• Walang Nahanap Na Mga Resulta

The Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment Between

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2023

Share "The Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment Between"

Copied!
22
0
0

Buong text

(1)

The Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment Between Transformational Leadership, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention

among Call Center Agents in Metro Manila

Redmund Joseph D. Tocle

De La Salle University, Taft, Manila, Philippines Corresponding author: tocleredmundjoseph@gmail.com

Abstract

This study looked at the relationship of transformational leadership and job satisfaction to turnover intention, including the mediating factor of organizational commitment among 87 call center agents in Metro Manila, Philippines. This study used a quantitative-cross-sectional and explanatory design and involved online survey of call center employees as a research method. Respondents were selected through a non-probability sampling technique specifically through snowball sampling or referral method. The results of this research showed a high level of transformational leadership exhibited in call center companies, high level of job satisfaction among call center agents, high organizational commitment but only average turnover intention. Most importantly, this research highlights the important role that organizational commitment as a mediator as the results of this study showed that organizational commitment fully mediates the relationship of transformational leadership and job satisfaction to turnover intention.

Keywords: commitment, job satisfaction, transformational leadership, turnover intention

Introduction

The concept of employee retention is considered to be one of the biggest critical workforce management challenges of different organizations (Dutta & Banerjee, 2014). The biggest conundrum of every company is when talented employees voluntarily resign from their position in the organization (Alias et al., 2017). Frequent employee turnover can result to organizational instability and low performance. It can also be a waste of financial resources

© WVSU Research Journal ISSN 2244 - 4335 (print)

(2)

(Boxall et al., 2013). This is why organizations nowadays are trying to look for ways not only how to properly manage their people but also how to keep them on the job for a long period of time (Kossivi et al., 2016).

Over the years, researches have been done to address the issue of employee retention among different industries. A large number of studies point out that transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment are three of the key determinants of turnover intention (Michael

& Eric, 2013; Lavoie-Tremblay et al., 2015; Lu & Gursoy, 2016). In a study by Lavoie-Tremblay et al. (2015), it was indicated that transformational leadership has a negative relationship to turnover intention. A significant negative relationship has also been found between organizational commitment and turnover intention. This means that when employees have high organizational commitment, they are less likely to leave the organization. The study of Lu and Gursoy (2016) among midscale chain hotel employees also revealed that job satisfaction significantly impacts turnover intention.

Organizational commitment, on the other hand, has received a substantial attention because of its significant impact on different work attributes like job satisfaction, turnover intention, performance, and absenteeism. Moreover, organizational commitment as a mediating variable has received very little attention. Donkor et al. (2022) said that there is a dearth in research when it comes to the mediating effect of organizational commitment among relationship of leadership constructs and work related outcomes. Donkor et al. (2022) also said in their research said that organizational commitment only partially mediate transformational leadership style and employee turnover intentions. However, there are also studies that state that transformational leadership and turnover intention are fully mediated by organizational commitment (Herman et al., 2013; Gyensare et al., 2016). In terms of the moderating effect of organizational commitment to job satisfaction and turnover intention, contradicting results were also observed from recent researches. Nuansa et al. (2018) research among bank workers in Indonesia revealed full mediation of organizational commitment to the relationship of job satisfaction and turnover intention. However, the study of Kartika and Purba (2018) among teachers in Jakarta Indonesia states that organizational commitment only partially mediates the relationship between the two variables. The contradicting results on these different researches involving organizational commitment as a mediator call for further research not only on a different country or demographics but on other industry as well.

(3)

The relationship of these four variables has already been established.

Researches have suggested the relationship of transformational leadership, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and organizational trust (Top et al., 2014) and also turnover intention (Azanza et al., 2015). However, a study that explores the relationship of transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and turnover intention, including the mediation role of organizational commitment has never been done in the Philippines. Lacap (2019) studied transformational leadership and intention to quit but used employee engagement as a mediating variable not to mention that the focus of his study is teaching and non-teaching staff of local colleges in Pampanga, Philippines.

This study aimed to use organizational commitment as a mediating variable and would focus on a bigger industry specifically the call center industry.

The researcher’s decision to focus on the BPO industry is because of its high turnover rate. Difficulty in employee retention and high levels of employee turnover are said to be common in the industry (Dhanpat et al., 2018).

Despite of the industry’s good compensation as well as attractive financial incentives, the BPO industry still has one of the highest turnover rates in the country (Greenlees, 2006). In USA, there is a 30% to 50% average annual voluntary employee turnover rate for their full time employees (Poddar &

Madupalli, 2012). Indian call center industry turnover rates range from as low as 12% to as high as 62%, with a mean turnover of 30% (Remesh, 2004). In the case of Philippine call center industry, manpower and recruitment remain to be a massive challenge in achieving their annual full-time employees target (Call Center Association of the Philippines (CCAP), 2010). Comparing to other major industry, the contact center industry consistently records high employee turnover rates, with 60% company attrition and 20% industry leave each year (IBPAP, 2014). However, even with these facts, only very little research has been done that looked at the reasons of high turnover in the Philippines call center industry. Hence, this study aimed to address the employee retention issue of call center agents in Metro Manila by focusing on transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.

Methods Research Design

This study utilized both correlative and descriptive, cross-sectional, and explanatory design using a quantitative approach in order to determine the relationship among the variables (transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention) set by the researcher.

(4)

Specifically, this would also do a mediation on whether organizational commitment mediates the relationship on both transformational leadership and job satisfaction to turnover intention. The utilization of cross sectional design is because the researcher desired to make statistical inferences and assumption about a certain group of the population. The design is explanatory because it tested the mediating role of organizational commitment on transformational leadership and job satisfaction to turnover intention.

The population of this study is call center employees who are currently working within the Metro Manila area. Roubos (2012) defined call center as a place where huge volume of calls take place. Individuals, who are taking and making in-bound and out-bound calls, were considered as part of the population of this study. Individuals, who are working outside Metro Manila, were not taken into consideration for participant selection. Moreover, 87 call center agents working in Metro Manila were included in the analysis. Initially, this study proposed a minimum sample of 86 in order to get the anticipated effect size of .15 and statistical power of .8 at 0.05 level of significance. This number was achieved with the use of a snowball sampling method. Snowball method is a nonprobability sampling that relies on referrals to recruit samples required for a study. It is the method that was chosen because of the current situation this research was conducted. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, this sampling made it easier to reach potential respondents.

The general criteria that were implemented in the selection of respondents were: (1) must be working as a call center agent (taking and making in-bound calls, emails and chat) (Roubos et al., 2012) and (2) must be working within the Metro Manila area.

Research Instrument

For the sociodemographic and work profile, the participants of the study were asked to report their age, gender, highest educational attainment, position, salary range, and length of service in the industry (in years).

For transformational leadership, this study used Bass’s (1985) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. This questionnaire is the mostly used questionnaire when it comes to leadership. It aimed to measure a wide range of leadership styles from non-interventionist, transactional and transformational leadership style. For this study, the MLQ was modified to omit the questions relating to non-interventionist leaders and transactional leadership. From the 45-item MLQ, the questionnaire used a 20-item survey with Likert scale (0- not at all, 4-frequently). The Cronbach alpha for MLQ (α = .924).

(5)

For job satisfaction, this study used the short-form of Weiss et al.

(1977) Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ). Only the short form was chosen because of the number variables the study wanted to explore. The questionnaire is composed of 20 questions and the respondents’ answers used a 5-point Likert scale (1-Very Dissatisfied, 5 – Very Satisfied). The short-form MSQ consists of three scales: Intrinsic Satisfaction, Extrinsic Satisfaction and General Satisfaction. The Cronbach alpha for MSQ (α = .925).

For organizational commitment, this research utilized the tool developed by Allen and Meyer (1990). This is the tool that was used because it is the most accepted tool to measure organizational commitment. The study utilized the shortened version of the questionnaire with six items per dimension affective commitment scale (ACS), continuance commitment scale (CCS), and normative commitment scale (NCS). The questionnaire has 18 questions in total which employed a 5-point Likert scale (1-Strongly Disagree, 5-Strongly Agree). For this study, the researcher did not evaluate the three dimensions but only looked at organizational commitment in general.

The Cronbach alpha score for Allen and Meyer OC tool is (α = .958).

To measure the Intention to Quit variable, the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire-MOAQ (Cammann et al. 1979) will be used.

MOAQ was chosen due to fact that the research already has more than one data collection instruments where if the questionnaire is too long, it could negatively impact the response rate. The respondents rate their intention to quit scale on a 5-Likert scale starting from 1= strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree. For MOAQ, the Cronbach alpha score is (α = .921).

Data Gathering Procedure

To make sure of the validity and reliability of the instruments that were used in this study, a pre-test was conducted before the actual survey.

Coming from different call center companies, the first 40 call center agents were asked to participate in the pre-test. The pre-test participants included 20 male call center agents and 20 female call center agents. JAMOVI was the statistical software used to test the reliability of the pre-test data. The results showed that the Cronbach’s α coefficients of the transformational leadership scale, job satisfaction scale, organizational commitment scale, and turnover intention scale were .924, .925, .958 and .921 respectively. Since all of them were greater than .7, they fall within the range of high reliability.

Upon accessing the unique link provided by the researcher, the respondents were asked to read the introductory page that explained the

(6)

background and the nature of the research. This page ensured them that their answers were treated with full confidentiality and anonymity, and that they can withdraw their participation at any point they decide to opt out. The researcher reached out to his friends who are currently working on a BPO or a call center company. From there, the researcher asked to pass the questionnaire to people whom they think could qualify with the criteria set by the study. Electronic mail, SMS, and social media platforms were used to contact target participants.

The consolidated scales were administered through Google Forms, an online survey platform. A unique link was created that would direct the respondents to the survey. The link was sent to the respondents, and those who finished the questionnaire were asked to forward the link to their colleagues who were qualified with criteria set by the study. The data gathering was done from November 19, 2021 until January 1, 2022.

Ethical Consideration

Since this study involved human participants, the researcher made sure that all of the data the respondents provided were treated with full privacy and confidentiality. A consent form was given to the participants prior to the survey for them to create an informed opinion whether to get involved in the study or not. If the respondent chose not to participate in the survey, the respondent would not be able to proceed to the next part of the survey. If the respondent agreed to participate, he or she would be directed to the next part of the consent form which would explain the rights of the participant. They could opt not to finish the survey. It was assured that there would be no risks if they chose not to continue answering.

Included in the consent form was the data security processes that the researcher took into consideration to ensure the confidentiality and privacy of the data. All the responses and the data the respondents gave were kept on a secured email account where only the researcher has access to. This would guarantee that only the researcher can access the answers provided.

With regard to the retention period, the data the participants provided would only last up to three years. Afterwards, the research data and materials will be destroyed accordingly.

Results Employee Background Characteristics

Background characteristics are classified into socio-demographic profile (e.g age, gender, and highest educational attainment) and work profile (e.g. salary range and length of service) of the respondents.

(7)

Socio-Demographic Profile

Call center agents in this study were within the age range of 19-48 years old. The mean age is 29.3 with a standard deviation of 6.76. In terms of sex, most call center agents were female (65%) and majority were cisgender (84%). As regards educational attainment, most call center agents finished a bachelor’s degree (47%) in college followed by call center agents with a college degree (39%).

Table 1

Descriptive statistics for socio-demographic profile of call center agents in Metro Manila

Variable (Coding or Range) n or mean (% or SD)

Age (in years) 29.3 (6.76)

Sex

Male (1) 30 (34.5)

Female (2) 57 (65.5)

Gender

Transgender (1) 5 (5.7)

Non-Binary (2) 5 (5.7)

Cisgender (3) 73 (83.9)

Prefer not to Answer (4) 4 (4.6)

Highest Educational Attainment

High School Graduate (2) 11 (12.6)

Associate Degree (3) 34 (39.1)

Bachelor’s Degree (4) 41 (47.1)

Professional School Degree (6) 1 (1.1)

(8)

Work Profile

Most call center agents were relatively new to their position with 35 (42%) of them working less than a year in their company. Meanwhile, the majority of the respondents’ monthly income fall under the P10,000 – P25,000 (48%) category followed by P25,000 – P40,000 (40%).

Table 2

Descriptive statistics for work profile of call center agents in Metro Manila.

Variable (Coding or Range) n or mean (% or SD) Salary Range

Below P10,000 (1) 1 (1.1)

P10,000 – P25,000 (2) 42 (48.3)

P25,001 – P40,000 (3) 35 (40.2)

P40,000 – P45,000 (4) 4 (4.6)

Above P45,000 (5) 5 (5.7)

Length of Service

Less than a Year (1) 35 (40.2)

1-2 years (2) 19 (21.8)

3-4 years (3) 19 (21.8)

5 years and above (4) 14 (16.1)

Level of Transformational Leadership

The respondents reported that they received a high level of transformational leadership with a mean score of 3.34±0.51. All items in the tool garnered a score with a verbal interpretation of high. The item that got the highest mean among respondents was that their leader considered moral and ethical consequences of decisions. It has a mean score of 3.57. On the other hand, despite of having a high interpretation, the item with the lowest mean score is that their leader instills pride in others, which has a mean of 2.74. The low level of SD implies that the answers are fairly unanimous.

(9)

Table 3

Descriptive Results for Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership Scale M SD Interpretation Rank

Instills pride in others 2.74 1.07 High 20

Goes beyond self-interest for the

good of the group. 2.97 1.16 High 19

Acts in ways that builds others 3.37 0.75 High 12

Displays a sense of power and

confidence. 3.37 0.65 High 12

Talks about most important values

and beliefs. 3.32 0.79 High 15

Specifies the importance of having

a strong sense of purpose. 3.36 0.79 High 14

Considers the moral and ethical

consequences of decisions. 3.57 0.66 High 1

Emphasizes the importance of having a collective sense of mission

3.47 0.64 High 4

Talks optimistically about the

future. 3.45 0.73 High 7

Talks enthusiastically about what

needs to be accomplished. 3.47 0.68 High 4

Articulates a compelling vision of

the future. 3.28 0.82 High 16

Expresses the confidence that goals

will be achieved 3.52 0.73 High 2

Re-examines critical assumptions

for appropriateness 3.39 0.74 High 10

Seeks differing perspectives when

solving problems 3.43 0.70 High 8

Gets others look at problems from

many different angles 3.39 0.69 High 10

Suggests new ways of looking at

how to complete assignments 3.40 0.66 High 9

Spends time teaching and

coaching. 3.17 0.91 High 17

Treats others as an individual rather than just as a member of a group

3.13 1.05 High 18

(10)

Considers an individual as having different needs, abilities, and aspirations from others.

3.46 0.74 High 6

Helps others to develop their

strengths. 3.48 0.68 High 3

Total Average: 3.34 0.51 High

N=87, low=0-1.33, average=1.34-2.66, high=2.67-4.00

Level of Job Satisfaction

The respondents of the study showed a high level of job satisfaction with a mean score of 4.17 ±0.53. Same with transformational leadership, all items were verbally interpreted as high and the item “getting along with co- workers” got the highest mean, which is 4.39. However, in spite of having high interpretation, the item chance to be “somebody” in the community got the lowest mean, which is 3.93. The low level of SD implies that the answers are fairly unanimous.

Table 4

Descriptive Results for Job Satisfaction

Job Satisfaction Scale M SD Interpretation Rank

Being able to keep busy all the

time. 4.11 0.75 High 15

The chance to work alone on the

job. 4.14 0.82 High 12

The chance to do different things

from time to time. 3.94 0.97 High 19

The chance to be “somebody” in

the community. 3.93 0.86 High 20

The way my boss handles his/her

workers. 4.23 0.91 High 8

The competence of my supervisor

in making decisions. 4.24 0.79 High 7

Being able to do things that don’t

go against my conscience. 4.15 0.82 High 11

The way my job provides for

steady employment. 4.36 0.76 High 2

The chance to do things for other

people. 4.32 0.74 High 3

The chance to tell people what to

do. 4.03 0.81 High 17

(11)

The chance to do something that

makes use of my abilities. 4.23 0.79 High 8

The way company policies are put

into practice. 4.14 0.87 High 12

My pay and the amount of work

I do. 3.98 0.90 High 18

The chances for advancement on

this job. 4.14 0.84 High 12

The freedom to use my own

judgment. 4.07 0.90 High 16

The chance to try my own methods

of doing the job. 4.22 0.83 High 10

The working conditions. 4.32 0.81 High 3

The way my co-workers get along

with each other. 4.39 0.69 High 1

The praise I get for doing a good

job. 4.29 0.76 High 6

The feeling of accomplishment I

get from the job. 4.30 0.78 High 5

Total Average: 4.17 0.53 High

N=87, low=1-2.33, average=2.34-3.66, high=3.67-5.00

The results showed that respondents have a high level of organizational commitment with a mean score of 3.77±0.53. The item that got the highest mean score is the “I do feel a strong sense of belonging to this organization”, which has a mean of 4.02±0.92. The item with the lowest mean score is the

“too much of my life would be disrupted if I leave my organization”, which has a mean of 3.55±1.16. The low level of SD implies that the answers are fairly unanimous.

(12)

Table 5

Descriptive Results for Organizational Commitment

Organizational Commitment Scale M SD Interpretation Rank I would be very happy to spend

the rest of my career in this organization.

3.72 1.07 High 12

I really feel as if this organization’s

problems are my own. 3.75 0.94 High 11

I do feel like “part of my family”

at this organization. 3.83 1.03 High 7

I do feel “emotionally attached” to

this organization. 3.78 1.08 High 9

This organization has a great deal

of personal meaning for me. 3.87 0.97 High 6

I do feel a strong sense of

belonging to this organization. 4.02 0.92 High 1

It would be very hard for me to leave my job at this organization

right now even if I wanted to. 3.92 1.12 High 4

Too much of my life would be disrupted if I leave my organization.

3.32 1.14 Average 18

Right now, staying with my job at this organization is a matter

of necessity as much as desire. 3.98 0.99 High 3

I believe I have too few options to

consider leaving this organization. 3.71 1.06 High 13 One of the few negative

consequences of leaving my job at this organization would be the scarcity of available alternatives elsewhere.

3.55 1.16 Average 17

One of the major reasons I continue to work for this organization is that leaving would require considerable personal sacrifice.

3.77 1.03 High 10

I do feel any obligation to remain

with my organization (R). 3.61 1.11 Average 16

Even if it were to my advantage, I do not feel it would be right to leave.

3.71 1.08 High 13

(13)

I would feel guilty if I left this

organization now. 3.64 1.14 Average 15

This organization deserves my

loyalty. 3.99 0.95 High 2

I would not leave my organization right now because of my sense of obligation to it.

3.80 1.11 High 8

I owe a great deal to this

organization. 3.90 0.98 High 5

Total Average: 3.77 0.80 High

N=87, low=1-2.33, average=2.34-3.66, high=4.67-5.00

Level of Turnover Intention

In terms of turnover intention, the respondents showed an average intention to quit having a mean of 2.65±1.37. The item that got the highest mean is the “Recently, I often think of changing my current job.”, which has a mean of 2.80±1.47. On the other hand, the item with the lowest mean score is the “I will probably look for a new job in the next year.”, which has a of 2.65±1.37. The low level of SD implies that the answers are fairly unanimous.

Table 6

Descriptive Results for Turnover Intention

Turnover Intention Scale M SD Interpretation Rank

“Recently, I often think of

changing my current job.” 2.80 1.47 Average 1

“I often think about quitting.” 2.60 1.46 Average 2

“I will probably look for a new job

in the next year.” 2.54 1.48 Average 3

Total Average: 2.65 1.37 Average

N=87, low=1-2.33, average=2.34-3.66, high=4.67-5.00

Correlation among study variables

The results of correlation test are presented in Table 8. The findings suggest that all variables are significantly correlated with each other. The results of the study revealed that transformational level and job satisfaction have strong positive correlation on organizational commitment (r=0.447, p< .001; r=0.660, p< .001). This shows that high organizational commitment is observed among respondents with high transformational leadership and

(14)

high job satisfaction. Also, the two variables (transformational leadership and job satisfaction) are also found to have a weak negative correlation to turnover intention (r=-0.249, p=0.020; r=-0.336, p=0.001). This means that higher levels of turnover intention were observed among those with low transformational leadership, low job satisfaction, and low organizational commitment.

Table 7

Spearman Correlation Coefficients of the Study Variables

Study Variables (1) (2) (3) (4)

(1) Transformational Leadership

(2) Job Satisfaction 0.651***

(3) Organizational Commitment 0.447*** 0.660***

(4) Turnover Intention -0.249*** -0.336*** -0.484***

Note: *** Correlation is significant at the 0.001 level.

Mediation of Organizational Commitment between Transformational Leadership and Turnover Intention

Mediation analysis was performed to assess the mediation role of organizational commitment on the linkage between transformational leadership and turnover intention. The results (see Figure below) revealed that the total effect of transformational leadership on turnover intention was significant (B = -0.59, t = -2.09, p = 0.037). However, with the inclusion of the mediating variable (organizational commitment), the impact of transformational leadership on turnover intention was found insignificant (B = -0.078, t = -0.28, p = 0.78). On the other hand, the indirect effect of transformational leadership on turnover intention through organizational commitment was found significant (B = -0.51, t = -3.05, p = 0.002). Also, there is a significant negative relation between transformational leadership and turnover intention both directly and indirectly through the pathway of organizational commitment. This shows that the relationship between transformational leadership and turnover intention is fully mediated by organizational commitment.

(15)

Figure 1: Mediation of Organizational Commitment between Transformational Leadership and Turnover Intention

Mediation of Organizational Commitment between Job Satisfaction &

Turnover Intention

Mediation analysis was performed to assess the mediation role of organizational commitment on the linkage between job satisfaction and turnover intention. The results (see Figure below) revealed that the total effect of job satisfaction on turnover intention was significant (B = -0.79, t

= -2.98, p = 0.003). However, with the inclusion of the mediating variable (organizational commitment), the impact of job satisfaction on turnover intention was found insignificant (B = -0.064, t = -0.20, p = 0.84). On the other hand, the indirect effect of job satisfaction on turnover intention through organizational commitment was found significant (B = -0.72, t = -3.30, p <

0.001). Also, there is a significant negative relation between job satisfaction and turnover intention both directly and indirectly through the pathway of organizational commitment. This shows that the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention is also fully mediated by organizational commitment.

(16)

Figure 2: Mediation of Organizational Commitment between Job Satisfaction

& Turnover Intention

Discussion

This study rejects the hypotheses that transformational leadership and job satisfaction have no significant relationship on turnover intention. In fact, the research supports the results of (Gyensare, 2013; Gyensare et al., 2015;

Gyensare et al., 2016) that revealed that the practice of transformational leadership, specifically inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, idealized influence, and individualized consideration decrease company’s staff turnover intention. In addition, this research also agrees with Olusegun (2013) who argued that a significant relationship exists between job satisfaction and turnover intention. This means that organizations must fulfill the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations of employees for them to get satisfied, which will then translate to less intentions of quitting. This was also argued by the Abouraia and Othman (2017) who said that the transformational leadership style can be a way to attain extra satisfaction and as well as committed personnel. Once employees are satisfied and fulfilled, they have fewer purposes to desist their organization.

Lastly, Mittal and Mittal (2016) said that transformational leadership leads to employee’s psychological empowerment and increased organizational commitment; thus, it decreases the intention to quit in the workplace.

This research also found that among call center agents in Metro Manila, organizational commitment fully mediates the relationship of turnover intention on both transformational leadership and job satisfaction. In particular, this study found out that there is an indirect effect for both transformational leadership and job satisfaction on employees’ turnover intention through organizational

(17)

commitment. This is in line with the results of Gyensare et al. (2016) and Gul et al. (2012) that state that affective commitment fully mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and turnover intention. In addition, a recent study by Waskita (2022) states that organizational commitment has a significant and negative relationship as a mediator between transformational leadership and turnover intention. These findings show support to the attitudinal commitment theory that states that when employees feel that they are involved and they identify themselves with their organization, they are less likely to think about quitting. That through transformational leaders, employees would develop a sense of attachment to their organization that minimize their turnover intention. This also supports the findings of Gyensare et al. (2016) which stated that the effect of employees’ perception on their supervisor’s leadership style on their intention to leave the organization change according to their attachment and level of involvement to the organization.

In contrary, the recent study of Donkor et al. (2022) among employees of state-owned enterprises in Ghana stated that organizational commitment only partially mediates the relationship between the two variables. In addition, Lim et al. (2017) showed that organizational commitment does not mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and turnover intention.

These different results coming from different studies call for future researches in line with transformational leadership and other outcomes.

In terms of the full mediation of organizational commitment to the relationship of job satisfaction and turnover intention, the findings of this research are in line with the research by Nuansa et al. (2018) among bank workers in Indonesia. The same results were also evident in a study by Samad and Yusuf (2012) study among healthcare workers in Malaysia. This means that when employees feel that they are treated fairly and being taken care by the organization they are working for, not only it would induce positive emotion and attachment, it would also develop and increase their loyalty and commitment to the organization. This feeling of attachment would translate to employees staying in the organization longer that would result to low turnover rates. However, a different result was found by the studies of Kartika and Purba (2018) among teachers in Jakarta Indonesia. In addition, both Samad and Yusuf (2012) and Kartika and Purba (2018) studies state that organizational commitment only partially mediates the relationship between the two variables. This means that in their study, organizational commitment may have an influence on the relationship, but other variables can affect the pathway of job satisfaction and turnover intention.

(18)

Again, this research found out that organizational commitment fully mediates both job satisfaction and transformational leadership to turnover intention. Although there are studies that back up this research’s claims, there are still contradicting studies that are say otherwise. To further address this gap in literature, the recreation of this study on the same industry can be done, or it can also be recreated focusing on different industries with high turnover issues. In addition, since this research already found a full mediation, it is encouraged that future researchers should focus on different job related outcomes that might be related to organizational commitment.

Finally, in terms of the practical implications of this study, both public and private organizations can benefit from the findings of this study. To begin with, this research strongly agrees to the practice of transformational leadership as a leadership style not only encourages productivity of the company but also decreases the likelihood of turnover intention from employees, (Gyensare, 2013; Gyensare et al., 2015). In line with that, organizations should start focusing interventions towards creating training and creating leaders that employ transformational leadership as their main leadership style. By doing this, leaders could create a bond and trust within their members that would lead to limits when it comes to turnover intention of the staff. In fact, Dvir et al. (2002) said in their research that coaching and training leaders to become transformational leaders increases commitment, satisfaction, and motivation among their followers.

Conclusion

This study presents empirical evidence in the case of call center agents in Manila regarding the presence of high transformational leadership, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. On the other hand, they only exhibit average intention to quit. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of organizational commitment as a mediating mechanism that connects transformational leadership and job satisfaction to turnover intention. These findings are in line with the study by Gyensare (2016) on transformational leadership and Nuansa et al. (2018) and Samad and Yusuf (2012) on job satisfaction. Hence, this implies that organizations should also consider organizational commitment as a monitoring mechanism for them to predict and anticipate not only turnover but also actual turnovers. This study shows that it can be a dependable measure to explain the protective effects of transformational leadership and job satisfaction on turnover intention.

(19)

References

Abouraia, M.K. & Othman, S.M. (2017) Transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions: The direct effects among bank representatives. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 7, 404-423. https://doi.org/10.4236/

ajibm.2017.74029

Alias, N. E., Othman, R., Loon, K. W., Ridzuan, A. R., & Krishnan, R. (2017).

Towards effective employee retention strategy: Implementation of talent management in information, communication and technology companies.

Advanced Science Letters, 23(8), 7857-7860.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization.

Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1–18. https://doi.

org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x

Azanza, G., Moriano, J., & Molero, F., & Mangin, J. (2015). The effects of authentic leadership on turnover intention. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 36, 955-971. https://doi.org/10.1108/LODJ-03- 2014-0056.

Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. Free Press; Collier Macmillan.

Boxall, P., Macky, K., & Rasmussen, E. (2003). Labour turnover and retention in New Zealand: The causes and consequences of leaving and staying with employers. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources - ASIA PAC J HUM RESOUR, 41, 196-214. https://doi.org/10.1177/10384111030412006.

Call Center Association Philippines (CCAP) (2010). The increasing turnover rate in call centers.

Cammann, C., Fichman, M., Jenkins, D., & Klesh, J. (1979) The Michigan organizational assessment questionnaire. Unpublished Manuscript, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Donkor, F., Appienti, W., & Achiaah, E. (2022). “The impact of transformational leadership style on employee turnover intention in state-owned enterprises in Ghana. The mediating role of organisational commitment,” Public

(20)

Dhanpat, N., Modau, F., Lugisani, P., Mobajane, R. & Phiri, M. (2018).

Exploring employee retention and intention to leave within a call centre.

SA Journal of Human Resource Management. https://bit.ly/3iRt3Uf Dutta, A B. & Banerjee, S. (2014). Study of employee retention. International

Journal of Business Management & Research (IJBMR). https://bit.

ly/3fnYe7d

Dvir, T., Eden, D., Avolio, B., & Shamir, B. (2002). Impact of transformational leadership on follower development and performance: A field experiment. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 735-744. https://doi.

org/10.2307/3069307.

Greenlees, D. (2006), “Philippine call center business booms”, International Herald Tribune. https://nyti.ms/2Zg75m1

Gul, S., Ahmad, B., & Rehman, H.U., Shabir, N., & Razaq, N. (2012).

Leadership styles, turnover intentions and the mediating role of organizational commitment. Information and Knowledge Management.

2, 44-51.

Gyensare, M.A. (2013), Employee turnover intention: Empirical evidence from savings and loans companies in Ghana. Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken

Gyensare, M.A., Otoo, E.A., Asare, J.-A., & Twumasi, E. (2015), “Antecedents and consequence of employee turnover intention: empirical evidence from Ghana”, Management Science Letters, 5 (8), 781-796.

Gyensare, M. A., Anku-Tsede, O., Sanda, M. A., & Okpoti, C. A. (2016).

Transformational leadership and employee turnover intention:

The mediating role of affective commitment. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 12(3), 243-266.

Herman H.M., Tse, X. H., & Wing, L. (2013). Why does transformational leadership matter for employee turnover? A multi-foci social exchange perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 24, 763–776. https://doi.

org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2013.07.005.

(21)

IBPAP and TeamAsia. (2014). Periodic Survey. Manila

Kartika, G. & Purba, D. (2018). Job satisfaction and turnover intention: The mediating effect of affective commitment. Psychological Research on Urban Society, 1, 100. https://doi.org/10.7454/proust.v1i2.34.

Kossivi, B., Xu, M., and Kalgora, B. (2016) Study on determining factors of employee retention. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 261-268. http://

dx.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2016.45029.

Lacap, J. P. (2019). The mediating effect of employee engagement on the relationship of transformational leadership and intention to quit:

Evidence from local colleges in Pampanga, Philippines. Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 19, 33-48.

Lavoie-Tremblay, M., Fernet, C., & Lavigne, G., & Austin, S. (2015).

Transformational and abusive leadership practices: Impacts on novice nurses, quality of care and intention to leave. Journal of advanced nursing, 72. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12860.

Lim, A., Loo, J., & Lee, P. (2017). The impact of leadership on turnover intention: the mediating role of organizational commitment and job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Structural Equation Modeling. 27-41.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.47263/JASEM.1(1)04.

Lu, A. C. C. & Gursoy, D. (2016). Impact of job burnout on satisfaction and turnover intention: Do generational differences matter? Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(2), 210–235. https://doi.

org/10.1177/1096348013495696

Michael J. M., & Eric K. K. (2013). Do job satisfaction and commitment to the organization matter when it comes to retaining employees? Journal of Extension, 51(4).

Mittal, S. & Mittal, S. (2016). Effects of transformational leadership on turnover intentions in IT SMEs. International Journal of Manpower, 37(8), 1322–1346. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-10-2014-0202

(22)

Nuansa, R., Thatok, A., & Siti, N. (2018). The role of organizational commitment mediation on the effect of person-organizational fit and job satisfaction to turnover. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio- Economic Sciences, 2(74), 33-4.

Olusegun, S.O. (2013) Influence of job satisfaction on turnover intensions of library personnel in selected universities of South West Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (E-Journal), 1-22.

Poddar, A. & Madupalli, R. (2012). Problematic customers and turnover intentions of customer service employees. Journal of Services Marketing, 26, 10. https://doi.org/1108/08876041211266512.

Ramesh, B. (2004). ‘Cyber coolies’ in BPO: Insecurities and vulnerabilities of non-standard work. Economic and Political Weekly, 39, 492-497. https://

doi.org/10.2307/4414585.

Roubos, A., Koole G., & Stolletz, R. 2012. Service-level variability of inbound call centers. Manufacturing & Service Operations Management 14(3):402-413. https://doi.org/10.1287/msom.1120.0382.

Samad, S. & Yusuf, S.Y.M. (2012). The role of organizational commitment in mediating the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention. European Journal of Social Sciences, 30, 125-135.

Top, M., Akdere, M., & Tarcan, M. (2014). Examining transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational trust in Turkish hospitals: Public servants versus private sector employees.

The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26, 1-24.

https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2014.939987.

Waskita, A. (2022). How to reduce turnover intention of young programmers with transformational leadership mediated through organizational commitment. International Journal of Social Science, 2 (3), 1663-1670.

https://doi.org/10.53625/ijss.v2i3.3640

Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1977). Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire--short form. Educational and Psychological Measurement.

Mga Sanggunian

NAUUGNAY NA DOKUMENTO

Ceballob University of the Philippines Mindanao, Mintal, Tugbok District, Davao City ajessclairesanchez@yahoo.com, bceballoshairakim@yahoo.com Abstract: This study of the exact

In this study, this model is replicated by the significant organizational factors affecting burnout which are job autonomy autonomy on quality and rest, work content skilled work,