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As its subtitle suggests, this booklet is an interview about the Cordillera's environment.

Following a question...nd",answer format, it attempts to capture importantandcommonlya$ked questions about ecolClgyantl al1swers them briefly.

The booklet seeks to inspire Cordillera's youth who are the main target of this booklet, to ask and learn more abouttheiren.vironment.. . In so doing, they can better appreciate the existence and role of every organism and other components of various ecosystems and act accordingly to help protect and sustain these for the present and future generations.

This Book is published by


. ... ·~h.(.

t ..


!~nl.! ....


the Cordillera Green Network (CGN) in cooperation with

Kiyosato Educational Experiment Project (KEEP), Japan Funded by

Japan Fund for Global Environment ISBN 978-971-93808-0-1


Published by Cordillera Green Network Inc.

Proj('ct Director Lditor

Writ('rs Illust r,ltors

: Mariko Sorimachi Banasan : Maurice Malanes

: John Tadoy, Maurice Malanes : Carl R. Belo, Aolo Rocero


This booklet is a team effort of the following:

• Professor John Tadoy of the Benguet State University who acted as a consultant and reviewed the whole manuscript;

• Maurice Malanes, a freelance writer-editor, who helped in the drafting and gave some inputs;

• Carl R. Belo, a freelance artist, whose well-researched illustrations reinforced the message of this booklet;

In ('()( >peration with

Kiyosato Educational Experiment Project Inc.(KEEP), Japan I his Book Production Project was funded by

J~lpanFund for Global Environment of

Environmental Restoration and Conservation Agency

Philippines Copyright©2007 Cordillera Green Network Inc.

Cordillera Green Network Inc.

'-1I)C('neral LimSt.Baguio City, Philippines

Mdiling Address: P.O.BOX 540, Baguio City, 2600, Philippines I(·I('pI1Of1(':074-637-7414

I 'flldil:cgnCfyskyinet.net Print(\d in th(' Philippines by Vdll('y Printing Specialist Bdguio City

1('I(\p~lOrw:074-304-5889 ISBN ()7B-971-93808-0-1

• Aolo Rocero, freelance artist, painter, poet, and also an environmentalist who illustrated the mining parts in this booklet;

• Roberta Lynne, an editor, who fine-tuned the whole manuscript;

• Mariko Sorimachi Banasan, Cordillera Green Netwo'rk Executive Director, who not only came out with the little green book idea, but also asked the first questions and coordinated team efforts until this booklet was completed;

• Aida Pagtan, Alma Toyoken, KaryU Ngina and Lourdes Sison, CGN volunteers who assisted in profiling environmental organizations annexed in this booklet; and

• Midori Nakamura, Valeree Belo and Mabel Batong who handled the details of publication.

The Little Green Book



I)rl'face ...

Forests Rivers and To Mine or Not Let's Plant Rescuing"af'


iii 1 I


15 19 25 32 33


This little green book seeks to answer basic questions about the environment of the Cordillera in the northern Philippines.

Intended for Cordillera's young people of high school age, this small book follows a question and answer format. The queries may be the same asked by Cordillera's youth. The format is reflected in the title of this booklet, The Little Green Book: An Interview with the Cordillera's Environment. (We would like to acknowledge French journalist Oriana Fallaci, whose best-selling book, An Interview with History, provided the idea behind the subtitle of this booklet.)

This booklet has six parts. Itincludes basic information on forests, rivers and other water systems, mining, a list of actions to be taken by the readers and an environmental organization's directory.

This booklet may not have all the answers on the environment in the Cordillera. Butitwants to introduce young people to key facts and principles, which are no longer taken seriously. The prevailing throw-away mentality and consumeristic lifestyles influence even indigenous peoples long known for their traditional conservation and management practices.

With this booklet, the Cordillera Green Network hopes that the youth can better understand the environment so they can protect and sustainit for their own future.


. The tropic)1 rain forest is the most highly developed and complex IO:1ll o~ forest. It develops in warm regions where days are long and rdlllfallis abundant. The minimum rainfall in rainforests is 100mm/month.

I )ry periods last only for a few days or weeks.

:ropical rain forests. are represented in the Cordillera by the mossy .lndd'pterocarp forests. Either or both forest types are found in Mt. Province, Abra, Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga and Apayao.

dklc. Mossy forests hdvl' tfH~oak, igem, mountain yew, etc. Pine forests have what are popularly called Benguet pines.

A virgin forest is an old growth forestthat has never been logged. We still have a few virgin forests in the Cordillera but not as extensive as before. These forests can be found in patches in some National Parks and proclaimed/protected watersheds.


. There are six forest types in the Philippines: mangrove, beach,

~Jlpterocarp.,molave, mossy, and pine forests. The last four are represented

III the Cordillera. The species in dipterocarp forests include the white and rl.'~ lauans, yakal, yamban, guijo, tangile, mayapis, almon, palosapis, and dpltong. The molave type includes molave, narra, supa, balete, ipil, and

We are losing our forests in the Cordillera because of forest fires, logging, unsustainable kaingin or swidden farming, massive vegetable gardening, and road constructions. In urban areas like Baguio City, forest zones have been lost to the housing business and squatting.

The rate of deforestation is rapidly increasing. More than one half of the country's land area or 57 percent were forests in 1934. But this forest cover decreased to 17.97 percent in 1997. If reports from the Department of Environment and Natural Resources are to be believed, Philippine forests in 2004 increased to 7.2 million hectares, which is equivalent to almost a fourth of the country's land area.

2 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book 3


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('.1<11 y('dr lroml 997 10 2004.

Kaingin or slash-and-burn farming had helped Cordillera ancestors to

survive. Many upland people still practice

kaingin farming today. But this fa~ming

method is best done in an area where there are few people in Wide. forested areas. However, the practice is no longer appropriate and sustal.nable as there are too many people and our forests are dwindling, if not disappearing.

Cordillera forests support various insects, mammals, birds, arachnids (spiders), reptiles, fishes, amphibians and crustaceans. Among the insects are the bees, fireflies, butterflies, cicadas, dragonflies, houseflies, mosquitoes, ants, and praying mantises. Mammals include the bat deer wildpig, wildcat, cloud rat, field rat, and monkey. Birds include the Philippin~

ea~le, o~I, ~aya,

wild duck, wild chicken, quail, rufous hornbill, myna,

sh~,kes, km~flsh:r,

black crow, parrot, oriole, bee eater, wild pigeon, and sWift. Reptiles mclude the

bayawak, salamander, various snakes, gecko,

and turtle; and fishes include the eel,

wading, dalag, tilapia, bunog, pilingan, tibek, and catfish.


Leeches, arachnids (spiders), crustaceans (crabs), amphibians (frogs) and mollusks (snails) are also found in the forests.

The forest is an essential ecosystem that sustains human life. From

the Stone Age to the present, forests have been providing the basic needs

of humans: food, water, air, shelter and habitat.


We actually have enough laws. Despite some defects, these laws can help if they are properly implemented.

The Little Green Book I ivillg Oil this pl,IIWII)('COIlH'S difficull wilhoul lon·sls. Why~ IOf(H,ls Iwlp fn'sh(,11 Ih(' air we brealhe. These also help regulate our dirndt(', pn'vpnl or minimize soil erosions and floods, and help balance nature.

Ihrough their beauty and splendor, forests also inspire people.

There are four National Parks in the Cordillera: Mt. Data National Park, Mt. Pulag National Park, Mt. Casamata Hill National Park, and the Balbalan-Balbalasang National Park. National Parks are established by law 10 preserve and protect the scenery, wildlife or natural species and other resources for the benefit of the present and future generations. Protected by laws, National Parks are the only areas where we can find virgin forests dnd associated wildlife. These laws strictly prohibit activities which can pndanger the parks.

Many laws ·were enacted to protect and conserve forests. The main forestry law is Presidential Decree 705, known as the Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines. Other major laws are the National Parks Law, National Integrated Protected Areas System Law, and the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act. We also have Executive Order or E. O. 318, known as the Sustainable Forest Management Act; and E.O. 263, which adopted·

"Community Based Forest Management as the National Strategy to Ensure Ihe Sustainable Development of Forest Land Resources."



'Il<'r<' are 13 major rivers in the Cordillera:

A river is considered dead if it dries up during summer.

We also have "biologically dead" rivers. These are rivers that don't contain fish and other living organisms because they are contaminated with deadly pollutants, including poisons.

Heavy siltation, pollutants from various community and industrial wastes, and deforestation are killing our rivers.

Silt, which chokes our rivers, comes from eroded soil from deforested mountain areas. It also ends up in our rivers each time we build roads, operate mines, dig the land and clear the forests for farming, and excavate or level the land for houses and buildings. This sediment reduces the capacity of streams to accommodate surface run-off,.thu~causingf~oods.

Deforestation does not only cause severe erosion; It even dries up

rivers during summer. . ..

Human wastes, various forms of garbage, motor oils and pestiCides, and chemical discharges from factories also destroy our rivers.


Upper Agno River (Benguet)


Chico River (Mt. Province and Kalinga)


Magat River (Ifugao)


Abra River (Abra, Benguet and Mt. Province)


Abulog-Apayao River (Apayao)


Amburayan River (Benguet)


Siffu-Mallig River (Ifugao and Mt. Province)


Bued River (Benguet)


Naguilian River (Benguet)


Aringay River (Benguet)


Zumigui-Sinwanan River (Apayao)


Kabikungan River (Apayao)


Silag River (Abra)

Water from rivers and springs with no human or industrial wastes is safe to drink, except in malaria-infested areas. Safe water is not only clear and odorless, but tastes good and refreshing. Running water is also safer than stagnant water where mosquitoes breed. The laboratories of schools and government agencies can examine water quality.


5.1511 safe to drt..., wafirfrom-rrvers and spHngs neatvegi!fabfi!'}i


Water near or within gardens using pesticides and chemical fertilizers is

~ik('lycontaminated and so it is not safe to drink. But there isn't a problem If the gardens are cultivated by those who practice natural or organic farming dnd those who don't contaminate nearby water resources.


Various fishes, amphibians, mollusks, crustaceans, arachnids, insects, and reptiles inhabit our rivers. The most common fishes are the eel, wading, bunog, tilapia, dalagand catfish. Amphibians include several frog species; reptiles: turtles, lizards, bayawak, and snakes; crustaceans: shrimps, lobsters and crabs; and mollusks:agurongand clams.

Creatures found along the river banks and nearby forests are arachnids, which include various spiders; and insects such as bees, ants, butterflies, fireflies, dragon flies, damselflies, and beetles.

People catch fish for food and additional income. The traditional fishing methods Cordilleran indigenous people use are appropriate because they spare the young fishes. These methods include the use of hook and line(banniit), bamboo traps, nets, and rubber-powered arrow(pana).

We should avoid using poison from plants such astuba, chemicals like sodium cyanide and pesticides, and electrical gadgets. It is good to note that some municipalities have ordinances banning these destructive fishing methods.

In the provinces of Abra and Apayao, indigenous communities close the rivers for fishing and open them up only after some time to allow young fish to grow and adult fishes to breed and spawn. This practice is locally calledlapat.

No. The fatty tissues of fishes from polluted rivers store pollutants.

These pollutants or poisons tend to increase in the bodiesof bigger organisms such as humans who consume the contaminated fish. This is what scientists call "biological magnification" or "food chain concentration."

10 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book 11


Springs and rivers dry up when forests are gone, the earth is ruined by industrial activities such as large-scale mining or disturbed by a strong earthquake, and the rains are not as regular as before. We lose our springs and rivers through either one or a combination of these factors.

Forests are thus important as they store rainwater in the forest floor and catch fog, which eventually drip into the soil. Forested areas are kept moist all year round, releasing moisture in the form of springs which sustain stream flows.

When the earth is disturbed by human activities such as mining and other natural factors, water tables underneath are also destroyed, and the water contained there seeps further deep into the earth. This explains why some springs have disappeared in mined out areas and after a strong earthquake hit northern Luzon in July 1990.

Rainfall can help sustain our springs and rivers. But with the EI Nino and La Nina phenomena, we either have too much rain at one time or too little rain.

Population is another factor as more people use water and dig deep wells.


10. Where are..ourwatersheds in the Cordillera?


A watershed is a basin-like land form, which catches rainfall that drains through a common outlet. The Cordillera as a whole is known as the watershed cradle of northern Luzon. It supplies water not only to the region but also to the lowlands.

Our watersheds are not well-maintained and many are degraded.

Some watersheds have been converted into commercial vegetable farms.

Of the 38 bodies of water classified in the Cordillera as of 2004, only two belong to Class M. These are the Upper Nagan River of Apayao and Lake Bulalacao in Kabayan. Class AA waters only need disinfection to meet the National Standards for Drinking Water (NSDW). Such water comes from protected and uninhabited watersheds.


A few farmers now are returning to natural or what is called organic farming in which they avoid using chemicals that contaminate our land, rivers and air. We can support these efforts by starting at our own backyard.

The Little Green Book Each person can help restore our watersheds by planting and maintaining trees and preventing forest fires. Instead of converting forest lands into a cabbage or potato farm, one can adopt agro-forestry schemes in which trees are preserved while integrating cash crops.



On the other hand, small-scale miners are themselves the managers Yes, large-scale mining operations can give jobs for 10 to 30 years at the most. But after the minerals are extracted, company laborers have to be ready to face layoffs. As laborers, they are also at the mercy of salaries determined by the company.

The late British economist E.F. Schumacher had noted that bigger business operations, be it mining or any other enterpri:,e,ten~to concentrate wealth in the hands of the few. But, smaller enterpnses, said Schumacher, distribute wealth to more people. Schumacher's observation has been proven by the small-scale mining opera:ions in :,ome Cordillera communities.

In a Sagada village in the Mountain Province, for exan:ple,small-sc~le miners were able to buy their own passenger jeeps, which now service the community. Aside from being able to send their c~ildr~nto c.ollege, these small-scale miners retain much of the wealth nght In their own community. The resulting environmental damage is also much less and can be restored.

In contrast, a multinational mining company, after extracting all the minerals from our lands, sends all its profits to its overseas headquarters. A mining law the government passed in 1995 allows this.

111(\ Mines and Geosciences Bureau defends the mining industry, saying pr,l(" ic.llly all the raw materials for gadgets and equipment used for modern living are mined. These include your spoons and forks, computers, and the car you drive. There is no question that the mining industry is necessary, but not done in a way that damages our environment.

Much of the opposition is directed against large-scale mining. The mined out communities of Benguet Province, for example, are no longer seen as models of development. Why? This is because after the gold and silver were extracted, nearly a century of large-scale mining operations in the province poisoned and silted rivers, dried up springs, and made farms unfit for farming as the soil had become acidic and contaminated. Now, people in mined out communities have difficulty going back to farming.

Similarly, much of the gold and silver mined out from the earth end up as jewelries, which are actually luxuries, not necessities to help support human life. The worst thing is, hundreds of tons of earth need to be scraped or moved to produce the gold ring on your finger. So the cost of destruction to the environment far outweighs the value of producing that single golden or silver ring.

Environmental organizations, including the Cordillera Green Network, are advocating small-scale mining. Small-scale mining, if properly regulated 'lnd managed, can go hand-in-hand with farming. The smaller a mining operation, the lesser the negative impact on the environment. Still, small- scale mining operations need to be regulated because some miners are pmbarking on what they now consider as "medium-scale" mining.



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Do you want to do your part in saving Mother Earth?

Plant trees. But planting trees is not easy.

This section gives some basic tips in your tree--planting project or program.



_-.- -

The Little Green Book Leaders and members of an indigenous community in Kalinga province have organized their own company and have applied with the Mines and Ceosciences Bureau for an exploration permit to explore and possibly mine minerals in their community. They envision that as managers of their community-based company, they can operate the mines the way they operate their rice fields. For instance, they can program the extraction in such a way that they will mine only what is enough to sustain them for a certain period rather than extracting all minerals in one swoop just to recover their investments.

Because they own and control their company, the Kalinga villagers made the assurance that they would enforce environmental measures that would prevent contamination of their rivers, springs and farms.

6. Asi

indigenous peoples to m

Many indigenous communities are watching the exploration permit application of the indigenous peoples of Pasil town in Kalinga Province.

Unfortunately, the Kalinga villagers are still struggling to have their permit approved or even entertained by the Mines and Geosciences Bureau. The Bureau said that the villagers' application overlaps with earlier applications of certain well-established companies. So the villagers' application is still a test case. There lies the problem. The government obviously favors multi national com pan ies.



Before anything else, know your tree. The tree must suit your community. You can plant the species of trees that naturally grow in your community. If Benguet pine, tibig salago and other trees grow well in your community, then you can plant these.

Also, know your purpose. Some people plant trees that satisfy their needs, but trees have multiple uses. They can be used for timber, fuel, soil or watershed cover, wildlife food and habitat, food, medicine, landscaping or beautification, and so on. Timber includes Benguet pine, oak, molave, narra, dao, kalantas, igem, pakak and the like. Non-timber species that help enhance watersheds and protect soil include the hauili, balete, tibig, hagimit, and balinghasay. Medicinal species are lagundi, banaba, dita, batino, hanga, eucalyptus, and camphor. You can also plant fruit trees. For some landscaping, you can plant the weeping willow (bottle brush), cypress, araucaria and African tulip.

However, indigenous species or those native to the place are the best. Exotic or introduced species maybe good but they can possibly develop or bring in certain pests and diseases.

Another tip is to combine the trees you plant such as shallow and deep-rooted species and light-loving (as upper storey) with shade-loving (as lower storey) species. Benguet coffee can grow under pine trees and hot chili pepper under your coffee tree. The more varieties you plant, the


'. t

better as this helps prevent the development and outbreak of pests and diseases. But you must intersperse species compatible with each other.

"Nurse trees" and fast-growing species must be grown first to help enrich the soil. Nurse trees are those that provide partial shade for another crop. Economic crops like cacao and coffee do not grow and bear fruits well when planted in the open. So remember to first plant nurse trees like kakawate, narra, rain tree, alnus or ipil-ipil. Dipterocarp seedlings and saplings also need nurse trees.

Fast-growing and nutrient-fixing trees are suited in highly degraded areas with poor soil, weeds and extreme temperatures. These trees are associated with microorganisms that help nourish the soil. Examples include legume trees such as ipil-ipil, calliandra, and flamingia; and non-legumes such as the alnus and Trema orienta/is (anabiong). Plant these trees first before planting other partial shade-loving trees such as coffee and dipterocarps.

Herbalists, hunters, farmers and foresters can help. Ask them. They don't only know where to find the particular species you are looking for, but also when these bear fruit. So they can guide you where and when to collect seeds you want.

You can collect seeds that fall on the ground and seeds from felled trees. You can also place a mat or net under a mother tree before shaking it. If you cannot climb a tree, you can use a pole trimmer, which is a pole with a collecting bag or cutter at the end, to reach seeds or fruits up on the mother tree.

It's best to collect seeds during seed years and in the mid-morning or afternoon of a calm, sunny day so that the seeds are dry. Likewise, fine



on a. chosen spot, dig a hole and remove stone or hard soil matenals, and ,.ncorporate compost if the soil is not fertile. The root system should assume Its natural arrangement/position when placed in the pia


hole, and covered it with loose soil up to the root collar. The root


the bounda.ry between the root system and the shoot system. Slightly press the soli that covers the roots.

. In


in a seedbed or in a planting hill or hole, cover the seeds With loose sOI.1 at a depth about the diameter of the seed for medium size seeds, a centImeter deep for fine seeds and half the d' t f I

seeds. , l a m e er or arge




seeds with hard seed coat may be soaked overnight: or ImmersedIn hot water for one minute or longer, dependin on the


and hardness of the testa or seed coat. You can also nicr or cut a portion of the testa to hasten entry of oxygen and moisture.

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s('('ds will not 1)(' blown (lIld it's safer for the climber. Seed years rder to tl1{' s('..son when trees bear abundant seeds. Trees normally bear abundant ....<'('d5 at some intervals, e.g., 2-5 years interval. During "seed-off years"

(the years when only few seeds are produced), developed seeds are usually defective because they are consumed or affected by insects or other organ isms.

Keep the seeds dry until sowing to prevent rotting. Seeds can be kept in sealed bottles or plastic bags. Some people are collecting seeds for sale. Commonly collected forest tree seeds in the Cordillera are Benguet pine, gmelina, ipil-ipil, calliandra, large leaf mahogany, and narra. These are the most common reforestation species promoted by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Collecting seeds and properly storing them help ensure the quality of seeds you intend to plant or sell.

Some seeds lose their viability in a short time so they cannot be dried. Thus it is best to sow them right after gathering or extracting them from the fruits. These include lanzones, rambutan, mango, jackfruit, and dipterocarp species.

If you cannot collect your own seeds, it is best to ask people near seed sources to collect seeds for you to ensure that these are new.

We can follow Nature's way. We can scatter seeds in an area and they can grow. The usual way is to raise seedlings in a nursery, after which the seedlings are planted in the field. Seeds can be also directly sown in the field. Some people in Mountain Province reported that they just would scatter collected Benguet pine cones in an open area and these would germinate and grow well.

It is best to plant trees when the rain comes so you don't have to water them. Before planting your seedling, clean weeds within a foot

22 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book




OUffamily regularly eats fruits, including that of trees.

Is it advisable to use the seeds of fruits bought from the market for fruit production?

Both indigenous and exotic fruitsarebought in the market and they may have been harvested from hybrid plants. Seeds from those fruits can be planted. But temperate fruits may not bear fruits if planted in warm places. Fruitsofhybrid trees may not beofthe same quality as the fruits eaten. Thereasonis that the pollen source may have comefrom aplant with adifferent fruit quality.

We are planning a community tree-planting project.

What organizations or agencies can support reforestation projects in the Cordillera?

Schools, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, the local government units, and various non- government organizations /ike the Cordillera Green Network support reforestation projects. For technical help, you can request from State Colleges and Universities suchasthe Benguet State University.

State colleges and universities provide technical assistance to communitiesaspart of their extension mandate. Certain DENR functions such as forest management are handed over to local government units. This is why many local government units have nurseries and created environmental offices with personnel that include foresters. They can advise you on how to obtain seeds and raise seedlings, and even give you seedlings. NGOs can also teach people how to plant seedlings and set up nurseries. Some NGOs and foundations provide financial help so they accept proposals that they screen for funding.


:o~can do something, as an individual or as part of a family, association~rcommunity. Your actions can be as simple as minimizing

the use oftissuepaper, styrofoam and plastic bags, or recycling used pape~. You cang~a stepfu~therby establishing nurseries and raising seedh~gsand asking your frrends and neighbors to plant these when the rain comes. Whatever actions you take, big or small, help Mother

Earth. You can do the following as your own contribution:



• After eating fruits, collect the seeds and plant them in your backyard or in vacant lots. These trees can help your family and the public in many ways.

• Practice forest conservation and teach your kin and other people to do the same. You can recycle wood to make furniture. Wood scrap need not end up as charcoal. .



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• Minimize the use of new paper and collect and recycle used paper.

Papers come from trees, which take years to mature. The less paper you use, the lesser the need to cut more trees.

• Each wild animal or insect has an essential role to play. Be kind to them because wild animals are not only food on your table. If you need to hunt, spare the young and pregnant animals.

• Please leave nothing but footprints when you are in the forest. Don't leave non-biodegradable wastes or poisonous substances in the forests.

• Raise domesticated animals at home or at your farm so you don't have to hunt for wild animals.

• Buy products made from trees grown in tree farms or from legal sources. Illegally marketed products may have been smuggled out from the forests.

• Upland farming need not be destructive. Adopt agro-forestry in wh ich you can grow trees with food or cash crops.

• You are lucky if you have natural forests left in your communities.

Help protect and further enhance them.

• Help establish and maintain forest parks and watersheds in your community, town or province.

26 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book




• Minimize the use of detergents and cleansers, especially strong chemical cleansers, to clean the bathroom or to wash dishes and clothes. The chemical waste you dispose of ends up into the earth's water tables, springs, rivers, and eventually into the seas and oceans.

• Properly dispose used oils; do not throw these into the stream, river, or any bodies of water.

• Promote organic or natural farming by educating yourself about it.

Better yet, practice it as you share your knowledge with your neighbors and friends. Choose and buy organic vegetables and products.

• Use traps, hook and line, and rubber-powered arrow to fish instead of chemicals and electric gadgets.

• The strips of land alongside rivers and around lakes should be teeming with various plants and trees. Help maintain these.

• Recycle and reuse wastes so these won't end up in the rivers and other water systems.


• Go to the forests and rivers with your children and show them the beauty and importance of nature by directly experiencing it.

• Bring your own bag for shopping and refuse plastic bags as wrappers and containers.

• Buy products of companies which care for the environment. Boycott non-environment-friendly products.

• Buy drinks in returnable containers or make your own juice from fresh fruits.


• Buy chemical-and-additive-free products such as organically-grown vegetables, grains, root crops, and fruits.

• Vote for politicians who care for the environment; vote out illegal loggers.

• Raise organic crops and animals in your backyard so they can use your kitchen refuse such as vegetable and fruit peelings.

• Organize or activate "eco-c1ubs" in your community, town, province or region.

• Use alternative energy sources other than oil such as biogas, micro- hydro-electric plants, and wind and solar power.

• Maintain a simple lifestyle. Be contented with simple gadgets. If yourcell~l~rphone still works, don't be tempted to buy another just because ItISmore trendy or fashionable. Remember that the more gadgets or amenities you use and throwaway, the more you help raise the demand for minerals that need to be mined.

• Prevent soil erosion by terracing and riprapping as the Indigenous People did to their famous rice terraces. You can also plant certain flora as buffer strips and soil cover.

30 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book 31


Saving, protecting and sustaining the Cordillera's environment is a concerted effort of various groups.

This directory of environmental organizations, government agencies, statecolleges and universities, and organic product stores in the Cordillera is a guide

for concerned individuals and organizations who want to cooperate and collaborate with them.

Other Other Fish- Total

Forest Wooded Land pond! Forest-land

Lands Uses Built-up Ares

Province Areas

Natural Plantation Total and

Inland Water

Ir.1 92,004 6,786 98,790 170,267 38,961 504 308,522

J.ty,\O 228,577 3,622 232,199 105,353 5,738 337 343,627

'Ilguet 83,398 17,579 100,977 70,566 33,752 9,228 214,523

Ig.lO 58,044 14,911 72,955 111,211 38,408 2,120 224,695

Ilillga 79,809 5,140 84,949 139,816 42,578 207 267,550

I.Province 74,466 1,267 75,733 96,622 21,972 356 194/683

It,ll 616,298 49,305 665/603 693,835 181,409 12,752 1,553,600

lolotal 39.67% 3.17% 42% 44.66% 11.66% 82%

m'st-Iand I'.t

Causes Total Annual

Timber Forest Fire Land Conversion to Degradation Average

I'rllvince Poaching (hal Kaingin!Agricultural (ha) degradation

(hal Farm (ha) (ha!year)

hr,l 0.176 336.900 No data available 337.340 42.168

p.lyao 2.460 93.350 No data available 96.110 12.014

Il'llguet 0.662 9,699.380 29.660 9,730.010 1,216.251

'llgao 0.717 233.180 13.520 247.810 30.976

'.tlillga 0.884 557.940 No data available 558.940 69.868

I. Province 0.085 2,916.290 No data available 2,916.480 364.560


( HAL 4.984 13,837.040 43.180 13,886.690 297.640

II 1\1 1\1 III III 1\.


A 1\

I I I<


Forestland Use in the Cordillera

Forest Loss in the Cordillera (2000-2005)


Non-Government and People's Organizations

1. Alay sa Kapatid Foundation (AKAP) Contact person: Sr. Mary Bernard, OSD Address: 26 Second Quezon Hill, Baguio City Phone No.: 074-443-4769

Organized in 1990 to assist the earthquake victims, ~KAP pr?vid~slivelihood training and programs. At present, it has a reforestatIon projectInTokmo, Itogon, Benguet.

2. Baguio Regreening Movement (BRM)

Contact person: c/o Eupronia Muyano FMS, DENR CAR Address: #80 Diego Silang Street, Baguio City Mobile No.: 0920-928-6359

The BRM focuses on local environmental policies in relation to environmental issues. It also promotes waste management, protection of forests and watersheds. Its activities include tree planting, environmental advocacy, seedling production and eco-walks.

3. Community Volunteers Missioners (CVM) Contact Person: Nestor Caoili, Executive Director

Address: Caoili Building, Km. 4, La Trinidad, Benguet Province Mobile No.: 0917-507-0683

This group offers livelihood projects, advocates a green consumerism and opposes large scale mining.

4. Concerned Citizens of Abra for Good Governance (CCAGG) Contact Persons: Paz Bumagas

Address: Zone 6, Bangued, Abra Province Mobile No.: 0928-421-8847

E-mail ad:ccagg2000@yahoo.com

An organization with biodiversity conservation programs, CCAGG also help~ local government formulate Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development Protection Plans (ADSDPP).

5. Cordillera Green Network (CGN) Contact Person: Mariko Sorimachi Banasan Address: No. 140 General Lim Street, Baguio City Mailing address: P.O.BOX 540, Baguio City, 2600 Phone No.: 074-637-7414

E-mail: cgn@skyinet.net . .

An NGO concerned with the preservation of the green environment In the Cordillera region. The activities include: environmental .advocacythro~gh eco- caravan, production of environmental education.~~tenals, reforestation and agro forestry, environment friendly livelihood activities, cultural exchange and green scholarship program.

6. Cordillera Mountaineering Club Contact Person: Rogel Marzan

Address: Cosmic Farm, Beckel, La Trinidad, Benguet Province Mobile No.: 0920-452-2721

Itoffers tour guiding, mountain dimbing and rappelling, rescue training and spelunking.

7. Cordillera Net

Contact Person: Alice Macay

Address: Good Shepherd Compound, 15 Gibraltar Rd., Minesview, Baguio City Mobile No.: 0921-513-5730

It is a network of Non-Government Organizations to assist people's organizations in endorsing projects and funding agencies. It has programs, projects and services such as: Cordnet Resource Access Center, mainstreaming the survival of the enterprising poor into the market economy, localized anti- poverty program and water resource development. Cordnet, is a culture based and service oriented network, values partnership, subsidiary self-reliance, transparency and innovativeness in all its activities and relationship with all stakeholders.

8. Cordillera Organic Producers Association (COPA) Contact Person: Rogel A. Marsan

Address: Beckel, La Trinidad, Benguet Mobile No.: 0920-452-2721

It operates within but not limited to the Cordillera Administrative Region. Guided by the Organic Agricultural Standard, the association focuses on organic crop production (vegetable, fruits and mushroom), personal development, environment advocacy, and organic eco-tourism.

9. Cordillera People's Alliance (CPA)

Address: 139 M. Roxas St., Trancoville, Baguio City Phone No.: 074-442-7008; Fax: 074-442-5347

A federation of indigenous people's organizations that coordinate environmental campaigns and collates existing data of the Cordillera environment.

10. ENCA ECO- Tourism and Organic Farm Contact Person: Marlyn Cosalan

Address: Acop, Tublay Benguet Province Phone No.: 074-422-1116

The ENCA-Eco Tourism and Organic Farm was named after Enrique and Carmen Cosalan, the second generation to operate the farm. They envision a space where indigenous Ibaloi organic farming practices are being preserved and taught throughout the community. The farm is a key venue in teaching students the importance of sustainable farming, land preservation and environmental education. Its activities include eco-walks, hiking, trekking, rappelling, camping, bird watching and meditation.

11.GEO Farm

Contact Persons: Ed and Yvonne Gueverra

Address: Brgy. Mangayao, Bayambang, Pangasinan Province Phone Nos.: 02-438-4243/074-445-6818;

Mobile Nos.: 0917-507-0187/ 0917-506-8822 Website: www.geofarm777.com

Program includes: food production using the "bahay kubo" concept, poverty alleviation through agro-forestry approach and self-sufficiency integrated farming; alternative renewable energy; total waste management; health and nutrition; deep ecology; 7 healing gardens through paradigm shift; and eco- farm-development.

34 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book



12. Heaven of Care Resource Center Contact Person: Irene G. Cayal Address: Abatan, Buguias, Benguet

Phone No.: 074-619-2116; Mobile No.: 0919-784-4982 E-mail: hcrci@yahoo.com

Organized in 2002, the organization is a community rehabilitation cen~er t~at offers therapy to disabled children.Itprovides training for parents with disabled children and community education against pesticides. Itconducts research on the link between pollution and retardation in children.

13. Igorot Tribal Assistance Group (ITAG) Contact Person: Michael Bengwayan, Program Officer Address: P.O. Box 741, La Trinidad, Benguet Province Phone &FAX No.: 074-422-1652

E-mail: mikiben@mozcom.com

Provides training and organization building assistance and undertakes education, research, monitoring and evaluation of various tribes in the region.

14. Igorota Foundation Incorporated Contact Person: Sr. Theresa Dagdag

Address: #37 Paraan St., Quezon Hill, Baguio City Mail address: P.O. Box 1050, 2600 Baguio City Mobile No.: 0921-438-3697

Telefax No.: 074-445-7626 E-mail: igorota@skinet.net

Established in recognition of the rights and responsibilities of women to fully develop their God-given potentials, this NGO envisions women's holistic development for self-sustaining communities. Its mission is to empower women through transformative training and education of their rights.


Contact Person: Cristina S. Aban

Address: Dumanzi Bldg., FA 149A Km 5, Balili, La Trinidad, Benguet Province Phone No.:074-309-3766; Mobile No: 0919-609-9631

The organization's program includes scholarship, health, alternative agriculture and environmental education.

16. Jaime V. Ongpin Foundation (JVOFI)

Address: 27 Sofia de Veyra cor. Road 2,Quezon Hill, Baguio City Phone &FAX Nos.:074-446-2807 / 074-446-2843

JVOFI is a private, non-stock, non-profit organization that supports projects in selected areas in Northern Luzon. Its core programs are Enterprise

Development, Ecological Enhancement, Internal Capacity-Building and Resource Generation. Itassists local government units in preserving communal forests and watersheds in the Cordillera region.

17. Kabayan Youth Club Contact Person: Kenneth Kelcho Poblacion, Kabayan, Benguet Province Mobile No.: 0927-810-1229

E-mail: kkelcho@yahoo.com

This group promotes environmental awareness among the Kabayan youth by conducting youth camps / seminars and ecological trainings.

18. Kalahan Educational Foundation, Inc.

Contact Persons: Bill Bagta, Rev. Delbert Rice Address: Imugan, Sta. Fe, Nueva Viscaya Province Mobile Nos.: 0927-551-3521/ 0927-262-5401

The foundation provides livelihood and opportunities for the youth to study and work in the ancestral domain, improve the health of the community, empower people to work for the community, promote good tradition, cultural integrity and strengthen Christian values and relationship among the people.

19. Mary Knoll Ecological Sanctuary Contact Person: Sr. Margarita Jamias

Address: #27 N Santo Tomas Rd., Campo Sioco, Baguio City Phone No.: 074-442-4602

E-mail: mscbag@mozcom.com

This sanctuary promotes spirituality and ecology through its program called

"cosmic journey" in which people are oriented on the process of creation and evolution. Itpartners with other organizations.

20. Montanosa Research and Development Center (MRDC) Contact Person: Mathew Tauli

Address: Poblacion, Sagada, Mountain Province

This organization in Mountain Province conducts researches, seminars, and educational discussion with the communities in the Cordillera. Itpromotes organic farming, sustainable agriculture, and the use ofappropriat~technology.

21. People's Initiative for Learning and Community Development (PILCD)

Contact Person: Ramon Mapa

Address: 247 Lower Ferguson, Central Guisad, 2600, Baguio City Contact No.: Telefax: 074-300-5038

E-mail address:pilcd@skyinet.net

PILCD has an alternative education and learning system that provides accessible learning opportunities relevant to the people's needs and context to enable them to develop their capacities. Itseeks to help empower communities through integral and sustainable development.

22. Saint Louis University- Extension Institute for Smail-SCale Industries Foundation, Inc. (SLU- EISSIF)

Contact Person: Amelia Gas-ib

Address: Rm. C016 CCA Bldg., SLU, Bonifacio Road, Baguio City Mobile No.: 0918-537-2102

This NGO primarily does extension work for small business people in the form of entrepreneurship, management and technical training, consultancy, research and information. Ithas an environmental research laboratory.

23. Save the Abra River Movement (STARM) Contact Person: Rosalinda Suyam

Address: Resurrection Compound, Magsaysay Avenue Baguio City Mobile No.: 0920-886-6928

This movement includes different organizations, schools, and individuals who are critical against large-scale mining.Itconducts mass forums and researches water samples along Abra River.


24. Save the Ifugao Terraces Movement (SITMO) Contact Person: James G. Tayaban

Address: Ifugao Heritage and Community Education Center, Sitio Dinapugan, Tuplac, Kiangan, Ifugao Province

Phone No.:074- 382-2156; Mobile No.: 0916-252-3560 1

0918-5040-475 ;Fax No.: 074-382-2156 E-mail: atadeboy@yahoo.com

Promotes and implements programs for the preservation of the Ifugao rice terraces.

25. Shontoug Foundation, Inc.

Contact Person: Marietta Paragas

Address: Good Shepherd Compound, 15 Gibraltar Road, Minesview, Baguio City Telefax No.: 074- 444-7197

E-mail: shontoug@mozcom.com

It works on the indigenization of programs, sustainable agriculture, technology transfer and training.

26. Tebtebba Foundation (Indigenous People's International Center for Policy Research and Education)

Contact Person: Victoria Tauli-Corpuz Address: 1 Roman Ayson Road, Baguio City Telefax No.: 074-444-7701

website: www.tebteba.org E-mail: tebtebba@tebtebba.org

Tebtebba seeks to approach environmental issues from the framework of security of indigenous peoples' rights to territories, lands and natural resources.

27. Upland Development Project (UDI) Contact Person: Pablo Abluyen

Address: Cacadog, Tublay, Benguet Province Mobile No.: 0906-277-0914

Promote organic farming in Kalinga and Mt. Province and teaches green health (Le. acupuncture and acupressure) to the people.

Organic Markets, Restaurants and Vegetarian cafes

1. Azotea Green

Contact Person: JC Carlos

Address: 2/F La Azotea, Session Road, Baguio City Mobile No: 0910-802-8927

A vegetarian fast food place that serves MSG-free dishes using gluten and veggie meat. It accepts catering services for group meetings, conferences and parties.

2. Benguet Network of Development-Oriented People's Organization Inc.

Contact Person: Norman Marino, Maria Tita P. Butz

Address: Jack Restaurant Bldg., Km 4, La Trinidad Benguet Province Mobile Nos.: 0920-413-8843 10921-425-7563 10917-506-9990 E-mail: tcki2004@yahoo.com

website: www.angkasama.net-tcki

The Benguet Network is composed of village associations and cooperatives. Its mission is to develop the organizational capacities of the network in order to bring about a better quality of life for the people of Benguet. Its goals: (1) increase the level of participation among the members in decision-making processes and make an impact in the network and in the province;. (2) develop partnerships with local government units, government line agencies, the business sector and other development-oriented institutions; and, (3) advocate sustainable development through the implementation of sustainable

development agriculture, resource-based and community-based livelihood programs, and people's organization bUilding and strengthening.

3. Bliss Cafe

Contact Person: Jim & Shanti Ward

Address: Munsayac Inn, Leonard Wood Road, Baguio City

Phone.: 074-442-2451; Mobile Nos.: 0917-846-472910917-528-1166 Email: info@blissnbaguio.com

Website: www.blissnbaguio.com 1www,flickr.com/photos/blissnbaguio

Bliss Cafe is a vegetarian cafe and art space which exhibit art works. It screens an art film weekly and sponsors poetry reading nightly.

4. Cafe by the Ruins

Contact Person: Getty Wayagwag

Address: 25 Chuntug Street, in front of City Hall, Baguio City Phone No.: 074- 442-4010/446-4010

Fax: 074-442-5272 Email: ruins@mozcom.com

This garden cafe offers organic vegetable salad and native cuisine. Naturally baked breads and pastries are also available.

5. Ebai's Cafe and Pastry

Contact Person: Lucia Capuyan- Catanes

Address: 151 Upper Session Road, Engineer's Hill, Baguio City Phone No.: 074-446-9722/442-2992

Mobile No.: 0918-911-6173

Fresh organic vegetables from their Benguet farm are sold. Handicrafts and souvenir items are available.

38 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book 39



Government Agencies


DENR envisions the Philippines to be a country of lush forests, clear skies and waters and bountiful land; a strong dynamic nation of empowered people living in dignity, at peace with each other and in harmony with nature. The mission is to promote the well- being of the Filipino people through its four-fold thrust: sustainable resources development with emphasis on the uplands, social equity in access and benefit sharing in resource use, efficiency of natural resources based industries, and environmental management and protection.

DENR-CAR has 15 Community Environment and Natural Resources Offices (CENRO), six Provincial Environment and Natural Resources offices, and six Regional Services Offices as shown in the following directory:

6. Honey in the Rock Contact Person: Laarni Andam

Address: Porta Vaga, Upper Session Road, Baguio City Phone No. : 074-446-4936

Mobile No.: 0918-914-0536

This restaurant has a library where patrons can read books while enjoying Cordilleran coffee and fresh fruit juices. Garden-fresh vegetables and

international food are served. Organic vegetables are sold on Wednesdays and Saturdays.

7. La Trinidad Organic Practitioners Multi-purpose Cooperative (LATOP-MPC)

Contact Person: Ambrosio "Pat"L. Acosta

Address: #36, Public Market, Km 5, La Trinidad Benguet Province Mobile No.: 0920-659-8489

LATOP-MPC is a group of organizations and private individuals that promotes organic farming. It produces and sells varied organic products daily.

Daily: #36 Public Market, Km 5, La Trinidad Wednesday and Saturdays:

Cafe by the Ruins


8:00 - 12:00 noon Marios, Upper Session Rd. =8:00 - 12:00 noon Honey in the Rock, Porta Vaga


12:00 - 5:00 pm 8. Oh, My Gulay (OMG)

Contact Person: Marion Caranto

Address: 5th Floor La Azotea Bldg., Session Rd., Baguio City Mobile No.: 0918-667-6025

OMG is a cozy and environment-friendly cafe where art and natural beauty flourish. Itaccepts parties, seminars or any activities.

Regional Executive Director Address: Diego Silang Street, Baguio Phone No.: 074-442-4531

Regional Director Mines and Geo- sciences

Address: Diego Silang Street Phone No.: 074-442-6392 Forest Management Service Address: Diego Silang Street Phone No.: 074-442-2353

Land Management Service Address: Diego Silang Street Phone No.: 074-442-9329

Ecosystem Research and Service Address: Loakan Road, Baguio Phone No.: 074-447-2541

Environment Management and Protected Areas Service

Address: Forestry Compound, Pacdal, Baguio City

Phone No.: 074-446-6440


9. Vegetarian Center

Contact Person: Rafael S. Wasan

Address: Harmonde 4thfloor, Abanao Square, Baguio City Mobile No.: 0919-215-7655

Vegetarian Center serves pure vegetarian food; no animal meat, fish, garlic, onion and mushroom. It also offers health products, organic vegetables, healthy breads, yoga and health classes.



CONTACT ADDRESS Kasamata Hill, Bangued, Abra McKinley St., Bangued, Abra Poblacion, Lagangilang, Abra Poblacion, Cabugao


Malama, Conner, Apayao San Isidro, Luna, Apayao Forestry Cpd., Pacdal, Baguio City Forestry Cpd., Pacdal, Baguio City Abatan, Buguias, Benguet Wangal, La Trinidad, Benguet Bannit, Lamut, Ifugao Bannit, Lamut, Ifugao ISCAF Cpd., A. Lista, Ifugao Bulanao, Tabuk, Kalinga Pinukpuk, Jct., Pinukpuk, Kalinga Dagupan, Tabuk, Kalinga Poblacion, Bontoc, Mt. Province Poblacion, Paracelis, Mt. Province Poblacion, Sabangan, Mt. Province


074-752-8252 074-752-8251

074-442-7074 074-442-7315/7316 074-432-2686

PENRO Mangachu 0919-378-5804

074-872-2179 PENRO Ambatal - 0918-648-4370 074-462-4130


State Colleges and Universities

SCUs have four-fold major functions: instruction, research, extension and production.

These mandates integrate environmental protection and conservation concerns. Mainly designed and established to promote sustainable environment and natural resources management, environment courses are offered such as degrees in Forestry and Environmental Sciences. SCUs in the Cordillera Administrative Region all offer the Forestry Course. These schools may also have environmental conservation projects.

Benguet State University, for example, is currently developing a biodiversity/nature park and an organic demonstration farm. To get in touch with these SCUs, try the following contact lines/addresses:

1. Abra State Institue of Science and Technology Dr. Imelda A. Buenafe

Address: Langangilang, Abra Provonce Phone No.: 074-752-8171

Website: www.ecommunity.ncc.gov.ph/assist 2. Apayao State College

Dr. Zacarias A. Baluscang Jr.

Address: Conner, Apayao Province

Other contact person for College of Forestry:

For. Cristina Zarate-Manicad Fax No.: 078-884-0929 3. Benguet State University

Dr. Rogelio D. Colting

Address: La Trinidad, Benguet Province Contact Nos: 074-422-2401 / 074-422-2281 Email ad:president@bsu.edu.ph

Website: www.bsu.edu.ph

4. Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry Dr. Serafin L. Ngohayon

Address: Lamut, Ifugao Province Phone No: 078-332-2574 Email: iscaf@hotmail.com

Or contact: Dr. Jose Daniels, College of Forestry Mobile No.: 0916-963-2443

5. Kalinga Apayao State College Dr. EduardoT. Bagtang

Address: Tabuk, Kalinga Province Phone No.: 074-872-2045

Email ad:kasckalingall1@hotmail.com

Or contact: Dr. Elmer Barcelo, College of Forestry Mobile No: 0926-854-5035



Mt. Province State Polytechnic College Dr. Nieves A. Dacyon

Bontoc, Mountain Province Phone No.:074-602-1014 Email: MPSPCollege@yahoo.com

Or cotact: George Lubin, College of Forestry Mobile No: 0920-761-1672

University of the Philippines - Cordillera Studies Center (Up-esC) Contact Person: Delfin L. Tolentino Jr., Director

Address: University of the Philippines College Baguio, Baguio City Phone No.: 074-442-5794

Email: cordillerastudies@yahoo.com Website: www.upb.edu.ph

CSC is the research a.rn:' of UP-Baguio, which has the folloWing objectives: (1) to serve.a~the lead unit In promoting and enhancing research undertakings in UP

~agulo I~accordance with theUniv~rsity'smandate to exercise academic leadership In ~eac~lng~ research and extension; (2) to set the research directions of the University In close coordination with the colleges; (3) to contribute to the development and application of new theoretical or methodological approaches to research; (4) to promote a continuing dialogue among academic, non-gOVernment gro,ups, government agencies and communities in response to the needs of the region; a.nd (5). to deal with issues affecting Northern Luzon with special focus on the Cordillera, ItS geographical base and the community it primarily serves.

CSC Research thrusts are on biodiversity conservation, ethnicity studies

governance, and public policy. '

42 The Little Green Book The Little Green Book 43


it's warming

typhoons on november and december, weather fluctuations around the world.

this is not what i remember,

when iwas growing up in this world.

they say the climate's changing, it doesn't take a fool to take note.

often ti mes i wonder,

what the world needs to be heard.

are we blind to the plight of our world?

can't we see she needs some help?

what does it take for people to start cari ng?

if i had the answer i'd give it to everyone.


people are just numb.

some are just plain dumb.

- Aolo Rocero

Mga Sanggunian


The Cavite State University CvSU invites interested firms/supplier to submit quotation for the project “Supply and Delivery of Various Supplies and Materials for Research Center” with