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A Review of Intra-Philippine Distribution Patterns of Philippine Mosses based on Recent Evidence of Tectonic Evolution of the Archipelago: Insights and Problems

Virgilio C. Linis

Researcher I and Curator of bryophytes and lichens, Philippine National Herbarium, Botany Division, National Museum of the Philippines, P. Burgos Ave. cor. Taft Ave., 1000 Manila. verlinis@yahoo.com

Abstract

A recent review of the distribution patterns of Philippine mosses is presented. Interpretation about the distribution of local moss flora through correlation with information from the latest plate tectonic history of the archipelago, which has its beginning from the Oligocene period, is discussed. Long distance and chance dispersal as alternative explanations for local moss distribution are also supported.

Keywords: biogeography, moss flora, plate tectonics, Philippines

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Introduction

Progress resulting from almost 90 years of continued bryological exploration in the Philippines has changed the overall picture of the affinity of Philippine mosses. In a recent analysis, Tan (1992) showed that the country’s moss flora is predominantly East Asiatic in species composition. Moreover, three important features emerged from his analysis: (1) there is a much closer relationship between the moss floras of the Philippines (especially Luzon and Mindoro) and the Himalayan/ Indochina/ Hainan region; (2) there is a strong floristic connection between mosses on Mindanao Island, Philippines and New Guinea; and (3) endemism in Philippine mosses, both at the generic and species level, is low. The last conclusion is particularly significant; there are only two endemic Philippine moss genera known today: Merrilliobryum Broth and Macgregorella Bartr and the percentage of endemic Philippine moss species has gone down to nearly 10% (Tan, 1984) from a high 30% in the early part of this century (Bartram, 1939).

The above conclusions indeed show a strong deviation from the first summary of Philippine moss phytogeography made by C. B.

Robinson in 1914. Based mainly on the large moss collections housed at the Bureau of Science Herbarium, two of his conclusions then were: (1) that the moss flora of the Philippines is overwhelmingly Malayan; and (2) that the Philippine moss flora has a high percentage of endemism both at the generic and species levels.

The complex geologic history of the Philippine Island group has its

beginning in the Tertiary plate tectonics of Southeast Asia (Aurelio,

2001; Fernandez, 1982; Hall 1996, 1998; and Holloway, 1982). At

present, the geological evidence is clear about the composite origin

of the Philippine archipelago. For instance, the island of Palawan,

northeastern Panay and southwestern part of Mindoro, being part of

the North Palawan-Calamian microcontinental plate, were reported

to have been positioned near the coast of China, forming part of

the continuous continental shelf (Southeast Eurasian Margin) with

Hainan and Taiwan during the Eocene some 50 million years ago

(Holloway, 1982). Because of the opening of the South China Sea

in the Oligocene, Palawan, northeastern Panay and southwestern

Mindoro were pushed to their present day positions in the Philippine

archipelago. The origin of Eastern Mindoro, the rest of Panay and

neighboring islands are still a subject of controversy, however,

Aurelio (2001) have suggested that these islands could have been

formed by the collision of the North Palawan microcontinental plate

and the Philippine Mobile Belt.

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The Philippine Mobile Belt consisted the remaining islands of the archipelago making the Luzon block and the Eastern Mindanao islands group. The Luzon block, which includes Polillo and Bicol Peninsula, were believed to have moved north from near the Equator to become position south of Taiwan in recent time. Bicol Peninsula was only connected to Luzon mainland during the last one million years. The Eastern Mindanao islands group including the large islands in the Visayas except for Negros and northeastern Panay, drifted since mid-Eocene from 140° E, 10° S south of the Equator to its present geographic position at the end of the Pleistocene (Hall, 1996). The islands group including Samar and Leyte that lie east of the Philippine Fault are interesting as they were believed to have been formed by the oblique convergence of the Philippine Sea Plate in the Pacific side of the archipelago and the Philippine Mobile Belt.

Western Mindanao, dissected by the Philippine Fault from Eastern Mindanao, was connected to each other by the Agusan-Davao and Cotabato Basins. These two basins were sedimentary deposits developed over a single pre-Oligocene volcanic arc (Quebral, 1994).

Western Mindanao comprising the remaining part of the island from Mount Apo and other volcanic cones in Central Mindanao westward was formed by the interaction of the Sulu Sea-Cagayan Ridge-Sulu-Zamboanga Arc-Celebes Sea System (Aurelio, 2001).

The system is a series of oceanic basins and ridges southeast of North Palawan microcontinental plate and like the latter is also part of the continental (Eurasian) plate. With all possibilities considered, the Philippine archipelago reaches its present configuration only after the last glaciation.

According to Tan and Iwatsuki (1991) the moss flora of the Philippines has 55 families, 228 genera and 700 species. The species endemism was a low 5% (Hallingback and Hodgetts, 2000). Based on my present field observations and studies of herbarium collections mainly of the Philippine National Herbarium (PNH), however, I was able to increase this number of total species count to 742. The newly added 42 species of mosses since the last count of Tan and Iwatsuki in 1991 with their corresponding published information are listed in Table 1.

While our knowledge of Philippine moss phytogeography

continues to rise, much of this research focused on external

phytogeography and bryogeographical affinities in relation to the

neighboring countries and islands. The distribution of local mosses

within the Philippine archipelago, however, is far from being well

understood and defined.

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Table 1. The newly added 42 species of mosses and their corresponding published information citing their Philippine distribution since the last count of Tan & Iwatsuki in 1991

Species Published information citing their

Philippine Distribution 1. Acroporium aciphyllum Dix. Tan, B. C. 1994

2. Acroporium johannis-winkleri Broth. Tan, B. C. & E. H. Mandia 2001 3. Acroporium ramicola (Hampe) Broth. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 4. Atractylocarpus novoguineensis Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000

(Broth. & Geh.) Norris & Kop.

5. Barbula zennoskeanna Tan Tan, B. C. 1994b

6. Braunfelsia edentula (Mitt.) Wijk. & Marg. Linis, V. C. & B. C. Tan 2005 7. Calymperes mangalorense Dix. & P. dela Verde Tan, B. C. 1996

8. Calymperes motleyi Mitt. ex Dozy & Molk. Tan, B. C. 1996 9. Calymperes subintegrum Broth. in J. Schmidt Tan, B. C. 1996

10. Campylopus flagelliferus (C. Müll.) Jaeg. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 11. Chaetometrium torquescens Bosch. & Lac. Tan, B. C. 1996

12. Clastobryophilum asperifolium Tan, B. C. 1996 (Thwaites & Mitt.) Dix.

13. Clastrobryum asperrimum (Dix.) Tan Tan, B. C. 1996

14. Dicranoloma daymannianum Bartr. Tan, B. C. & E. H. Mandia 2001 15. Dimorphocladon borneense Dix. Tan, B. C. 1996

16. Distichophyllum gracicaule Fleisch. Tan, B. C. 1996

17. Ectropothecium ptychofolium Nishimura Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 18. Fissidens guangdongensis Iwats. & Z.-H. Li Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 19. Garovaglia aristata Bosch & Lac. Tan, B. C. 1996

20. Garovaglia bauerlenii (Geh.) Par. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 21. Holomitrium stenobasis Dix. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 22. Horikawaea redfearnii Tan & Lin Tan, B. C. & P. Lin 1995

23. Hypnodendron auricomum Broth. & Geh. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 24. Isocladiella surcularis (Dix.) Tan & Mohammed Tan, B. C. 1993

25. Leucobryum boninense Sull. & Lesq. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 26. Leucoloma amoene-virens Mitt. Tan, B. C. 1996

27. Macromitrium archboldii Bartr. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 28. Meiotheciella papillosa (Bosch.) B. C. Tan, Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000

Schof. & Ramsay

29. Neolinbergia cladomnioides Akiyama Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 30. Papillidiopsis malayanum (Dix.) B. C. Tan Tan, B. C. 1993

31. Pinnatella foureana Thér. & P. dela Verde Linis, V. C. & B. C. Tan 2005 32. Pinnatella intralimbata Fleisch. Tan, B. C. 1996

33. Raccocarpus alpinus (Wright.) Par. Tan, B. C. & E. H. Mandia 2001 34. Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid. Tan, B. C. 1993

35. Rhaphidostichum bunodicarpum Tan, B. C. 1993 (C. Müll.) Fleisch.

36. Rhynchostegiella vriesei (Dozy & Molk.) Broth. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 37. Schlotheimia emarginato-pilosa herz. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 38. Sematophyllum microclaciellum Fleisch. Tan, B. C. 1993

39. Symphysodontella obtusata Tix. Tan, B. C. 1996

40. Symphysodontella parvifolia Bartr. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000 41. Taxiphyllum arcuatum (Bosch & Tan, B. C. 1993 as Homalia arcuata Bosch

Sande-Lac.) He & Sande-Lac.

42. Trichosteleum singapurense Fleisch. Tan, B. C., L. Lubos & Schwarz, U. 2000

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Tan and Iwatsuki (1991) updated the distributional information of all Philippine moss taxa reported in literature up to the end of 1990. They summarized the distribution of Philippine mosses by identifying three general patterns: Philippine-wide, mainly Luzon, and mainly Mindanao. These distribution patterns indicate the probable origins and the effectiveness of propagules’ dispersability and colonization. Despite this contribution, however, our knowledge of the distributions and affinities of Philippine mosses is far from complete. The goal of this paper is to further update our information about the intra-Philippine moss distribution patterns accumulated since the start of the 20th century until today, and presents new interpretations, conclusions, and problems.

Materials and Methods

I compiled published information on Philippine moss flora from studies based on the Philippines exclusively (Linis, 2004; Linis and Tan, 2005; Tan, 1996; Tan and Iwatsuki, 1991; Tan, Lubos, and Schwarz, 2000; and Tan and Mandia, 2001), as well as data contained in systematic revisions and monographs of paleotropical mosses (Akiyama, Koponen, and Norris, 1991; Akiyama and Suleiman, 2001; Arts, 2001; Buck, 1980a, b; Buck and Crum, 1978; Eddy, 1988;

Eddy, 1990; Eddy, 1996; Ellis and Tan, 1999; Enroth, 1994; He, 1997;

He and Snider, 2000; Hofmann, 1998; Ignatov and Koponen 1996;

Koponen, 1981; Kruijer, 2002; Magill, 1980; Miller and Manuel, 1982; Nowak, 1980; Tan 1990; Tan, 1993; Tan 1994; Tan, 1998; Tan, undated; Tan and Iwatsuki, 1992; Tan and Jia, 1999; Tan and Lin 1995; Tan and Robinson 1990; Touw, 2001; and Yamaguchi 1993).

These publications include distribution maps that often include islands and localities from the Philippines. In addition, I included the distributional data of Philippine mosses within the archipelago from the labels of the collections kept at the PNH.

I have been critical and conservative in interpreting and analyzing the above information by accepting and rejecting certain genera and species that I believe are only synonyms. Also, I was selective in accepting distributional information of species based from publications whose range information was listed as ‘Philippines’

only by considering them as ‘insufficiently known.’

Western Mindanao is defined here to include the entire Zamboanga

peninsula, Lanao, Maguindanao and Cotabato of Mindanao Island

as well Mount Apo and the highlands of Central Mindanao. Eastern

Mindanao includes the remaining area of Mindanao Island as well

as the smaller island groups of Dinagat and Siargao Islands.

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Results and Discussion

The various patterns of moss distributions, which I proposed for the Philippine archipelago and their examples, are shown in Table 2. These patterns seem to exist today because of two factors: 1.) New discoveries and progress made in the study of local moss flora in the last 15 years have increased and improved on the distributional information of many local species; and, 2.) Many islands and regions in the archipelago have sufficient data to permit biogeographic assumptions at this time.

Table 2. Intra-Philippine distribution patterns of Philippine mosses (742 spp) based from published information and from collections kept at the Philippine National Herbarium (PNH)

Categories No. % Various examples of Philippine

of taxa mosses for each category

1. Widespread in the Philippines 73 9. 84 Bryum coronatum Schwaegr., Spiridens reinwardtii Nees, Taxithelium instratum (Brid.) Broth., and Pyrrhobryum spiniforme (Hedw.) Mitt.

2. Luzon 220 29.65

2.1 Documented in Northern 116 15.63 Floribundaria aurea (Mitt.) Broth., Luzon (Cordilleran) only Macrothamnium hylocomioides Fleisch.,

Neckera crenulata Harv. in Hook., Merilliobryum frabronioides Broth., and Rhacithecium papillosum (Williams) Wijk

& Marg.

2.2 Known only in Bicol 3 0.41 Phyllodon lingulatus (Card.) Buck, and

Peninsula Calypthothecium squarrosulum Nog. & Tan

2.3 Widespread in Luzon 101 13.61 Aerobryopsis parisii (Card.) Broth., Brachymenium coarctatum Bosch. & Lac., Desmotheca brachiata (Hook. & Wils.) Vitt, and Indothuidium kiasense (Williams) 3. Luzon & Mindoro 48 6.47 TouwBarbula consaguinea (Thwait. & Mitt.)

Jaeg., Braunfelsia edentula (Mitt.) Wijk. &

Marg., Clastrobryum cuculligerum (Lac.) Tix., and Glypothecium sciuroides (Hook.) Hampe

4. Luzon & Palawan 22 2.96 Calymperes afzelii Sw., Duthiella declinata (Mitt.) Zant., Fissidens hollianus Dozy &

Molk., and Leucoloma walkeri Broth.

5. Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan 16 2.16 Aerobryidium crispifolium (Broth. & Geh.) Fleisch., Calymperes erosum C. Müll., Clastrobryophilum bogoricum (Bosch &

Lac.) and Garckea flexuosa (Griff.) Marg. &

Nork.

6. Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan & 24 3.23 Acroporium secundum (Reinw. &

western Mindanao Hornsch.) Fleisch., Chaetomitrium

orthorrhynchum (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch &

Lac., Distichophyllum nigricaule Mitt. ex Bosch & Lac., and Himantocladium plumula (Nees) Fleisch.

7. Luzon, Mindoro & Panay 2 0.27 Macromitrium reinwardtii Schwaegr. and Acroporium sigmatodontium (C. Müll.) Fleisch.

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Table 2. Cont.

8. Disjunctive between Luzon & 68 9.16 Aequatoriella bifaria (Bosch & Lac.) Touw, some islands in the Visayas Cirriphyllum oxyrrhynchum (Dozy &

Molk.) Fleisch., Dicranella coarctata (C.

Müll.) Bosch. & Lac., and Eurynchium vagans (Jaeg.) Bartr.

9. Disjunctive between Luzon & 136 18.32 Breutelia arundinifolia (Duby) Fleisch.,

Mindanao Calymperes serratum A. Br. ex C. Müll.,

Dicranoloma brevisetum (Dozy & Molk.) Par., and Zygodon reinwardtii (Hornsch.) Braun in B. S. G.

10. Mindoro only 3 0.41 Dicranoloma daymannianum Bartr.,

Distichophyllum noguchianum Tan, and Rhaccocarpus alpinus (Wright.) Par.

11. Disjunctive between Mindoro 10 1.35 Macromitrium ochraceum (Dozy & Molk.)

& Mindanao C. Müll., Papillaria leuconeura (C. Müll.)

Jaeg., Syrrhopodon prolifer Schwaegr., and Trismegistia panduriformis (C. Wright) Broth.

12. Mindoro & some islands 6 0. 81 Syrrhopodon spiculosus Hook. & Grev.,

in the Visayas Leucobryum chlorophyllosum C. Müll.,

Haplohymenium pseudotriste (C. Müll.) Broth., and Racomitrium lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.

13. Mindoro & Palawan only 3 0.41 Pelekium bonianum (Besch.) Touw, Taxiphyllum arcuatum (Bosch & Sande-Lac.) He, and Taxithelium merillii Broth.

14. Palawan & Sulu archipelago 21 2.83 Clastobryophilum asperifolium (Thwait.

& Mitt.) Dix., Euptychium setigerum (Sull.) Broth., Garovaglia aristata Bosch & Lac., and Pinnatella mucronata (Bosch & Lac.) Fleisch.

15. Palawan & western Mindanao 1 0.14 Desmotheca apiculata (Dozy & Molk.) Lindb.

in Card.

16. Visayas 3 0.41

16.1 Leyte & Samar 2 0.27 Neckeropsis boniana (Besch.) Touw &

Ochyra, Neckeropsis moutieri (Broth. & Par.) Fleisch.

16.2 Recorded two or 1 0.14 Chaetomitrium elmeri Broth.

more islands

17. Visayas & Mindanao only 5 0.67 Distichophyllum kinabaluense Nog. & Iwats., Mastopoma uncinifolium (Broth.) Broth. in Par., and Oligotrichum falcifolium (Griff.) G.

Smith.

18. Mindanao and Sulu archipelagos 61 8.22

18.1 Widespread in Mindanao 35 4. 71 Acroporium ramicola (Hampe) Broth., Atractylocarpus novoguineensis (Broth. &

Geh.) Norris & Kop., Dicranoloma armitii (C.

Müll.) Par., and Dawsonia longifolia (Bruch &

Schimp.) Zant. var. superba (Grev.) Zant.

18.2. Eastern Mindanao only 6 0.81 Bryobrothera crenulata (Broth. & Par.) Thér., Campylopus flagelliferus (C. Müll.) Jaeg., Papillidiopsis malesiana Buck & Tan, and Leskeodon acuminatus (Bosch & Lac.) Fleisch.

18.3 Western Mindanao & 19 2.56 Cinclidotus involutus Hilp., Distichophyllum

Sulu archipelagos cucullatum Bartr., Ectropotheciopsis

novoguineensis (Geh.) Fleisch., and Fissidens zwickeyi Bartr.

18.4 Sulu archipelago only 1 0.14 Chaetomitrium pseudo-elongatum Broth. in Warb.

Categories No. % Various examples of Philippine

of taxa mosses for each category

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The Philippine terrestrial biogeographic regions were reviewed and updated using the geographic distribution patterns of plants (mainly flowering plants), arthropods, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. This update includes the 16 biogeographic regions recognized by the DENR, as published in the second iteration of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan of 1997 (Ong, Afuang, and Rosell-Ambal, 2002). However, for the analysis of intra-Philippine distribution patterns of Philippine mosses based on current information about 20 categories are recognized in this paper. All these categories were based on our current knowledge on the local plate tectonics of the Philippine Island groups and from known distribution patterns of flowering plants and major animal groups.

Only 73 species (9.84%) of the Philippine mosses are widespread.

Perhaps this number is still small and may increase in the near future as more extensive collections are made in all islands within the archipelago. More than 82.21% (ca 610 spp.) of Philippine mosses are found in Luzon Island making Luzon the most bryologically investigated island within the archipelago or perhaps the most species- rich island with respect to bryophytes. Of these, approximately 116 and 3 species are documented within the Cordillera Mountain Range of Northern Luzon and from Bicol Peninsula, respectively.

Those documented from Cordillera Mountain Range are mainly temperate East Asiatic mosses, including Himalayan taxa, which reached this northern highland of Luzon but failed to colonize the rest of the island. The 3 moss taxa documented from Bicol have no report outside the peninsula as of now.

Many mosses display disjunctive distribution patterns within the Philippines. For example, 136 species were recorded only on Luzon

Table 2. Cont.

Categories No. % Various examples of Philippine

of taxa mosses for each category

19. Known only from one island, 12 1.62 Buxbaumia javanica C. Müll., Leskeodon such as Panay, Bohol, Negros, philippinensis Broth., Rhamphidium dixonii Samar, Leyte, Sibuyan, Bartr., Hookeriopsis wichurae Fleisch.,and Camiguin, etc. (Mindoro, Splachnobryum limbatum Norris & Zander Palawan and Sulu archipelagos

are given a different category)

20. Insufficiently known taxa 8 1.07 Wijkia hornschuchii (Dozy & Molk.) Crum, and Papillidiopsis ramulina (Thwait. & Mitt.) Buck & Tan

Total 742 100.00

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and Mindanao, and 10 species were only collected on Mindoro and Mindanao. Species displaying disjunctive distributions are likely a result of under-sampling in the intervening islands.

Sixty-one species (ca 8.22%) of Philippine mosses were known only from the Mindanao Island group and Sulu archipelagos.

This pattern is consistent with Hall’s (1998) claim that the island of Mindanao and Sulu archipelagos have different geological origins and plate tectonic histories from the rest of the islands forming the Philippine archipelago. Specifically, the moss flora of Mindanao Island has a strong southern and Australasian influence compared to other large islands in the Philippines (Tan, Lubos, and Schwarz, 2000).

A number of Philippine mosses are known only from a single island (e.g., Mindoro or Palawan), groups of islands (e.g., Luzon, Mindoro and Panay, Palawan and Sulu archipelagos and the Western Mindanao and Sulu archipelagos) or part of a former island, such as Southern Batangas of Luzon Island, that are known to have an Asiatic continental crust origin. These categories are apparently valid since they show a plate tectonic basis. For example, southern Batangas of Luzon Island, Mindoro and parts of northern Panay are all known to have originated from the Asiatic continental shelf.

Only seven species (0.94%) were included under the ‘insufficiently known taxa’ category. These species were reported in the literature including Philippines in their distributional range but the actual locality where they are found within the archipelago has not been cited in literature.

I must emphasize that the intra-Philippine distribution patterns displayed by Philippine mosses in Table 2 are based on the interpretation of available information and are considered reliable as long as these data remain valid. Many areas in the Philippines remain under-sampled, including the Eastern Visayas and Mindanao.

It is also worth noting moss species are alive and active in nature

today in the Philippines, thus, a species found only in Luzon at

present may eventually spread to Palawan or Mindanao Island in

the next thousand of years. Perhaps, this is a reflection of the ease

of dispersal of moss propagules over great distances as they can

be moved about by wind, by typhoons, by birds and other animals

and by all means of long distance dispersal. What is often lacking

is the presence of an ideal habitat for the moss species to become

established and thrive on, hence, its absence in an island or a region

in the Philippines as of now.

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Knowledge of Philippine moss phytogeography continues to rise.

Much of it, however, is focused on external phytogeography and bryogeographical affinities in relation to the neighboring countries and islands. The goal of this paper is, therefore, to further update our information about the intra-Philippine moss distribution patterns accumulated since the start of the 20th century until today, and presents new interpretations, conclusions, and problems. Published information on Philippine moss flora as well as the distribution data of Philippine mosses within the archipelago from the labels of the collections kept at the Philippine National Herbarium (PNH) are analyzed and resulted to the following patterns of moss distributions: Only 73 species (9.84%) of the Philippine mosses are widespread; More than 82.21% (ca 610 spp.) of Philippine mosses are found in Luzon Island. Of these, approximately 116 and 3 species are documented within the Cordillera Mountain Range of Northern Luzon and from Bicol Peninsula, respectively. Many mosses display disjunctive distribution patterns within the Philippines and are likely a result of under-sampling in the intervening islands. Sixty- one species (ca 8.22%) of Philippine mosses are known only from the Mindanao Island group and Sulu archipelago. A number of Philippine mosses are known only from a single island, and only seven species (0.94%) are included under the ‘insufficiently known taxa’ category. Intra-Philippine distribution patterns displayed by Philippine mosses in this study are based on the interpretation of available information and are considered reliable as long as these data remain valid. Many areas in the Philippines remain under- sampled

Conclusions

I wish to conclude that the most serious threat to the study of Philippine mosses today is the rapid and continued destruction of the forests throughout the country. According to the Environmental Science for Social Change (1999) the calculated rate of loss of forest cover in the Philippines is about 200,000 hectares per year.

Unless bryologists work hand in hand with environmentalists and conservationists to protect and preserve the remaining natural forests, we will never be able to determine the actual local distribution of Philippine mosses in this country as well as conserve the Philippine moss diversity.

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Acknowledgements

The author is indebted to the staff of the Botany Division of the National Museum of the Philippines for the support services offered during the preparation of the manuscript. Special acknowledgement is due to Prof. Dr. Benito C. Tan of the National University of Singapore for the suggestions and corrections provided to the draft manuscript. It was Dr. Tan who encouraged this author to write the manuscript. The author is also grateful to Dr. Julie F. Barcelona of the National Museum and Leonardo Co of Conservation International for reviewing this manuscript. Lastly, warm thanks are extended to Mr. Yong Kien Thai of the University of Malaya for providing additional references.

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Appendix. List of Philippine mosses and their current intra- and extra-Philippine distribution

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution Accanthorrynchium papillatum Widespread Malesia, Australia

Achrophyllum javense Luzon & Mindanao Java, New Guinea and Southern

Hemisphere

Acroporium aciphylum Luzon Thailand and Malay Peninsula

Acroporium condensatum* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic

Acroporium diminutum Widespread Tropical Asia

Acroporium hamulatum Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan Malesia Acroporium hermaphroditum Luzon & Mindanao Malesia Acroporium johannis-winkleri Visayas & Mindanao West Malesia

Acroporium lamprophyllum Luzon & some islands in the Malesia, Australia and Oceania

Visayas

Acroporium ramicola Mindanao Borneo and Papua New Guinea

Acroporium rufum Widespread Borneo, Java and Sumatra

Acroporium secundum Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan China, Indochina, Malay Peninsula,

& Western Mindanao Borneo and Java

Acroporium sigmatodontium Luzon, Mindoro, & Panay Indochina, Malesia and Oceania

(Hawaii)

Acroporium stramineum Widespread Malesia, Northern Australia and

Oceania

Acroporium strepsiphyllum Luzon & Mindanao Tropical Asia, Australia and Oceania Actinodontium ascendens Insufficiently known taxa Sri Lanka, Thailand and Malesia Actinodontium rhaphidostegum Luzon & Mindanao Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo and

Sulawesi

Aequatoriella bifaria Luzon & some islands Malesia and Oceania

in the Visayas

Aerobryidium filamentosum Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, India, Himalayas,

Indochina, west Malesia

Aerobryopsis crispifolia Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi,

Lesser Sunda Islands and New

Guinea

Aerobryopsis leptosigmata Bicol Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,

Java and New Guinea

Aerobryopsis parisii Luzon China (Taiwan) and Japan

Aerobryopsis subdivergens Luzon & Mindanao Taiwan, Japan and Borneo Aerobryopsis wallichii Widespread Continental Asia and Malesia Aerobryum speciosum Luzon &Mindanao Sri Lanka, India, Bhutan, China,

Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia and

New Guinea

Amphidium papillosum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Circumtemperate reaching northern

Malesia

Anoectangium aestivum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) sub-Cosmopolitan Anoectangium euchloron Luzon & Mindoro Pantropical Anomobryum auratum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) East Africa Anomobryum erectum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Cosmopolitan Anomobryum gemmigerum* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic Anomodon viticulosus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Circumpolar Boreo-temperate Aongstroemia orientalis Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Siberia, India, China, Himalayas,

Malesia (Borneo) and Central

America

Arthrocormus schimperi Luzon & Mindanao Tropical Asia and Oceania Atractylocarpus novoguineensis Mindanao Bhutan, Nepal, Sumatra, Borneo,

Sulawesi and New Guinea

Atrichum crispulum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Sub-Oceanic Boreal-Montane reaching

Malesia

Atrichum undulatum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Circumpolar Boreo-temperate

reaching northern Malesia

Barbella compressiramea Luzon India, Himalayas, China (Taiwan) and

Burma

Barbella convolvens Mindoro & some islands India, Ceylon, Himalayas, Thailand,

in the Visayas Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi and Borneo

* = Philippine endemic.

(16)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution Barbella cubensis Luzon & Mndanao Sri Lanka, India, Sikkim. Bhutan,

China, Japan, Thailand, Borneo,

Sumatra, Java, New Guinea,

Australia and Central America

Barbella elongata* Luzon &Mindanao Philippine Endemic

Barbella flagellifera Luzon Sri Lanka, India, Indochina, Japan,

China (Taiwan) and Malesia

Barbella horridula Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Sumatra Barbella macroblasta* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic Barbella stevensii Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) India, Himalayas and Thailand

Barbula arcuata Luzon Tropical and subtropical Asia

Barbula consaguinea Luzon & Mindoro Tropical Asia

Barbula indica Widespread Pantropical

Barbula inflexa Luzon & some islands Tropical Asia

in the Visayas

Barbula javanica Luzon & Mindanao Sumatra and Java

Barbula obscuriretis Luzon & some islands Tropical Asia

in the Visayas

Barbula pseudoehrenbergii Luzon & some islands Tropical Asia

in the Visayas

Barbula subcomosa Luzon & some islands Pantropical

in the Visayas

Barbula williamsii* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic

Bartramia ithyphylla Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Widely distributed bipolar species. In

the tropic confined to high

mountains of New Guinea and

Australia

Bartramidula imperfecta Endemic to only one island Borneo

(Leyte)

Bescherellia elegantissima Western Mindanao & Sulawesi, New Guinea, Australia and

Sulu archipelago New Zealand

Brachymenium acuminatum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Continental Asia, mainly northern and

western Malesia

Brachymenium coarctatum Luzon Malesia and Oceania

Brachymenium exile Luzon & some islands Pantropical and pan-subtropical

in the Visayas

Brachymenium nepalense Widespread Continental East Asia, Malesia and Fiji Brachythecium buchananii Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) India, Bhutan, China, Japan, Korea

and Indochina

Brachythecium plumosum Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, Bhutan, China, Japan,

Korea, Borneo, New Guinea,

Australia, Oceania (Hawaii),

America, Africa and Europe

Braunfelsia dicranoides Luzon & Mindanao Malesia

Braunfelsia edentula Luzon & Mindoro Malesia

Breutelia arundinifolia Luzon & Mindanao East Asia and Oceania Breutelia merrillii* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic Brothera leana Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Eastern Europe and America Brotherella curvirostris Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) India, Himalayas, Indochina and

China

Brotherella falcata Luzon Indochina, China, Japan and Malesia

Bryobrothera crenulata Eastern Mindanao Australia (Queensland), Oceania (Fiji,

Solomon Islands and New

Caledonia)

Bryoxiphium norvegicum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China, Japan, Lesser Sunda Islands

(Lombok)

Bryum apiculatum Luzon & Mindanao Tropical and subtropical Asia,

northern Australia and Oceania

Bryum argenteum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Cosmopolitan

Bryum billardieri Luzon & Mindoro Pantropical and Pan-subtropical Bryum capillare Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan Cosmopolitan

Bryum cellulare Luzon & some islands Pantropical and Pan-temperate

in the Visayas

Bryum clavatum Luzon & Mindoro Circum-temperate

(17)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution

Bryum coronatum Widespread Pantropical

Bryum erythropilum Luzon & Mindanao Tropical and subtropical Asia Bryum neelgheriense Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Pantropical and Pan-subtropical

Bryum paradoxum Widespread Pantropical

Bryum rubrolimbatum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Temperate northern and southern

hemisphere, India, Japan and

Malesia

Bryum russulum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Borneo, Sulawesi and New Guinea Buxbaumia javanica Endemic to one island only Malesia

(Negros)

Caduciella mariei Luzon & Palawan Southwest China, tropical Asia,

Australia, Oceania and Africa

(Tanzania)

Callicostella beccariana Luzon Sumatra and Borneo

Callicostella papillata Widespread Paleotropical

Callicostella prabaktiana Luzon & Mindanao Vietnam, Thailand, Malay Peninsula,

Java, Borneo and New Guinea

Calymperes aeruginosum Luzon & Mindanao Malay Peninsula, Java, Sulawesi, New

Guinea, Solomon Island, Fiji and

New Caledonia

Calymperes afzelii Luzon & Palawan Nearly Pantropical Calymperes boulayi Luzon & Mindanao Indo-Pacific Calymperes erosum Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan Essentially Pantropical Calymperes fasciculatum Luzon & some islands Indo-Pacific

in the Visayas

Calymperes graeffeanum Widespread Paleotropical and Oceania

Calymperes hyophilaceum Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan & Paleotropical and Oceania

Western Mindanao

Calymperes lonchophyllum Luzon & Palawan Pantropical Calymperes mangalorense Palawan & Sulu archipelago Southern India Calymperes mollucense Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan & Indo-Pacific

Western Mindanao

Calymperes motleyi Palawan & Sulu archipelago Seychelles, India, Thailand, Malay

Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Java,

Oceania and Australia

Calymperes porrectum Mindoro & Mindanao Ino-Pacific

Calymperes robinsonii Luzon & some islands Malay Peninsula, Papua New Guinea

in the Visayas

Calymperes schmidtii Palawan & Sulu archipelago Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Fiji, New

Caledonia and Australia

Calymperes serratum Widespread Paleotropical

Calymperes strictifolium Luzon & Mindanao Indo-Pacific

Calyperes subserratum Mindanao Java and New Britain

Calymperes subintegrum Luzon Indo-Pacific

Calymperes taitense Widespread Paleotropical

Calymperes tenerum Widespread Pantropical

Calypthothecium crispulum Luzon & Mindanao Nepal, Sumatra and Java Calypthothecium hookeri Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Himalayas, China, Taiwan, Japan,

Burma and Thailand,

Calypthothecium ramosii Luzon & some islands China

in the Visayas

Calypthothecium recurvulum Luzon & Mindanao India, Sri Lanka, Ceylon, China,

Indonesia, New Guinea and Oceania

Calypthothecium squarrosulum* Bicol Philippine Endemic

Calypthothecium urvilleanum Widespread India, Indochina, Malesia and Oceania Calyptrochaeta microblasta Luzon & Mindanao Java

Calyptrochaeta parviretis Luzon & Mindoro Malesia

Calyptrochaeta ramosa Luzon China

Calyptrochaeta remotifolia Luzon & Mindanao India, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java,

Borneo and New Guinea

Campylopodium medium Luzon & Mindoro Indo- Malesia

Campylopus aureus Luzon Tropical Asia

Campylopus austrosubulatus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) New Guinea

Campylopus comosus Luzon & Mindanao Tropical and sub-tropical Asia

(18)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution Campylopus ericoides Luzon & Mindoro Continental Asia and Malesia Campylopus exasperatus Luzon & some islands Malesia

in the Visayas

Campylopus flagelliferus Eastern Mindanao Pantropical Campylopus hermitrichus Luzon & Mindanao Malesia Campylopus laxitextus Luzon & some islands Java and Sulawesi

in the Visayas

Campylopus savannarum Luzon Almost Circum-tropical

Campylopus umbellatus Widespread Paleotropical

Ceratodon purpureus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Cosmopolitan

Chaetomitriopsis glaucocarpa Luzon & Mindanao Nepal, Sikkim, Assam China (Taiwan),

Laos, Vietnam, Malay Peninsula,

Java, Sulawesi and New Guinea

Chaetomitrium beccarii Luzon & some islands Borneo

in the Visayas

Chaetomitrium elegans Western Mindanao & New Guinea

Sulu archipelago

Chaetomitrium elmeri Visayas Borneo

Chaetomitrium elongatum Palawan & Sulu archipelago Java, Borneo and Moluccas Chaetomitrium everettii Palawan & Sulu archipelago Borneo

Chaetomitrium fimbriatum Insufficient data Borneo, Moluccas and New Guinea Chaetomitrium laevifolium* Palawan & Sulu archipelago Philippine Endemic

Chaetomitrium lanceolatum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Java

Chaetomitrium leptopoma Luzon Malay Peninsula, Borneo and Java

Chaetomitrium orthorrhynchum Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan & Indochina and Malesia

Western Mindanao

Chaetomitrium papillifolium Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, India, Indochina and

Malesia

Chaetomitrium perarmatum* Luzon Philippine Endemic

Chaetomitrium philippinense Visayas & Mindanao Malesia Chaetomitrium pseudo-elongatum* Sulu archipelago Philippine Endemic Chaetomitrium schofieldii Western Mindanao & Borneo

Sulu archipelago

Chaetomitrium torquescens Palawan & Sulu archipelago Java, Seram and New Guinea Chaetomitrium warburgii* Luzon & Mindanao Philippine Endemic Chaetomitrium weberi Western Mindanao & Borneo

Sulu archipelago

Chameleion pequense Luzon Pantropical

Chionostomum rostratum Luzon Sri Lanka, India, Indochina, China and

Malesia

Chrysocladium flammeum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) India, Himalayas, China, Japan and

Thailand

Chrysocladium retrorsum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) India, Ceylon, China, Japan, Vietnam

and Taiwan

Cinclidotus involutus Western Mindanao & New Guinea and Oceania

Sulu archipelago

Cirriphyllum oxyrrhynchum Luzon & some islands Java

in the Visayas

Cladopodanthus muticus Luzon & Mindanao Borneo

Cladopodanthus speciosus Luzon & some islands Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, in

the Visayas Java and Papua New Guinea

Claopodium assurgens Luzon & Mindanao Continental Asia and Java Claopodium prionophyllum Widespread Continental East Asia, Malesia and

Oceania

Clastobryophilum asperifolium Palawan & Sulu archipelago Sri Lanka and Malay Peninsula Clastrobryophilum bogoricum Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Java and

Borneo

Clastrobryopsis brevinervis Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Southern Japan, Borneo, Java and

Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok

and Flores)

Clastrobryopsis robusta Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China (Taiwan), Japan, Borneo, Java

and New Guinea

Clastrobryum asperrimum Palawan & Sulu archipelago Borneo

Clastrobryum caudatum Luzon & Mindoro Vietnam, Thailand and Malesia

(19)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution Clastrobryum conspicuum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China, Borneo, Java and New Guinea Clastrobryum cuculligerum Luzon & Mindoro Java

Clastrobryum epiphyllum Luzon & Palawan Sri Lanka, Lesser Sunda Islands and

Australia

Clastrobryum glabrescens Mindanao China and Taiwan

Clastrobryum igorotum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Malesia

Clastrobryum indicum Luzon Burma, Vietnam and Malesia

Clastrobryum leucophyllum Luzon & Mindoro Malesia Clastrobryum novoginensis Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) New Guinea

Clastrobryum panchoi Luzon & Palawan Malesia

Clastrobryum rutilans Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Malesia

Clastrobryum scalare Eastern Mindanao Java

Clastrobryum spiculiferum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Thaailand, Malay Peninsula Sumatra

and Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores)

Cryptodicranum armitii Mindanao Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku, New

Guinea, New Britain and Solomon

Islands

Cryptogonium phyllogonioides Mindoro & Mindanao Widely disjunctive in Malay

Peninsula, Java, New Guinea,

Oceania, New Caledonia, New

Zealand, New Hebrides and Austral

Island

Cryptopillaria fuscescens Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, India, southern China,

Himalayas, Indochina, Malesia New

Guinea and Samoa

Ctenidiadelphus plumularia Endemic to one island only Peninsular Malaysia,

(Negros) Borneo and Java

Ctenidium andoi Luzon & Mindoro Japan, China (Taiwan), Java and New

Guinea

Ctenidium luzonense* Luzon & Mindanao Philippine Endemic

Ctenidium malacobolum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Japan, China (Taiwan), Malesia and

New Caledonia

Ctenidium polychaetum Luzon & some islands Java, Borneo, Ceram and New in the

Visayas Hebrides

Cyathophorum adiantum Widespread Malesia and Solomon Island

Cyathoporum hookerianum Luzon Nepal, Bhutan, India, China, Japan,

Taiwan, Indochina, Peninsular

Malaysia, Java

Cyathoporum parvifolium Luzon & Mindanao Sumatra, Java, Moluccas and Papua

New Guinea

Cyathoporum spinosum Luzon & some islands Indochina, Malesia and New Hebrides

in the Visayas

Cyclodictyon blumeanum Widespread South China, Malesia and Oceania Daltonia angustifolia Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, Nepal, Vietnam, Malay

Peninsula, Borneo, Java, New Guinea

and New Zealand

Daltonia aristifolia Mindanao Tropical Asia

Daltonia armata Mindoro & Mindanao Malay Peninsula and Sumatra Daltonia contorta Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Sri Lanka, Malay Peninsula, Java, Fiji

and Hawaii

Dawsonia beccarii var. limbata Mindanao Borneo, Sulawesi and New Guinea Dawsonia longifolia var. superba Mindanao Borneo, Sulawesi, New Guinea and

New Zealand

Dendrocyathophorum decolyi Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) India, China, Japan, Taiwan, Sumatra,

Java, Moluccas, Seram and New

Guinea

Desmotheca apiculata Palawan & Western Mindanao Widely scattered from the Andamans

to New Caledonia, but absent in

northern Borneo

Desmotheca brachiata Luzon Malay Peninsula and New Guinea

Diaphanodon blandus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Sri Lanka, India, China (Taiwan),

Himalayas, Sumatra, Borneo, Java

and Lesser Sunda Islands

(20)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution Dicranella coarctata Luzon & some islands Indo- Malesia

in the Visayas

Dicranella schreberiana Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Circumpolar Boreo-temperate

reaching Northern Malesia

Dicranella setifera Luzon & some islands South-East Asia

in the Visayas

Dicranodontium fleischerianum Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, Himalayas, Japan, Taiwan,

Java, Western and Central Europe

and Africa (Morocco)

Dicranodontium subasperum* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic

Dicranoloma assimile Luzon & Mindanao China (Hainan), Thailand, Malesia,

and Oceania

Dicranoloma billarderi Luzon & Mindanao Vietnam, Malesia, Australia, New

Caledonia, New Zealand, southern

and eastern Africa, Antarctic Islands

and southern South America

Dicranoloma blumii Widespread China (Taiwan), Malesia and Oceania

Dicranoloma brevisetum Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, India, Vietnam, Malesia and

Oceania

Dicranoloma daymannianum Mindoro Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,

Java, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands

and New Guinea

Dicranoloma fragile Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) South-East Asia

Dicranoloma reflexum Luzon & some islands Malay Peninsula, Java and Sumatra

in the Visayas

Didymodon constrictus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Tropical Asia Didymodon luzonensis* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic Dimorphocladon borneense Palawan & Sulu archipelago Thailand and Borneo

Diphyscium buckii* Mindanao Philippine Endemic

Diphyscium fulvifolium Luzon Tropical Asia

Diphyscium involutum Luzon & some islands Tropical Asia

in the Visayas

Diphyscium rupestre Luzon& some islands Tropical Asia and Malesia

in the Visayas

Distichophyllum brevicuspis Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Malay Peninsula and Java Distichophyllum catinifolium Luzon & Mindanao Borneo and Sumatram Distichophyllum collenchymatosum Endemic to one island only Subtropical in East Asia

(Negros)

Distichophyllum cucullatum Western Mindanao & New Guinea

Sulu archipelago

Distichophyllum cuspidatum Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, China (Taiwan), Japan,

Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,

Java, Borneo and New Guinea, New

Caledonia and Society Islands

Distichophyllum gracicaule Palawan & Sulu archipelago Malay Peninsula and Java Distichophyllum kinabaluense Visayas & Mindanao only Borneo

Distichophyllum maibare Luzon Japan, China, Taiwan and Malay

Peninsula

Distichophyllum mittenii Luzon & Mindanao Tropical Asia and Oceania reaching as

far south as New Caledonia and

Vanuatu

Distichophyllum nigricaule Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan & Nepal, Thailand, Japan (Ryukyu),

Western Mindanao China (Taiwan), Malay Peninsula,

Sumatra, Java, Borneo and New

Guinea

Distichophyllum noguchianum* Mindoro Philippine Endemic

Distichophyllum obtusifolium Luzon Japan and Malay Peninsula

Distichophyllum osterwaldii Luzon & some islands Japan, China (Taiwan), Malay

in the Visayas Peninsula, Java and Borneo

Distichophyllum santosii* Luzon & some islands Philippine Endemic

in the Visayas

Distichophyllum subcuspidatum Endemic to one island only Borneo

(Sibuyan)

Distichophyllum subnigricaule Luzon & Mindanao Borneo and New Guinea

(21)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution

Distichophyllum tortile Luzon Indochina, Malay Peninsula, Java,

Borneo, and Banka

Ditrichum difficile Luzon & some islands Cosmopolitan

in the Visayas

Ditrichum plagiacron Luzon Introduced in the Philippines?, Europe

Dixonia thamnioides Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Ceylon and Thailand Duthiella declinata Luzon & Palawan Himalayas and China

Duthiella flaccida Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan India, Japan, China and Papua New

Guinea

Duthiella formosana Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China (Taiwan)

Duthiella wallichii Luzon Himalayas, Japan, China and Java

Ectropotheciella distichophylla Widespread Indochina, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and

Amboina

Ectropotheciella decrescens Palawan & Sulu archipelago Malay Peninsula, Java and Sulawesi Ectropotheciopsis novoguineensis Western Mindanao & East Malesia

Sulu archipelago

Ectropothecium brotheri Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Malesia

Ectropothecium buitenzorgii Widespread West and south Malesia and India?

Ectropothecium cyperoides Luzon & Mindanao Burma, Thailand, Borneo and Sumatra Ectropothecium dealbatum Widespread Vietnam, Malesia and Oceania Ectropothecium elegantipinnatum Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan & West Malesia

Western Mindanao

Ectropothecium falciforme Luzon & Mindanao Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi and

Lombok

Ectropothecium ferrugineum Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan & Borneo

Western Mindanao

Ectropothecium ichnotocladum Luzon Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Sulawesi,

Amboina and Annam

Ectropothecium intorquatum Luzon China, Thailand and Malesia

Ectropothecium luzoniae Luzon & some islands Borneo

in the Visayas

Ectropothecium monumentorum Widespread Burma, Taiwan, Malesia and Oceania

Ectropothecium moritzii Luzon China, Vietnam, Thailand, Sumatra,

Borneo and Lesser Sunda Islands

(Bali and Flores)

Ectropothecium penzigianum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China

Ectropothecium perminutum Luzon & Mindoro China and Peninsular Malaysia Ectropothecium ptychofolium Western Mindanao & Borneo

Sulu archipelago

Ectropothecium striatulum Palawan & Sulu archipelago West Malesia Ectropothecium zollingeri Luzon & Palawan Malesia and Oceania

Entodon bandongiae Luzon Taiwan, Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi

Entodon plicatus Widespread Wide-ranging, from Mauritius to

Australia and Oceania

Entodon rubicundus Luzon & Mindoro Ceylon, China, Japan, Himalayas and

Sulawesi

Entodontopsis anceps Luzon & Mindoro India and Java Entodontopsis ligulatum Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Indochina

Enthostodon buseanus Luzon Tropical and sub-tropical Indo-

Malesia

Enthostodon physcomitrioides Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China (Yunnan and Taiwan) Enthostodon wichurae Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Japan and Malesia

Ephemeropsis tjibodensis Mindanao China, Indochina, Borneo, Java and

Lesser Sunda Islands (Bali and

Lombok)

Epipterygium tozeri Luzon & Mindanao Warmer regions of northern

hemisphere extending to temperate

Asia and Malesia

Erpodium luzonense Luzon Indochina

Erpodium biseriatum Western Mindanao & Pantropical

Sulu archipelago

Erythrodontium julaceum Widespread Paleotropical, most abundant in areas

with seasonal climate

(22)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution Eurynchium asperisetum Luzon & Mindoro Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Thailand,

Java and New Guinea

Eurynchium vagans var. bergmaniae Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) New Guinea

Eutypchium setigerum Palawan & Sulu archipelago Borneo, New Guinea, Australia

(Queensland), Fiji, Solomon Island,

New Hebrides

Exostratum blumei Luzon & Mindanao Sri Lanka, southern India, South

China, Japan, Indochina, Malesia,

Australia and Oceania

Exostratum sullivantii Luzon & some islands Malay Peninsula, China (Taiwan),

in the Visayas Java, Borneo, Sulawesi and New

Guinea

Fabronia curvirostris Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Vietnam, Sumatra, Java and New

Guinea

Fauriella tenuis Luzon China

Fissidens anomalus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) India, Ceylon, Nepal, China, Thailand,

Vietnam, Burma and Java

Fissidens areolatus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China (Taiwan), Japan, India, Nepal,

Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Malay

Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo and

New Guinea

Fissidens asplenoides Luzon & some islands Almost Cosmopolitan

in the Visayas

Fissidens bogoriensis Luzon & some islands China (Taiwan), Japan, Malay

in the Visayas Peninsula and Java Malay Peninsula

Fissidens bryoides Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China (Taiwan), Japan and Malay

Peninsula

Fissidens ceylonensis Luzon, Palawan & Mindanao Sri Lanka, south India, China,

Indochina and Malesia

Fissidens crassinervis Luzon & Palawan Japan (Ryukyu), Thailand, Malay

Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra,

Amboina and New Guinea

Fissidens crenulatus var. elmeri Widespread Japan, China, Papua New Guinea and

Micronesia

Fissidens dubius Luzon Almost Cosmopolitan

Fissidens geminiflorus Luzon & Mindoro Malay Peninsula , Sumatra and Java Fissidens guangdongensis Western Mindanao & Southern China (Guangdong) and

Sulu archipelago Japan

Fissidens gymnogynus Luzon & Mindoro China, Japan and Korea Fissidens hollianus Luzon & Palawan Indochina, southern Japan, Taiwan,

Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Java,

Sumatra and New Guinea

Fissidens hyalinus Luzon India, Nepal, Himalayas, China

(Taiwan), Japan, Malay Peninsula,

Java, Borneo, North and South

America

Fissidens javanicus Luzon India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China

(Taiwan), Japan, Burma, Thailand,

Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo,

Java and New Guinea

Fissidens laxus Luzon & Palawan Nepal, China, Japan, Indochina, Malay

Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra and Java

Fissidens limbinervis Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Sulawesi

Fissidens maceratus Luzon & Palawan Tropical Asia, Oceania and Australia Fissidens microcladus Luzon & Palawan Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Japan, China,

Laos, Thailand and Americas

Fissidens nobilis Widespread Himalayas, Japan, Korea, China and

tropical Asia

Fissidens oblongiflorus Mindoro & some islands South China, Japan and South Pacific

in the Visayas

Fissidens obscurirete Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China, Japan, Korea and New

Caledonia

Fissidens papillosus Luzon & some islands China (Taiwan), Japan, Malay

in the Visayas Peninsula, Borneo and Java

(23)

Appendix. Cont.

* = Philippine endemic.

Species Intra Philippine distribution Extra-Philippine distribution Fissidens plagiochiloides Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Nepal, China and Japan

Fissidens punctulatus Luzon Continental Asia

Fissidens rizalensis Luzon Japan (Ryukyu)

Fissidens serratus Endemic to one island only India, Ceylon, Malay Peninsula,

(Negros) Borneo and New Guinea

Fissidens strictulus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) China, Japan and India Fissidens subangustus Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Japan and Indonesia Fissidens taxifolius Luzon & some islands Cosmopolitan

in the Visayas

Fissidens wichurae Mindoro & Mindanao China (Taiwan), Malay Peninsula, Java

and New Guinea

Fissidens zippelianus Widespread Widespread in the Old World

Fissidens zollingeri Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan Japan, China, Indochina, Malesia,

Oceania, Micronesia and South

America

Fissidens zwickeyi* Western Mindanao & Philippine Endemic

Sulu archipelago

Fleischerobryum macrophyllum Luzon & Mindanao Temperate to tropical Asia Floribundaria floribunda Widespread Paleotropical, Oceania and Australia Floribundaria pseudofloribunda Luzon & Mindanao Northeast India, China (Taiwan),

Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra,

Java, Borneo, New Guinea and

Vanuatu Islands

Floribundaria sparsa Luzon & Mindanao India, Himalayas, China (Taiwan),

Burma, Thailand, Laos and Lombok

Floribundaria thuidioides Luzon, Palawan & Mindanao China, West Malesia and Java

Floribundaria walkeri Luzon Himalayas, India and Laos

Foreauella orthothecia Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Southern India, Himalayas and

Thailand

Funaria hydrometrica Widespread Cosmopolitan

Gammiella ceylonensis Luzon Sri Lanka, Indochina, China, Malesia

and Africa

Gammiella tonkinensis Luzon & Mindanao Indochina, China, Japan and Indonesia Garckea flexuosa Luzon, Mindoro & Palawan Paleotropical, Oceania and Australia Garovaglia angustifolia Luzon & Mindanao Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Indonesia,

New Guinea and Oceania

Garovaglia aristata Palawan & Sulu archipelago South Malesia

Garovaglia bauerlenii Western Mindanao & Malay Peninsula, Indonesia and New

Sulu archipelago Guinea

Garovaglia compressa Luzon Malay Peninsula, Indonesia and New

Guinea

Garovaglia elegans Widespread Malesia

Garovaglia luzonensis* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic

Garovaglia plicata Luzon & Mindanao China, Thailand, Vietnam, Malay

Peninsula, Indonesia and New

Guinea

Glossadelphus hermaphroditus Mindanao Java

Glossadelphus microsimilans Luzon Borneo

Glossadelphus similans Luzon China, Vietnam, Laos, Malay

Peninsula, Java and Lesser Sunda

Islands (Lombok)

Glyphomitrium nymmanium Luzon & Mindoro India, Thailand and Malay Peninsula Glypothecium sciuroides Luzon & Mindoro Sri Lanka, China (Taiwan), Sumatra,

Java, Lombok, Sulawesi, Lesser

Sunda Islands, New Guinea,

Australia, New Zealand, Argentina

and Chile

Gollania benguetensis* Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Philippine Endemic Gollania philippinensis Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Continental China and Taiwan Grimmia affinis Northern Luzon (Cordilleran) Circum-boreal reaching Malesia Groutiella goniorrhyncha Luzon & some islands Pantropical

in the Visayas

Gynostomiella longinervis Luzon & some islands Southern Japan

in the Visayas

Pigura

Table 1. The newly added 42 species of mosses and their corresponding published  information citing their Philippine distribution since the last count of Tan &amp; Iwatsuki  in 1991
Table 2. Intra-Philippine distribution patterns of Philippine mosses (742 spp) based  from  published  information  and  from  collections  kept  at  the  Philippine  National  Herbarium (PNH)
Table 2. Cont.
Table 2. Cont.

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

August, Hl39 THE MARKSMAN BULACAN SHOOTERS ACTIVE One of the most active provincial gun clubs in the archipelago is the Bulacan Rifle & Pistol Association, which has been :recently