The Philippine Planning Journal is published in October and April by the Institute of Environmental Planning, University of the Philippines. This issue of the Philippine Planning Journal deals specifically with some approaches worked out by the Metro Cebu Land Use and Transportation Study, or MCLUTS, which is now in the implementation phase.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL
However, emphasis was placed on an inventory of the roads and public transport systems by land, which are further described below. Data on the existing traffic lights was obtained from the Traffic Department of the Integrated National Police (INP), which currently oversees the operation and maintenance of all traffic lights.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL The main sources of secondary data on
There are therefore no grounds to doubt the representativeness of the household interview sample. At each of the remaining 15 stations, only one 16-hour classified directional traffic count was made on a weekday, from 06:00 to 22:00.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL Volume of traffic passing a given station
Income data in Metro Cebu was based on the results of home interviews. It is expressed as the ratio between the level of creation of regional trips and the level of creation of regional trips.
The operational evaluation of the various plans was based on total vehicle kilometers, average trip length, average trip speed, volume/capacity ratios, and the like. With the exception of the base plan, all plans were more or less the same, including greatly improved service levels.
2 -Concentrated, with major accessibility- -improved -Highest economic return -Minimum amount -Preferred plan if mainland land reclamation for lower income groups with NPV/C of 2.9 government intervention- reclamation projects continue v-n -Same network as 1 plus -Higher overall speed and -investment cost = P795M tion except housing. 3 -Distributed linear development- -Movements to and from .High cost, P980M due to -Substantial Government -Not recommended ment Lower CBD (47% higher Tayud Link intervention construction needed for . -Network same as 2 plus than 1979 level) -Lower economic return stimulates development in. 4 •Mactan expansion -Higher overall speed -Essential addition •Government high inter- -Not recommended -Same network as 3 plus and fair use of investments needed to stimulate ventilation.
Traffic Implementation Plan or Arterial Road System (Operation TEARS), designed to improve traffic flow on arterial roads;. Cuenco-Cebu North Road Traffic Study, aimed at alleviating traffic congestion along a section of the M.J. Traffic Signal Study, associated with a review of existing traffic signal installations and identification of future requirements; and.
The principles of classifying roads into a hierarchy have been applied in the development of the network. Some proposals could be implemented ahead of schedule if additional resources were made available. Part of the highway improvement program included the replacement of aging traffic lights and the installation of new ones.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL Public Transport
Increasing the off-street parking availability by paving and making available the area bordered by Junquera and Sanciangko, and by enforcing the parking facilities as laid down in the zoning ordinance. In collaboration with the NEDA, the capacity of existing institutions to implement plans and programs in Metro Cebu and throughout Region VII was assessed. This was a serious shortcoming, especially in light of the historically low level of public investment in the region.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL making, particularly in the industrial
Rebuilding the Gorordo Avenue-Salinas Drive intersection to install a new layout as recommended by MCLUTS is far from satisfactory. The formulation of land use transport plans must take into account future funds likely to be available for transport expenditure; it prevents the preparation of grandiose plans that are beyond the resources of. The brief for a planning project must include the preparation of action projects designed to alleviate existing transport and traffic problems;.
LAND USE-TRANSPORTATION INTERACTIVE ANALYSIS
Primitivo C. Cal Project Director, MCLUTS
Daniel J. Graham2 Traffic Engineer, MCLUTS
Robert J. Nairn2 Transport Planner, MCLUTS
The Computer Model
The Activity Patterns Model
This trip generation rate multiplied by the population in the area gives P, the number of trips generated in area I. The ordinate of the trip length probability distribution multiplied by P 1 gives the trip length frequency distribution represented as T (C ), where C is the generalized cost from Zone ito to Zone J.
The probability distribution for the zonal trip length was derived from the 1979 survey trip tables and the interzonal skim matrix. Separate preference functions have been developed for home-based work, school, shopping and all purposes combined. This pattern is consistent with the composition of Metro Cebu, where work and shopping opportunities are primarily located in the central area of Cebu City.
But from 20 minutes onwards, preference indices are roughly the same for all travel purposes.
APPLICATION OF TRANSTEP IN MCLUTS
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL expansion and at the same time be consistent
Preparation of Land Use and Transport Data The basic data requirements for the model-
TOTAL VEHICI\ TRIP TAIL!
CONSTRAINED _INTERZONAL COSTSJ NETWORKIs
No BALANCED P YES ES
F E%VALUATION REPORT
ROADSIDE INTERVIEW TAlLER 117$
MACTM AIRPORT I EKTWK4L TRIPS TRIP END FOA$T$
OSTIDMflt USUN PIEU MODEL NERSE INTO ORE TAIL!
LAND USE PILE DISTRISU1T NY
PLOTS OF P'--,JTy AND MNIALAN CE
The number of trips to Mactan International Airport (one zone) was determined to be a function of the number of arriving and departing flights. To start the iterative process, an interzonal cost matrix derived from an unconstrained run of the Assign Trips model was inserted into the Activity Patterns model. The new interzonal cost matrix was then used in the next run of the Activity Patterns Model, resulting in the zonal trip ending lower than expected.
Trip completions were then distributed using the Furness model, with the 1979 roadside interview trip table as the first approximation. The prediction of internal trips involved an iterative procedure using the Activity Patterns and Assign Trips models in TRAN-STEP. Of course, this produced not only overestimated trip completion, but also an incorrect trip pattern, since the trip length4 probability distribution is a function of interzonal costs.
Feedbacks for Land Use and/or Transportation Planning
The prediction of future trips to the airport was therefore based on the expected growth in air traffic. This iteration is necessary because of the interrelationship between trip generation, trip distribution, and interzone costs. Balancing the system was achieved by adjusting the land use, the transport network or both.
The integration of an accessibility variable in the travel generation/distribution phase allows for realistic modeling of the relationships between transport system supply and travel demand. In the real world, a reduction in travel costs would generate demand, just as increases would suppress it. This should reduce the amount of manual intervention required in the iteration process, as is currently the practice.
This equilibrium state is simulated within TRANSTEP by iterating between the Activity Patterns and Assign Trips modules. The user decides when equilibrium has been reached following analyzes of outputs between successive iterations. It is suggested that equilibrium checks be incorporated into the model so that iteration continues until the prescribed level of equilibrium is reached.
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING ACTION PROGRAMS
The road carries one of the heaviest traffic flows with the highest concentration of trucks in Metro Cebu. Severe traffic delays and congestion are a daily occurrence and so road improvement was recommended for an action programme. An action program was implemented to identify the location and extent of investments needed to improve the traffic signal system.
CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT Areas of Conflict
Colon is located in the heart of the CBD and is bisected by the CBD's main street systems. 5 The harbor area forms the southern and eastern boundaries of the central business district. However, access from the south is very poor as the most direct route is through the center of the CBD.
The total number of public transport passengers traveling in and out of the CBD is approximately 730,000 people per day. The reason for the new link is the lack of an effective CBD bypass. More junctions will be identified for handling the junction boxes in the CBD traffic management plan.
The box junction concept has been used successfully in Singapore and other countries as a means of traffic control. The box intersection is introduced to overcome the problem of vehicles blocking intersections during periods of heavy traffic. It has been found that the introduction of the scheme has significantly reduced the delay of vehicles.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL PUJ Rationalization
The facilities in the Magellan's Cross area are marred by an excessive number of parked vehicles. Recommendations for immediate improvement of traffic conditions along M.J. Carry out effective periodic maintenance of the stretch of road. Cuenco bypass route has been included in the project preparation component of the IBRD-funded Central Visayas Urban Project.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL drivers and pedestrians. Specifically, the
The Foodarama complex has a serious problem with entering and exiting the off-street parking lot; therefore, the detailing of additional traffic control personnel was also recommended. Associated with these traffic management measures is the enforcement element and the deployment of additional traffic control personnel along the route was strongly recommended. IDENTIFICATION OF IMPROVEMENTS To facilitate the review of 105 intersections, a simplified traffic control order technique was developed.9 This method was produced by analyzing the cost and benefits associated with various traffic control techniques for traffic flow and costs. operative applicable to Metro. Cebu.
PHILIPPINE PLANNING JOURNAL control and the do something with traffic
Improving pedestrian safety by providing refuge islands and reducing the distance required to cross the intersection. Reducing the number of sideslip accidents by clearly defining traffic lanes and reducing the number of merging movements. It was also recommended that a number of small short-term improvements be undertaken to reduce the likelihood of traffic accidents.
Project Implementation and the Future THE FUTURE
Provision of large reflective directional arrow signs on the roundabout wall to help direct traffic approaching from the northern approach of Jones Avenue.
METRO CEBU TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OFFICE
CBD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PLAN The present daily traffic demand into the
IEP Holds Second Public Service Lecture Series
IEP Conducts Training Program on Planning for Urban
IEP Faculty Hold Confab
Nine Receive MURP Degree
TEAM Project Implemented
Proposed Revival of Traffic Management Authority
Long-Term Transport Programs
MMETRORAIL Project Started
CHOLERTON is currently the Urban Projects Advisor of the Urban and Rural Projects of Central Visayas. Prior to this, he was the Australian Team Leader and Land Use Planner on Phase I of MCLUTS. He is the Deputy Project Director of the MCLUTS II project, the same position he held on the MCLUTS I project.