduction of production cost by 10 percent and increase in yield of 20 percent from 2004-2007. However, the expected output of the program is to have incremental palay production of 2.4 to 3.4 million metric tons or around 1.47 to 1.96 million tons of rice from 2006 to 2007; savings of around 459 to 616 million dollars from rice importation; efficient institutional approach of delivering services to farmers;

revitalized extension system; and more dynamic rural economy (ATI-CAR, 2005).

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Specifically, the program also aims to improve profitability as reflected by increase net farm income; provide adequate food supply that is accessible and affordable to everyone at all time; increase productivity through: promotion of cost-effective technologies and conservation and management of natural resources; and provide a favorable policy conducive to increase agricultural investments and global competitiveness (ATI-CAR,2005).

Agricultural growth stimulates economic growth in nonagricultural sectors, which results in increased employment and reduced poverty. This further stimulates demand for agricultural goods, acting as a growth multiplier in the agricultural sector. The limited availability of new land, however, means that agricultural intensification--increasing the productivity of land already under cultivation--is the key to alleviating poverty through an agricultural growth strategy (Brown and Haddad, 1994).

Communication Strategy

Communication strategy takes the audience from where they are now, to where they want to be. It is important to define how the implementers are trying to communicate with the beneficiaries and to provide hard evidence of what they think (IDEA, 2007).

When developing communications strategy, thinking about the goals that needs to be achieved are important. In addition to any specific objectives related to a certain project, important communication goals include announcing, motivating, educating,

informing, and supporting decision-making (CAHPS, 2007) . Studies have established that communication is more effective when more than

one sense at a time is engaged. This means that the more media are employed, the greater

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is the possibility of message to reach audience and influence them thus combination of interpersonal communication and mass communication strategies is used (IRRI 1991 as cited by Tucdaan, 2005).

Cadiz (1991) stated that a communicator must know the effective use of media in communicating to enhance or induce learning. To be a communicator, he/she must be familiar with the media equipment so that he/she can handle them properly.

Strategies Applied

In reaching the target audience in a good and easiest manner, implementers must have different strategies to be applied.

Radio for one, will be powerful tool in disseminating technologies through radio plugs aired during primetime (ATI-CAR, 2005). Abag (2005) also stated that audience preferred listening to radio program and barrowing of information sources like radio and newspaper.

Awas (2005) also recommends the use of fact sheets in disseminating information. It is recommended that in any printed materials, messages should be presented objectively even in doing information campaigns. This treatment is proven to affect the intended readers more because it gives them option to decide.

Also, the Department of Agriculture conducts trainings and produced IEC materials in disseminating information to the target audience. Technology poster will be posted in farmer frequented areas such as sari-sari store, cockpit arenas, agricultural supply stores, and municipal agriculture offices (ATI-CAR, 2005).

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In addition, Tucdaang (2005) affirmed that hand-outs are usually used by trainers.

Also, using media are very effective because it creates interests among listeners.

Face-to-face communication is also preferred (Sigundo, 2006).

Perceptions of the Beneficiaries

Dictionary defines perception as the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing information. Perception is the process of becoming aware of objects, qualities, relation or problems, which is closely related to action.

Tigo (2004) as cited by Paredes (2007), that one perception of a certain thing determine the overt behavior exhibited under a given condition.

Moreover, perception involves all then ways of becoming aware of things, people, happenings or ideas (Myer, 2005).

Language Preference

Languages are not just sets of symbols. They also contain a grammar, or system of rules, used to manipulate the symbols. While a set of symbols may be used for expression or communication, it is primitive and relatively inexpressive, because there are no clear or regular relationships between the symbols. Because a language also has a grammar, it can manipulate its symbols to express clear and regular relationships between them (IDEA, 2007) .

In communication strategies, implementers must use the language understood by

their target audience so that communication gap may not interfere (IDEA, 2007).

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According to Sigundo (2006), Filipino language is preferred by the respondents in

disseminating information in both radio and in printed materials.

Specifically in Benguet, it was found out that Montañosa Ilocano can raise the awareness of the less-educated and old respondents. The respondents’ place of origin, language spoken at home and at work also affected the language preference, their awareness level and the readability of Montañosa Ilocano (Sabado, 2006).

Effect of Communication Strategy

Communication strategies can affect how their audience think and behave in a certain topic. It helps the audience have sound decision and create change in adopting the new technology being applied.

The introduction of new technologies that alter these communication activities has the potential to influence key aspects of organizational structure and process (Hamel, 2005).

Speakers use communication strategies to resolve difficulties they encounter in expressing an intended meaning (Tarone, 2005).

According to Carlson and Zmud (1998), the increased ability people develop to communicate effectively in different situational contexts correlates with their perceptions that the medium becomes increasingly rich. The mastery of a particular communication channel includes knowledge of appropriate uses of that channel and may bolster media user’s confidence in educating others about the proper uses of the media.

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Communication-related Problems by the Implementers

Chulacupata (1976) as cited by Ramos, 2007, that the main problems in the implementation of the agricultural program are the inactive participation among farmers due to the widespread ignorance and social isolation. They are socio-politically under- developed. This happen when the programs do not determine the interests, needs the situations of the people who never participated in choosing the best method to reach them. Thus, introducing such program is a difficult task to become adaptable of a given idea is totally different just for saying it.

Implementers encountered the following problems which affects information dissemination such as environmental factors, lack of proper information, customs and traditions of the target audience, ignorance of the beneficiaries, and cultural practices and society (Bolinto,1987).

Also, according to Licudan (2003), the staff indicated lack of trainings and insufficient financial capital to generate trainings.

Problems Encountered by the Beneficiaries

Buasen (1984) affirmed that target audience identify communication gap, lack of cooperation among farmers themselves, irregularity of field workers, poor attendance during meetings, discontinuance dissemination activities, poor relationship field workers, implementers and officials with the community were the problems perceived to have affected the information dissemination activities.

The Filipino farmers have reportedly had a hard time adapting the precision technology required for cultivating the hybrids. But that has not stopped agriculture

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officials from continuing to promote hybrid rice because it will soon become clear. There has been a recent rash of news of farmers worrying about the way the DA has been implementing the hybrid rice program, dubbed Ginintuang Masaganang Ani (GMA) (ATI-CAR, 2005).

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Profile of the Respondents Involved in the Program

Table 1 presents the distribution of respondents according to their age, sex, civil status, and educational attainment. According to age, majority of the respondents were young-adult (55.56%) ranging from 20-37. Fewer are those who range from 57-65 of age.

This result means that there were significantly more farmer respondents represented in the 20-37 age groups. This finding would further imply that more young-adult people still go on farming as their occupation in the area.

According to sex, majority was male (62.22%). Also, great majority (84.44%) of the respondents were married.

As to their educational status, 46.57% of them finished college degree and only eight (17.78%) farmers finished elementary. It can be observed here that most of the respondents had formal education.

This finding opposed the finding of Kalang-ad (2005) that most farmers in Benguet have minimal or no formal education at all.

Awareness on the GMA Rice Program

As to the awareness of the farmers regarding the GMA rice program, all of them said that they were aware of it.

Being a member of the farmers association, they were able to know the program directly from the DA-CAR.

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Table1. Profile of respondents under GMA rice program CHARACTERISTICS NUMBER

(n)

PERCENTAGE (%) Age

Young Adulthood(20-37) 25 55.56

Middle Adulthood (38-56) 15 33.33

Adult (57-65) 5 11.11

Total 45 100

Sex

Male 28 62.22

Female 17 37.77

Total 45 100 Civil Status

Married 38 84.44

Single 7 15.55

Total 45 100 Educational Attainment

College 21 46.67

High School 16 35.36

Elementary 8 17.78

Total 45 100

Sources of Information on GMA Rice Program

Table 2 shows the information sources of the farmers on the program. With multiple responses, majority (62.26%) of the beneficiaries were able to know the program through the DA-CAR itself through their trainings and seminars. This result would imply that the DA-CAR itself, through their extension workers and by other means, did the information dissemination of the program in the area.

This finding supports the analysis of Molar (1990), as cited by Ramos (2007), that government agencies are the ones campaigning for their own programs. Molar added that

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government is now concern in the implementation of the programs in remote areas to stem the tide rapid population growth, intensity and increase of food production and improve the quality of life of rural people.

Meanwhile, 22.64% said that they were able to know more about the program through their co-farmers and 15.09% from radio programs. Based on interview, “Boses ti Farmers,” for one, was the radio program they had heard about the GMA Rice program.

Table 2. Sources of information on the program by the beneficiaries

SOURCES NUMBER (n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%) Direct information

from DA-CAR through their trainings and techno-demo

33 62.26

Co-farmers 12 22.64

Radio 8 15.09

*Multiple responses

Program Components being Implemented and the Strategies Applied for Each Component

According to Municipal Agriculture Office of Sablan, they conducted different intervention components of the GMA Rice Program, these include seed distribution, input assistance, training/techno-demo, irrigation assistance, market assistance, credit assistance, and incentive system. These components were mostly implemented through farm-to-farm cross visit, distribution of IEC materials, trainings and seminars when farmers needed.

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Seed distribution. Standard seed distribution was shown in Figure 2. However,

distribution of seeds can be done directly through farm-to farm cross visit. Other farmers also visited the MAO office to inquire for the seeds. For the manner of distribution, for every bag of seed (hybrid seeds/F1 and inbred/Certified seeds) given to the farmers, 50%

of the total price subsidized by the government. The LGU-ATs identified the farmers preferred varieties and place the order to seed suppliers through DA-RFUs in advance to ensure seed availability and avoid delays in seed distribution. Only certified and hybrid seeds planted in the area.

Figure 3. Flow of seed distribution

Input assistance. This component was designed to help the farmers reduced the

cost of production and increase efficiency of input used. The GMA Rice program adopted the Tipid Abono Fertilization program for this component. Fertilizers available were the

President of Farmers Association

Agricultural Technician/Munici pal Agriculturists Farmers

Agricultural Extension

Workers (AEW)Province DA-CAR

Seed company /growers

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following: 2 bags organic fertilizer for every purchase of 20 kgs. of F1 seed and 40 kgs of certified seeds palay; 6 kg/ha of muriate potash; and 10 bags (20kgs/bag) of zinc sulfate.

Discount on some fertilizers particularly those with micronutrients was also offered by the program to the beneficiaries. Each beneficiary was entitled to have three discounted bags of urea. On the other hand, they also used organic fertilizers. The combined organic and chemical fertilizers were recommended by the Agriculture Extension Workers (AEW) as a more practical approach towards higher productivity.

Training/techno-demo. The training they were conducted here was the technical

briefing. These were being funded by DA-CAR through ATI-CAR. They tackled the difference between the hybrid and inbred (Certified) seeds, how to grow hybrid seeds;

and the scheme on how to avail the palay seeds. Different presentation media like slides, posters (those coming from the main office), manuals, and IEC materials were being distributed during these trainings.

Meanwhile, Techno-Demos were conducted every wet and dry cropping season.

The first techno-demo was conducted on 2006 July-November (wet cropping season).

The AEW conducted the Techno-Demo at the farm of Narciso Dimas with 0.5 hectare in Poblacion, Sablan, Benguet. This component was conducted in different farm areas of selected beneficiaries. During the techno-demonstration, they applied Mestizo 3(M3) and SL8-H seed varieties. They also tackled the comparison between the M3 and SL8-H treated with and without Bio-N. They also gave fertilizer and pesticide and distributed hybrid seeds.

In 2007, they conducted it from February-May (Dry Cropping), the AEWs went to Sabdang, Poblacion, Benguet to the Alfonso Abenoja Farm with 0.5 ha. field. They

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also demonstrated Mestizo 1 treated with certain fertilizers. The fertilizers were provided by the OPAg and the seeds were also provided by the DA-CAR.

Through this, technological transfer was hastened and the extension workers received feedback from the farmers. They were also closely monitored by the AEWs though farm visits and farmer group discussion.

Irrigation assistance. In Bayabas, Sablan, the NIA, OPAg, and the OMAg

conducted a social mobilization seminar to strengthen the association of the Calamay Irrigators Association and Bulala Irrigators Association funded by the DA-CAR. Its aim was to avoid drought in targeted areas with water difficulties. They get their water supply in creek to have sufficient supply of water on their farm.

Credit facilitation. The “Plant Now Pay Later” scheme was being done in the

municipality to implement this component. This scheme was formulated for barangay level implementation. The OMAG-LGU Sablan was the funding source of the beneficiaries. The farmers could pay after harvest with 10% interest.

Incentive system. This component encouraged the farmers to adopt the program

by applying this system. As an incentive during the promotional stage of the program, the government subsidized half the cost so farmers could get the seeds for half amount of the price of the bag. This was implemented by the seed company or the seed growers’

cooperative. Agricultural Extension Workers (AEW) were the ones implemented this component. The AEWs incentive was based on the accomplishment of the beneficiaries.

Market assistance. The harvested palay was sold at Sablan, Benguet by the farmers themselves to the community. Since they were located in nearby areas, and were expected to practice synchronous planting, it would be easier to haul and transport their

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harvest to the nearest NFA warehouses, specifically in Sablan through the help of the MAO and farmers themselves.

Communication Strategies Used in the Implementation of the Program

Farmer-Leader-Extension (FLE). It was an approach or strategy that developed

the farmers to become a farmer extensionist or technician. It provided information about the necessary social and cultural practices of farmers in the target place to guide the agriculture technician in developing their social preparation activities.

The farmers must establish a techno- demonstration showcasing the used of Bio- N fertilizer, Bio-Con, leaf color chart, minus one element technique, used of muriate potash, and others.

Home/farm visit. It was a one way approach wherein the AEWs visited the farmer

on his/her own farm or in his/her house.

Inter-farm visit/farm-to-farm cross visit. Farmers visited their co-farmers farm to

see the difference of their farm and practice the technologies applied by their co-farmer to enhance their knowledge on farming (Figure 4).

Farmer classes. This was done only once or two meetings of the farmers and the

AEWs/technician anytime within cropping cycle e.g. during seedling or in panicle stage of the rice.

Farmers field school. It was a long activity conducted by the agriculture

technicians. The farmers learned the technologies and practices conducted in one cropping cycle. It discussed the cropping stages of the rice; sewing to harvesting the palay and others (Figure 5).

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Techno-demonstration. This was done when the technologies were tested in the community. Technology presented was popularized first by the implementers before presenting it to the farmers.

Seminar, trainings, workshop. This was conducted to train and inform the farm

technicians and inform the farmers about the program.

Radio. It was used for disseminating information regarding the program and other program advertisements.

Communication Strategies Used in the Implementation of the Program as Perceived by the Beneficiaries

Table 3 shows the strategies used by the implementers in implementing the GMA Rice Program in Sablan, Benguet as perceived by the beneficiaries.

With multiple responses, 44.44% said that extension work was the main strategy used by the implementers in implementing the program in the area. Extension work includes technical briefing, home/farm visit, farmer classes, farmer field school, techno- demo, inter-farm visit, and FLE (Farmer-leader-extensions) approach, all with the application of interpersonal communication.

Implementers conducted consultation and shared experimental insights to on-farm visitors. They also influenced the farmers in adopting good farm practices by sharing information, experiences, resources and ideas. They assisted the beneficiaries in explaining technological information being discussed in seminars and trainings and by program briefing.

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In an interview, Dicksen, an ATI technician, stated that extension work, indeed, is effective in implementing the programs because this strategy reaches the farmers successfully. The beneficiaries understand the program and it improves their farming skills. This also supports the study of Cuyno (1978) as cited by Amadeo (2004) that extension work maximizes the transfer of information and skills to the beneficiaries.

ATI-CAR extension agriculturists also said that different aspects of interpersonal communications (face-to face communication, personal interview, meeting and having small gathering with the beneficiaries) are being applied that help them determine the needs and problems of their beneficiaries, the sole reason why they often use the said strategy.

Meanwhile, 27.78 % said that implementers would conduct farm-to-farm cross visit to the beneficiaries. Farm-to-farm cross visit is the visiting of other farmers to their co-farmers farm. Through this strategy, farmers would see the difference between the hybrid rice and the certified seeds.

Furthermore, 16.67% said that implementers also conduct seminars and trainings with the aid of presentation media depending on the location. This was further strengthened by the implementers. Implementers also acted as resource person during the holding of consortium, initiated trainings, seminars, and field days with the aid of presentation media.

According to MAO, if the location is near and with power supply, their extension workers would consider using slides and other related means. Moreover, the infrequent use of presentation media in disseminating a certain program could be attributed to the problems associated with its use like problems on language preference,

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time to prepare materials on the side of the implementers, availability of power supply, distance, among others.

Six of the beneficiaries also said that the program promoted and updated the beneficiaries regarding the program using radio. According to the implementers, radio promotions are usually done when special updates or reports regarding the program needs to be aired via radio. Also, when there are special invitations from different radio programs both in Baguio and La Union.

Figure 4. Inter-farm visit of the farmers

Figure 5. Agricultural technician discussing the cropping

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Figure 6. Techno-demonstration of the implementers showing the Minus-One Element technique to the farmers

Table 3. Communication strategies used in implementing the program

STRATEGIES USED NUMBERS

(n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%)

Extension work 24 44.44

Farm-to-farm cross visit 15 27.78

Seminars, trainings, workshop 9 16.67

Radio 6 11.11

*Multiple responses

Frequency of Application of the Strategies Used in Implementing GMA Rice Program

As shown in Table 4, with multiple responses, the distribution of IEC materials is being done every cropping season as agreed by all the respondents. It could also be noticed in the table that the use of farm-to-farm cross visit is being done weekly (25%), monthly (35%), and yearly (25%), except during cropping season. This could be due to the fact that implementers usually conduct techno-demo and trainings during these dry

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and wet cropping seasons. Almost twenty-three percent also said that seminars, trainings, and workshops are being done yearly (22.22%) and every cropping season (22.22%).

This supports the statements of the implementers as to when they usually conduct their training.

The result was further explained by Ronie Carlos, municipal technician, wherein they usually apply different strategies alternately, depending on the need of the beneficiaries but usually do most of these strategies every cropping season.

This finding adheres to the suggestions of Adhikarya (1994) that proper strategy should efficiently be utilized in proper time to reduce extension cost and efforts, and to increase the effectiveness in dealing with a large number of target audience more rapidly.

Table 4. Frequency of application of the communication strategies as perceived by the Beneficiaries

*Multiple responses

STRATEGIES FREQUENCY OF APPLICATION

WEEKLY MONTHLY YEARLY TWICE A YEAR

NO.

(n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%)

NO.

(n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%)

NO.

(n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%)

NO.

(n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%)

Distribution of IEC materials

- - - - 18 40.00 27 60.00

Farm-to- farm cross visit

15 37.50 13 32.50 12 30 - -

Seminar, training, workshop

- - - - 10 22.22 10 22.22

Radio - - - - 6 13.33 - -

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Language Preference of the Respondents

on the Strategies Applied in GMA Rice Program

Table 5 shows the preferred language of the beneficiaries to be used in applying the communication strategies in GMA Rice program specifically in the interpersonal communication aspect. With multiple responses, 37.50% of the beneficiaries prefer Ilokano language, 29.17% or 14 farmers prefer Ibaloi, while eight (16.67%) farmers prefer Kankana-ey. Only five (10.42%) farmer opted English and Ilokano-English language in the implementation of the GMA Rice Program in Sablan, Benguet. These exclude the use of the said language in IEC materials.

Their preference could be attributed to the fact that most of the beneficiaries were Ilocano and Ibaloi people. This finding supports the practice of ATI-CAR extension workers in using the dialect of their clients in implementing their projects. It can be noted here that although most6 of them had formal education, still, many of them preferred Ilokano in this implementation of this strategies.

This observation disclose that education attainment is not a factor of choosing appropriate language for creating communication materials or in disseminating certain program/project because in some cases, educated farmers still prefer the use of their local dialect in understanding things being introduced to them.

Effects of the Strategies Applied in Implementing the Program as Perceived by the Respondents

Table 6 shows the effects of the strategies applied by the implementers in implementing the GMA Rice Program as perceived by the beneficiaries. With multiple responses, 51.85% of the respondents said that through the use of IEC materials being

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distributed by the implementers, their farming practices were able to improve as these imparts knowledge on them. The same reason was given for the application of farm-to- farm cross visit with 47.83% who affirmed to it.

The previous finding on the use of IEC materials supports the observation of Enkiwe (2007) that IEC materials helped in addressing the real needs and problems facing certain target audience.

For the use of seminars, trainings, and workshop, 46.15% said that it helped them understand more about the program; 34.62% farmers said it has promoted good attitude as farmer and it establish good relationship with the program implementers; and 19.23%

said it changed their decision to apply hybrid or certified seeds.

As for the use of radio, only 26.67% farmers responded that it helps them understand more the program. These respondents were listening to radio program titled

“Boses ti Farmer” and in a certain program in “Aksyon Radyo La Union” in DZNL La Union.

Table 5. Language preference of the respondents in the implementation of the program

LANGUAGE NUMBER (n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%)

Ilokano 18 37.50

Ibaloi 14 29.17

Kankana-ey 8 16.67

English 5 10.42

Ilokano-English 3 6.25

*Multiple responses

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Table 6. Effects of the strategies applied by the implementers as perceived by the beneficiaries

EFFECTS NUMBER (n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%) IEC Materials distribution

Improves my farming and imparts knowledge 28 51.85 It helps me understand

more about the GMA Rice Program

16 29.63 It changed my decision to apply

hybrid/certified seeds

10 18.52 Farm-to-Farm cross visit

Improves my farming and imparts knowledge 22 47.83 Promoted good attitude and it establish good

relationship with the program implementers

16 34.78 Changed my decision to apply hybrid/certified

seeds

8 17.39

Seminars, trainings, workshop Helps me understand more about the GMA Rice Program

Promoted good attitude and it establish good relationship with the program implementers

24 18

46.15 34.62 Changed my decision to apply hybrid/certified

seeds 10 19.23

Radio Helps me understand more about the Program

Changed my decision to apply hybrid/certified seeds

12 5

26.67 11.11

*Multiple responses

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Problems Encountered by the Beneficiaries

with Regards to the Strategies Used in the Program

Table 7 shows the problems encountered by the beneficiaries in the application of the communication strategies in GMA Rice program.

With multiple responses, majority (51.52%) said that inadequate materials to disseminate and produce other IEC materials was the major problem of the beneficiaries in terms of the use of IEC materials; ten (30.30%) farmers said that the materials are poorly prepared; and 18.18% among the beneficiaries said that it lacks coordinators to distribute the produced materials.

On the other hand, for farm-to-farm cross visit strategy, 45.71% of the beneficiaries said that it lacks monitoring team.

In seminar, training, and workshop, twenty-four (52.94%) farmers said that lack of funds was the main problem of the beneficiaries.

This result was further emphasized by one of the beneficiaries, saying that lack of funds is really a factor because money is the most important in the implementation of a certain program.

It could be noted that of the different strategies being applied by the

implementers, lack of funds is the leading problem followed by lack of materials and coordinators.

These findings agree with the observation of Laguitnay (2002) that in extension services, the primary problem being encountered by beneficiaries is the lack of budget or capital to apply knowledge gained.

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Communication Problems Encountered by Program Implementers

Table 8 shows the communication problems by the implementers.

As to the major problem of the implementers, they often encounter problems due to lack of time or interest of the participants which ranks high (34.92%). Four implementers (22.22%) also include the unwillingness of the people to participate, lack of transportation, and lack of skills or manpower to implement the program as their problem. All these, according to them, contributed to having communication gap between the implementers and the beneficiaries.

This finding supports the observation of Buasen (1984) as he identified the reason for having communication gap in extension work. According to him, communication gap happens when there is lack of cooperation among farmers themselves, irregularity of field workers, poor attendance during meetings, discontinuance dissemination activities, poor relationship of field workers, implementers and officials with the community. These, according to him, were the problems perceived to have affected information dissemination activities of most program implementers.

As to the related problems, with multiple responses, five (29.41%) implementers said that lack of manpower was the first problem in the implementation of the GMA Rice Program. Four (23.53%) implementers also said that it is the environmental factors like having bad weather is causing some delays in implementing the program; while 17.65%

said there is lack of materials in the implementation and limited area coverage. Two of the implementers also said that the delay of their funds sometimes creates problem to the program.

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Table 7. Problems encountered by the beneficiaries

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED NUMBER

(n=45)

PERCENTAGE (%) IEC Material Distribution

Inadequate materials 17 51.52

IEC Materials are poorly prepared 10 30.30 Lack of coordinators to

disseminate the materials

6 18.18

Farm-to-farm cross visit

Lack of funds for transportation 19 54.29

Lack of monitoring team 16 45.71

Seminar, training, workshop

Lack of funds to attend extensive trainings 24 52.94

Place is farm from our home 15 31.91

Lack of materials 8 17.02

Radio

Limited area coverage 4 8.89

*Multiple responses

Table 8. Communication problems encountered by the program implementers

IMPLEMENTERS’ PROBLEM NUMBER

(n=8)

PERCENTAGE (%) Communication gap problem due to

Lack of time/interest of the participants during trainings, seminars, and workshop

6 34.92 Unwillingness of the people to participate 4 22.22

Lack of transportation 4 22.22

Lack of skills/manpower 4 22.22

Related problems in the program

Lack of manpower in the implementation 5 29.41

Environmental factors 4 23.53

Lack of materials to be distributed 3 17.65

Limited coverage of the program 3 17.65

Funds delayed 2 11.76

*Multiple responses

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SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary

Communication Strategies Applied by the DA-CAR in the promotion of GMA Rice Program in Sablan, Benguet was conducted at Sablan, Benguet having the following objectives: to determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents; determine the level of awareness of the beneficiaries on the GMA Rice Program; determine the communication strategies used in implementing the GMA Rice Program; determine the language preference of the implementers and beneficiaries in implementing the communication strategies; determine the effects of the communication strategies applied by the program as perceived by the beneficiaries; and determine the problems encountered by the implementers and by beneficiaries.

The study was conducted on October 20007 to February 2008. An interview schedule was used to gather data.

Finding shows that majority of the respondents was at their young adult stage;

mostly were males and most finished college degree. As to the perception of the beneficiaries, all of the respondents were aware on the program through direct information from DA-CAR by their trainings and techno-demo.

The GMA Rice program components include seed distribution, input assistance, trainings/techno-demo, irrigation assistance, credit facilitation, incentive system, and market assistance. These components are being applied and discussed by the Municipal Agriculturists in Sablan, Benguet to further adopt the program.

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In the implementation of the program, extension wok was the main strategy of

the implementers in conducting the program. It includes home/farm visit, FLE approach, farmer field schools, farmer classes, inter-farm visit, techno-demo, and technical briefing.

According to the implementers, these strategies are effective because these are the combination of different strategies like distribution of IEC materials, program briefing and interpersonal communication to the beneficiaries.

Based on the results, with multiple responses, 28.57% of the respondents said that implementers conducts consultation and shares experimental insights to on-farm visitors as to the services being offered by the implementers.

As to the language preference of the beneficiaries and the implementers, 37.50 % of the beneficiaries prefer Ilokano language. The Department of Agriculture-Cordillera Administrative Region was the direct source of information of the beneficiaries in the place.

With multiple responses, 51.85% of the beneficiaries said that through IEC materials, it improves their farming and it imparts knowledge.

Inadequate material was the problem of the beneficiaries in the distribution of IEC materials, lack of monitoring team to conduct farm-to-farm cross visit; and lack of funds to conduct extensive training. While for the implementers, they often encounter problems due to lack of time or interest of the participants which ranks high (34.92%).

These, according to them create communication gap between the implementers and the beneficiaries.

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Conclusions

Based on the findings, the following conclusions were derived:

1. There were more farmer respondents represented in the 20-37 age groups;

were married; and had formal education.

2. All of the beneficiaries were aware of the GMA Rice Program implemented by the DA-CAR and other agencies.

3. The implementing strategies being applied by the implementers were extension work; seminars, trainings and workshop; use of radio for local broadcasting;

and through IEC printed materials.

4. Beneficiaries and implementers prefer Ilokano language in implementing the program for interpersonal communication .

5. Farm-to-farm cross visit and other extension services including distribution of IEC printed materials improved their farming and it also imparts knowledge.

Seminars, trainings, and workshop, and listening to radio, helped them understand more about the program.

6. The problems encountered by the beneficiaries were inadequate materials in the distribution of IEC material; lack of monitoring team to supervise them in farm-to-farm cross visit; lack of funds to attend seminars and trainings; and limited radio coverage. For the implementers, lack of time or interest of the participants during trainings, seminars, and workshop and lack of manpower in the implementation were the problems often encounter.

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Recommendations

Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations were formulated:

1. The program implementation should continue to monitor the program for a better result. More monitoring team should assist the beneficiaries in the implementation of the GMA Rice Program.

2. Beneficiaries should continue to extend their farming through farm-to-farm cross visit, attending the seminars, trainings, and workshops, reading IEC materials, and listening to radio programs related to the program since they are found out to be beneficial on their part.

3. Since there is a problem in the way participants participate in the program, the agency involved should strengthen their extension activities to solve or at least to lessen the problem.

4. In considering language to be used in promoting certain program, agencies should consider the preferred language of its clienteles for them to understand the program well.

5. Further study on how different agencies establish their communication

strategies in implementing their program should also be conducted to determine their approaches and best practices in disseminating information.

6. Research on farmers’ information needs should also be conducted by credible researches relative to information gathering and dissemination which could a basis when planning a similar program.

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LITERATURE CITED

ABAG, M. T. 2005. Information Needs and Information Sources of the Residents of Barangay

Tawangan and Barangay Lusod in Kabayan, Benguet. March 2005.BS Thesis.

BSU, La

Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 9-11.

AMADEO. A. 2004. Role Performance of Agricultural Technologies in the Dissemination of

Farm Technology in Benguet. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. P. 24

ATI-CAR, 2005. Rice Program Plan for 2007-2007: Converging for Higher Rice Productivity.

Agricultural Training Institute.

BOLINTO. H.K. 1987. The Communication Channels as Perceived by the Agricultural Technology Innovators and the Farmers of Buguias, Benguet. March 1987.MS Thesis.

Benguet State University, La trinindad, Benguet. Pp. 7-15

BUASEN. C.T. 1984. Informatio Dissemination Problems of Samahang Nayon in Region I.

Unpublished Dissertation. University of Baguio, Baguio City. P. 9

BROWN. L and HADDAD. L. 1994. Agricultural Growth as a Key to Poverty Alleviation. 2020

Vision Brief 7. Retrieved on October 6, 2007.http://www.ifpri.org

CAHPS, 2007. Agency forHealth Care Research and Quality. Goals of a Communication Strategy.Retrieved on October 6, 2007.https:www.cahps.ahrq.gov

HAMEL S. A. 2005. Receivers’ Reactions to Dissonant Use of Communication Technology in

the Workplace: Effects on Communication Strategies and the Perceived Usefulness of

Technology.http://www.lib.utexas.edu/etd/d/2005/hamels34171/hamels34171.pdf

IDEA.2007. Improvement and Development Agency for Local Government. August 10, 2007. as

retieve on October 6, 2007.http://www.idea.gov.uk

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KALANG-AD, C.C. 2006. Influence of Cordillera Highland Agricultural Resource Management

Project Market Information Dissemination Services on Farm Management. MS Thesis.

BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp10-11.

LICUDAN. R. M. 2003. An Assessment of Trainings and Seminars Attended by the Officers and

Staff of Primary Cooperatives in Kapangan, Benguet. B.S. Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad,

Benguet. P. 10.

MYER. I. 2004. Jung’s Theory of Psychological Types MBTI Instrument. http:

//www.org.the

MBTI/overview.cfm.

PAREDES. H.S. 2007. Consumers’ perception on meat and vegetable-based burger. BS Thesis.

BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. P.24

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Communication Strategy for Agricultural Technology Dissemination. BS Thesis.

BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp 6-9.

SABADO. J. 2006. Potentials of Montañosa Ilocano as a Language for Print News for the Different Ethno-linguisitic Groups of La Trinidad, Benguet. BS Thesis. BSU, La

Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 6-11.

SIGUNDO. G. L. 2006. Baguio City Livestock Traders’ Level of Knowledge on FMD Attitude

Toward and Perceptions on the FMD Information Campaign. BS Thesis. BSU, La

Trinindad, Benguet. Pp. 9-10.

TARONE. E. 2005. Speaking in a Second Language. In E. Hinkel (Ed.) Handbook of Research

in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Pp. 20-23.

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the ATI-CAR. BS Thesis. BSU, La Trinidad, Benguet. Pp. 12-16.

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APPENDICES

Appendix A. Communication Letter

Benguet State University College of Agriculture

DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION

La Trinidad, Benguet Mr. Ramon Anasioco

Municipal Agriculturist Office Sablan, Benguet

Attention: Mr. Ronie Carlos

Agriculturist Technologist Sir:

Greetings!

I am a fourth year student of Benguet State University, taking up Bachelor of Science in Development Communication major in Development Journalism.

This semester, I am conducting my thesis titled: Communication Strategies Applied by DA-CAR in the Promotion of GMA Rice Program in Sablan, Benguet. This is part of my requirement in DevC 200: Undergraduate Thesis in Development Communication.

I chose your municipality because it is one of the areas in Benguet that is implementing GMA Rice Program.

In this regard, may I request for assistance on the following:

1. Name of Barangays implementing GMA Rice

2. Name of farmers implementing or being assisted by the GMA Rice Program (Hybrid and Inbred)

3. Map of Sablan

Thank you very much for your kind assistance and God Bless!

Respectfully Yours,

MARICHU D. CALISAAN Noted by:

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Devjourn Student

FILMORE Y. AWAS Thesis Adviser

Appendix B: Interview Schedule for the Beneficiaries I. Demographic Profile

Name :______________________________________( optional) Age________ Civil Status: ______

Sex: () female () male

Educational Attainment ____ Elementary ____ Others

____ High school (pls. specify)___________________

____ College

II. Awareness on GMA Rice Program

1. Are you aware of the existence of the GMA Rice Program?

() yes () no;

If yes where did you learn about it? ____through Radio

____ Newspaper/printed materials ____ DA-CAR

____ co-framers 2. How did they start the program?

_____ through coordinator with the DA/through local farmer leadership _____ farmers association_____________________________________

_____ local officials leadership

_____ others (pls. specify)______________________

1. What are the communication strategies that was conducted in your place?

____ Extension Work _____ Radio ____ Farm-to-farm cross visit

____ Through seminars

2. What are the communication-related services being offered by the GMA Rice Program in

your place?

____ there is an acting resource persons during the holding of consortium, initiated trainings, seminars, field day, and lakbay-aral visits

____ provide technical and hands-on training

____ shares experimental insights to on-farm visitors(use face-to-face communication)

____ devotes certain portion of his/her own-farm trials

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____ applies technological information learned from seminars and cross- visit in his/her own farm

____ influence other farmers in adopting his/her farm practices by sharing information, experiences, resources and ideas

III. Language Preference

1. What Language does the agency use in implementing the program?

_____Kankana-ey ______ English _____Ibaloi _______Others

_____Tagalog (pls. specify) ________________________

IV. Program Schedule

1. How often do the implementers of the GMA Rice Program assist you?

____ Weekly _____ Quarterly

____ Monthly _____ Others ( pls. specify)_________________

____ Bi-monthly

2. How often are these communication strategies applied or done in your area?

A. Distribution of IEC materials

_____ weekly _____ Quarterly

_____ monthly

_____ Only when monitoring team comes

_____ Others (Pls. Specify) ______________________

B. Farm-to-farm cross visit

_____ Weekly _____ Quarterly

_____ Monthly _____ Yearly _____ Others (Pls. specify)

C. Seminar, Training, and Workshop

_____ Weekly _____ Quarterly

_____ Monthly _____ Yearly

_____ Others (Pls. specify) _______________________

V. Effects of the communication strategies applied by the program to the beneficiaries A. Distribution of IEC materials

_____It helps me understand more about GMA Rice Program _____It changed my decision to apply hybrid and certified seeds _____Improves my farming or it imparts knowledge and skills _____ Others (Pls. Specify) ________________

B. Farm-to-farm cross visit

_____It helps me understand more about GMA Rice Program _____It changed my decision to apply hybrid and certified seeds _____Improves my farming or it imparts knowledge and skills

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good relation with the implementers _____ Others (Pls. specify)__________________

C. Seminar, Training, and Workshop

_____It helps me understand more about GMA Rice Program _____It changed my decision to apply hybrid and certified seeds _____Improves my farming and establish

good relation with the implementers

_____Promoted good attitude as farmer ______ others (pls specify)_________________

E. Radio Plugs (if there is)

_____It helps me understand more about GMA Rice Program _____It changed my decision to apply hybrid and certified seeds _____Improves my farming or it imparts knowledge and skills _____ Others (Pls. Specify) ______________________

VII. Problems Encountered in the application of the strategies in implementing GMA Rice Program

1. What Problems did you encounter in the following?

A. Distribution of IEC materials (brochures, newsletter, leaflet, etc.)

_____ Inadequate materials _____IEC materials are hard to understand _____ Lack of coordinators

_____ IEC materials are poorly prepared

_____ Others (Pls. Specify) __________________

B. Farm-to-farm cross visit

_____ Lack of funds to conduct farm-to farm visit _____ Lack of monitoring team

_____ Transportation problem

_____ Others (Pls. specify) _____________________________

C. Seminar, Training, and Workshop

_____ Lack of funds to conduct extensive trainings _____ Lack of materials/training kit

_____ Speakers are hard to understand _____ Place is not conducive to learn _____ Place is far from our house

_____ Others (Pls. specify) _______________________

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Appendix C. Questionnaire for Implementers

I. Communication Strategies being used in the Program

1. What are the communication strategies being used in implementing the GMA Rice program?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

2. Of these strategies, what do you think is the most effective strategy you have used in implementing the program?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

3. Why did you say so?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

4. What are the program intervention components being applied in the area?

_____ Seeds ______ Incentive system _____ Input Assistance ______ Credit facilitation _____ Training, Techno-Demo ______ Market Assistance _____ Irrigation Assistance

II. Problems encountered in implementing the strategies

1. Based on your initial report, it can be noted that having communication gap is the major problem with regards to the application of your strategies. Why so?

Because there is:

____ Unwillingness of the people to participate

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____ Lack of skills necessary to do a job ____ Lack of time/interest on the participants

____ Others (pls. specify)__________________________

Implementer/s Name/ Agency: ____________________________

Pigura

Table 2 shows the information sources of the farmers on the program. With  multiple responses, majority (62.26%) of the beneficiaries were able to know the program  through the DA-CAR itself through their trainings and seminars
Table 2. Sources of information on the program by the beneficiaries
Figure 3. Flow of seed distribution
Table 3. Communication strategies used in implementing the program
+4

Mga Sanggunian

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